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marks established for astronomical interesting topic of lightning and purposes ; and, 7. Altars to Gods. thunder; and, really, as a casualty Of all these various opinions, that to which we are all, without excepwhich supposes the pyramids to be tion, subject, it is deeply worthy of mausoleums, is considered by the much more sober consideration than learned most nearly to approach the we are disposed to impute to it. truth. And the reasons are very ob- He begins by explaining the phevious why this should be the predo- nomena and the variety of lightning, minant opinion; because, if the in- and shews that the colour, which is ternal arrangement be viewed, parti- sometimes purplish, sometimes redcularly if the chambers and galleries dish, supplies a test of the amount of of the great pyramid of Ghiza be ex- destructive power which it

possesses. amined, it will be found that they are We need not say that this is a pracexactly suited to the reception of dead tical discovery of the deepest imporbodies. But then, on the other hand, tance. The zig-zag lightning is althe first gallery which is entered in ways formidable, as it is the proof of this pyramid leads down by an easy a great concentration of the electrical descent to a well, which is at present fluid; and, as it generally strikes a filled with rubbish; from this pro- terrestrial object, it must, in certain ceeds a long gallery upwards to the cases, prove destructive. Another several chambers, where no trace form of this electric phenomenon is whatever of any human bodies is the appearance of fire-balls, which found. Another circumstance, too, move-sometimes run-along the which is highly calculated to destroy ground, or stop when any obstacle that theory, is, that there is no pos- arrests their progress, and then burst sible mode by which bodies could be like a shell. Mr. Murray next procarried there at any time, except du- ceeds to describe that awful phenoring the time of its being built. Thus, mena, a thunder-storm, going through travellers have found the extreme its various stages, and arriving at last parts of the upper gallery so extreme- at the explosion. ly difficult to be pass, that they were Without entering into all the deobliged to creep on their bellies. The tails which Mr. Murray furnishes on author of the present work does not this subject, it is quite sufficient for by any means pretend to solve the us to say, that a perfect security is question. He merely presents a view to be found in the form of lightning of the present state of the knowledge conductors which he describes and which is ascertained upon this great recommends. The conductor must subject, with the view of calling pub- have a fine point; it must be capalic attention to it, that being the sur- ble of rapidly and uniformly conductest way of ultimately arriving at the ing the electric fluid downwards; it truth.

must be at such an elevation as to

overtop the loftiest pinnacle of the Art. XX.- The Description of building to which it is attached; and

the conductor should be carefully prea new Lightning Conductor; and Observations on the Phenomena of

served from oxidation, Silver would Thunder Storms. By John MUR

form the best material for a conducRAY, F. S. A.&c. London:

tor; but copper nearly answers as Highley. 1833.

well, and it is much more economi

cal. Several conductors, on Mr. MR. MURRAY is absolutely indefati- Murray's plan, have been recently gable in his persevering attempts to fitted up to churches, other public enlighten the public mind upon this buildings, and gentlemen's seats.

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Commercial Ingenuity. The me than in the next succeeding. If we thod by which the nutmeg mer- consider larger societies of indivia chants succeed in evading a heavy duals, as the inhabitants of a village duty on certain sorts of nutmeg im- or small town, the number of deaths ported into this country, is very in. is more uniform; and in still larger genions. A considerable portion is bodies, as among the inhabitants of brought to us from Holland: if we a kingdom, the uniformity is such, import them direct for consumption that the excess of deaths in any they must pay a duty of 3s. 6d. the year above the average number set pound: but if the same article be dom exceeds a small fractional part merely entered for re-exportation, of the whole. In the two periods, there is no duty demanded at all. Now, each of fifteen years, beginning at the usual course is for the merchant 1780, the number of deaths occurto take up these articles and send ring in England and Wales in any them to the Cape of Good Hope at year did not fall short of, or exceed, his own expense. When there, the average number, one-thirteenth the nutmegs put on an entirely new part, of the whole; nor did the numcharacter--they come under the pri- ber dying in any year differ from vilege of colonial produce, and as the number of those dying in the such must be imported into Great next by å tenth part. Britain at only 2s. Ed. the pound. Method of making Salt. - In The difference between the two du- Guiana, in the Western Continent, ties is one shilling in the pound, and a species of palm is found, in which the expense of the freight, insur- the flowers are surrounded by a ance, &c., from London to the Cape sheath of great density and strength and back again, is only 4d. per

of structure. This sheath is capapound, so that it is obvious that a ble of containing several pints of saving of 8d. per pound is made by water, and even resists the action of this apparently very complicated fire to such a degree, that it is'emprocess.

ployed by the natives to evaporate Average duration of life.-No- the sea water for the purpose of obthing is more proverbially uncertain taining a speedy supply of salt. than the duration of human life, Curious illustration of the excnt where the maxim is applied to an of the British Empire.-- When it is individual; yet there are few things winter in England, it is summer in less subject to fluctuation than the Van Dieman's Land; when winter average duration oflife of a multitude there, summer here; all the appearof individuals. The number of deaths ances of the year, in short, are comhappening amongst persons of our pletely reversed in the two countries. own acquaintance is frequently very Thus the spring quarter of the Van different in different years; and it is

Dieman's Land year begins in Sepnot an uncommon event that this

tember, on the first day of which number shall be double, treble, or month, in Van Dieman's Land, the even many times larger in one year sun rises and sets at the same hours


as it does with us on the 4th of their masters, to 45 hours per week. March ; and the day is lengthening Lord Althorp's factory bill allows as in our spring. It continues to do children under 11, 12, and 13 years so till the 21st of December (our of age, to work 48 hours

per shortest day), when it is at the long- and above that age to 18, 72 hours est; and then it gradually diminishes per week, with the slight intermisin length through the summer and sion of an hour and half


diem autumnal months of January, Fe- for meals. Is this even-handed bruary, March, April, and May, till, justice? on the 21st of June (our longest day) Barbarous state of the Isle of Man it reaches the utmost limits of its in the Nineteenth century. The contraction. The latitude of Hobart following manifesto is from the proTown, however, now being not quite prietor of the Manx Sun :so high as ours, the longest day there this island, such is the state of the is not so long, nor theshortest day so press, that it cannot afford to defray short, as with us. The length of the expenses of either editor or retheir 21st of December is about 15

- In

porter ; consequently the duty, behours 12 minutes, thạt of our 21st yond that of compiling, may be of June being 16 hours 34 minutes; considered as entirely gratuitous ; and that of their 21st of June is 8 both our predecessors and self may hours 48 minutes, that of our 21st fairly be considered as amateurs. of December being only 7 hours The united journals do not actually 44 minutes. Our earliest sunrise is together receive payment for more at 43 minutes past 3, theirs at 24 than 400 copies weekly. The week. minutes past 4; our latest sunset is ly sales of the two journals, thereat 17 minutes past. 8, theirs at 36 fore, amount to 61. or 71.! for which minutes past 7. At no period of two printing-offices are engaged, the year, therefore, do their days and the copies are delivered over either increase or decrease so fast the whole island gratis."

The First Book Auction.- The Butter. The consumption of but- first book auction of which we have ter in the metropolis may be aver- any record in England, was the sale aged at about one half pound per of Dr. Seaman's library, which was week for each individual, being at brought to the hammer in 1676. the rate of 26 lbs. a-year; and, sup- The address prefixed to the cata: posing the population to amount to logue ran thus : -" Reader, it hath 1,450,000, the total annual con- not been usual here in England to sumption would (on this bypothesis) make sale of books by way of aucbe 37,700,000 lbs., or 16,830 tons: tion, or who will give most for them; but to this may be added 4,000 but it baving been practised in other tons for the butter required for the countries, to the advantage of both victualling of ships and other pur. buyers and sellers, it was therefore poses, making the total consump- conceived for the encouragement of tion in round numbers 21,000 tons, learning to publish the sale of these or 47,040,000 lbs., which, at 10d. books in this manner of way." per pound, would

be worth University Skrendness. In St. 1,960,0001.

John's College, Oxford, there is a Inconsistency in High Quarters. very curious portrait of Charles I., - The Government plan for the done with a pen, in such a manner amelioration of slavery limits the that the lines are formed by verses work to be performed by slaves, for from the Psalms, and so contrived

as ours.

and see

as to contain every psalm. When mous distances should ever be colCharles II. was once at Oxford, he lected again by the feeble attraction was greatly struck with this portrait, of such a body as a comet-a conbegged it of the college, and pro- sideration which accounts for the mised, in return, to grant them rapid progressive diminution of the whatever request they should make. tails of such as have been frequentThis they consented to, and gave his ly observed. majesty the picture, accompanied Warning to Will-makers. The with the request,--that he would late Mr. Thelluson, by one of the return it.

most imbecile acts that ever disAnful magnitudes of Comets. graced the human intellect, so arThe tail of the great comet of 1680, ranged his will, that the whole of immediately after its perihelion pas- this fine property, which he intendsage, was found by Newton to have ed to give his heirs, was for mamy been no less than 20,000,000 of years in the Court of Chancery. if leagues in length, and to have oc- the good, but foolish old man were cupied only two days in its emission now to look from his

grave from the Comet's body! a decisive the amount of the reckoning which proof this of its being dashed forth that property has now to pay for his by some active force, the origin of foolish and ridiculous gratification, which, to judge from the direction he would scarcely stand such a shock. of the tail, must be sought in the The reader will stare at the account. sun itself. Its greatest length The amount of costs amounted to 41,000,000 leagues, a and salary paid to length much exceeding the whole in

the Solicitors by

the Executors - £9,169 8 1. terval between the sun and the earth.

Ditto of costs by the The tail of the comet of 1769

Accountant-Gen. 88,943 4 2 exceeded 16,000,000 leagues, and Ditto on passing Rethat of the great comet of 1811,

ceiver's Accounts 18,330 7 3

108,442 19 36,000,000. The portion of the

Paid Surveyor

10,748 11 8 head of this last comprised within

Paid poundage or Salaries to the transparent atmospheric enve- Receivers

23,456 4.11 lope, which separated it from the Paid ditto for the Brodsworth

Establishment tail, was 180,000 leagues in diame

36,178 17.11 ter. It is hardly conceivable that

£178,827 14 matter once projected to such enor-,


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Shortly will be published, a new Shortly, “An Investigation into and correct translation of the last the origin, religion, manners, cusedition of Cuvier's great work, “Le toms, language, and history of the Regne Animal;" or, “the Animal ancient inhabitants of the Celtic Kingdom,” with numerous Notes by Gaul and the British Islands, includthe Translator-a life of the Baron, ing Ireland.” Intended as an Inand of M. Latreille, with Portraits troduction to the History of the of each of those celebrated persons. British Islands. By Sir William The work will be illustrated with Betham. 1 vol. 8vo. a variety of steel engravings, of “ The Oriental Annual."This birds, beasts, fishes, and every class forthcoming new Annual is designed of animated nature, from drawings to present whatever is most grand executed by the Baron himself; the and beautiful in the natural or artiwhole forming the most splendid ficial features of the Eastern World, and complete Natural History ever commencing with India, owing to its offered to the British public. immediate interest and connection

"Sermonis on various Subjects." with this country. It will be pubBy Samuel Warren, LL.D.

lished on the first of October, con“Dialogues,” Moral and Scienti- taining 25 engravings, executed in fic. In 1 thick vol. royal 18mo. the first style of the art, from ori

“The Biographical Record." By ginal drawings by William Daniell, James Dredge. In 1 vol. 12mo. Esq.,

Royal Academician. " Travels and Researches in Caf. 6. The Biblical Annual." _New fraria ; " describing the character, supplies of this valuable companion customs, and moral condition of the to the Holy Scriptures will be issued tribes inhabiting that portion of on the first of October. Southern Africa. By Stephen Kay, A small volume, entitled “ReaCorresponding Member of the South sons for Christianity," is just ready African Institution, &c. In 1 thick for publication. vol. 12mo.

" Landseer's Illustrated Edition “ Two Letters on Tithes and of the Romance of History.".This Corn Laws." Addressed to Wil- new edition of the “ Romance of liam Duncombe, M.P. By Thomas History” is to be published in Meare.

monthly volumes, each containing “ A Present for an Apprentice.' six plates of its most riking and

“ Counsels and Consolations for interesting scenes, fro' original dethose in trouble and affliction.” By signs by Mr. Thomas Landseer. It Jonathan Farr.

is to be commenced on the first of “ A Collection of Tunes;

November, and continued on the first prising the most approved standard, of every succeeding month, until its with a great variety of original com- completion. positions, adapted to the Hymns in “The Geographical Annual for use by the Wesleyan Methodist So- 1834,” will include all be latest discieties, arranged in Classes, and coveries and changes tilat have taken designed for Choirs and Congre- place, and will be published early in gations generally. By Thomas October. Hawkes, of Willerton, Somerset.


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