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at once the most useful, and at the same time the most economical, contribution to our scientific literature which has been made since the invention of printing. A few remarks on the peculiar advantages of this work will show that we do no more than justice to it.
In most of the journals of the day, particularly in all those devoted to natural history, it is the fashion to praise, in a very prominent manner, the volumes of the Naturalist's Library, as a phenomenon of cheap beauty and knowledge. Let us, for a moment, appeal to the good sense and the candour of the public on this point. It is quite true that in each of the two first volumes whose titles stand at the head of this paper, we have a considerable number of both humming birds and monkeys. But at the same time we must remember, that each of these plates contains no more than v one figure, a fact which makes an extraordinary difference between
the series of the Naturalist's Library and the English edition of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom. Now, in the latter production, the decorative portion is so arranged as to admit of more than one figure; in fact, each of the plates contains not only a great variety of distinct figures, but it depicts the anatomical details of animals with a degree of precision which confers the greatest value on the work, as an aid to the knowledge of the animal kingdom. Herein then lies „the difference between the two works---we commonly.confound the number of plates with each other, but we never think of examining how these plates, are filled up; and, therefore, we commit the injustice of counting as equally valuable the plate which presents one figure and the plate which contains twenty.
With respect to the version of Cuvier now sent forth to the seientific community of Great Britain, we have only, to say, that in every respect it is a truly valuable one. We have taken some pains to compare the translations with the original, and we have no hesitation in stating, that it is not possible to improve the former as a faithful organ not only of the exact meaning, but also of the simple and subklime spirit which characterized the illustrious author.
The same spirited proprietor who has put forth the immortal work of Cuvier in the English language, has, we find, shown so strong a regard for the merits of even the defunct men of genius of England, that he has determined to revive in all its youthful attractions, the far-famed Dictionary of Gardening, written by one of the most amusing and fascinating authors of the last age; need we mention the quaint and ever cheerful Miller? The work which we have just mentioned has long been celebrated for its choice treasure, consisting of some of the most interesting secrets of nature, as she disports in the vegetable regions, and the evidences in the style and manner of the author, of a genius which was distinguished for its Gelove of human kind, and its sympathy with the misfortunes as well
as the happiness of human nature. If every line of Miller on the science of gardening were in our day valueless, were it a blunder even that was calculated to lead practical gardeners away, still there is, independent of all this, a fund of curious knowledge, a fascinating power of expression, which being the genuine emanation of the heart, has given to Miller a station amongst the standard writers of English literature, that will last for ages yet to come. We heartily congratulate the public on the spirit which seems at present to actuate the generous portion of the metropolitan publishers, and we are sure that the public will prove, in the most intelligible way, that they duly appreciate the liberality which has been manifested in favour of the convenience, the instruction, and amusement of the reading public.
From the specimens which we have seen of the Gardener's Dictionary, we have the highest hopes of its proving a very valuable work, for it contains additions, evidently the contributions of able persons in the science, which brings down the dictionary to the level of the present time in botanical knowledge, including the newest discoveries in those branches of chemistry, mineralogy, and zoology, which are intimately connected with the science of agriculture and gardening.
It is to be observed, that two attempts have already been made to give the public an edition of Miller's Gardener's Dictionary. Professor Martyn of Cambridge put forth an elaborate edition, but it failed from its extent, and the necessary, magnitude of its expense. Within the last few years Mr. Don has made an effort to present this dictionary to the British public in a modern dress. But, without in the least underrating the value of that elaborate and most useful monument of research and scientific knowledge, we must be permitted to remark, that the designation of Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, applied to such a composition, is a misnomer, the exaggeration of which scarcely admits of being described. Ample compensation, however, is rendered by the tribe of bibliopoles, in one of its members coming forth, and acting on the true principles of good sense; he has, or will, at least, give us Miller in all his glorious integrity, to which are to be appended all the useful discoveries which were made after Miller's death.
ART. XIII.- The Life of Gouverneur Morris, with Selections from his Correspondence, go. By Jared Sparks, in 3 vols. 8vo.
Boston: Gray and Owen. 1832. London: Kennett. 1833. The subject of this memoir, Gouverneur Morris, was an American of good family. The name Gouverneur is a real Christian name, and not as one would naturally suppose, a title of distinction. He received a very extended education, and seems during his life to have participated to no small degree in the eccentricity of his father.
The subject of the present memoir just started in his ambitious career, in the critical moment when the provocations given by En
VOL. III. (1833) No. III.
gland, were producing their natural fruit on the minds of the American colonies. Mr. Morris took a very deep part in the efforts which were made by his countrymen for the assertion of their independence; he filled the office of deputy on several occasions at Congress, was regarded as a high authority on matters of finance and currency, and ultimately was appointed minister of the American government in France. It happened that the period of his sojourn at Paris was just the eve of the Revolution in that country. His situation at the time brought him in contact with many public men, and afforded him opportunities of seeing a great deal behind the scenes. In short, the portion of the biography which refers to this period, is alone worthy of our attention. : On the 3rd February, 1789, Mr. Morris arrived in Paris. He had already known Lafayette in America, and kept up the intimacy afterwards. Nevertheless, Morris, contrary to general expectation, exhibited very little cordiality or sympathy with the revolutionists, and deliberately sided with the party which aimed at a mere moderate reform of the old system. During the whole period of his residence in Paris, he preserved a diary, the revival of which, in the present day, brings before us many well-remembered associations. In casting our eyes over this note-book, we meet, at almost every page, some mention or reference to a name of 'eminence, and as the memoranda were taken down generally at the moment of the occurrence, we have therefore the opinions and observations of an eye-witness, the most likely to give us faithful information.
Mr. Morris states that Talleyrand was present when he recommended the king's painter to paint the storming of the Bastile; and to display in particular one very peculiar trait of that dreadful spectacle. It is related by Mr. Morris in one of his memo randa, that he went one afternoon to the Louvre to visit Madame; she was ill in bed, and he was informed that her indisposition arose from a communication received by her from the Bishop of *Autrin (Talleyrand) which consisted of a blank envelope folding a will of the bishop; in this he made her ladyship his heiress! Hitherto Mr. Morris was in Paris on a special mission; but in the early part of 1792, he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States to the Court of France. In July of the same year it appears that Mr. Morris received a communication in his public capacity from no less a personage than Paul Jones, who sent him word that he was very ill, and desired to see him. The minister immediately complied, and Jones being in the full possession of his faculties, Mr. Morris drew his will.
It appears that at the era to which we are now alluding, a scheme was laid for effecting the clandestine removal of the king and royal family from Paris. Morris was one of the most active of the persons who concerted this plan. The project was so admirably arranged, that its failure was next to impossible ; but at the critical juncture of the very morning fixed for his departure, and after the Swiss guards had marched out to cover his escape, the ill-fated monarch renounced the design, adding another to the numerous demonstrations given by him through his life of that vacillating spirit which ultimately brought him to the block. The preparations were carried on not only with the privity but with the direct encouragement of the king, for his majesty placed in the hands of Mr. Morris no less a sum than 547,000 livres, a large portion of which was to be distributed amongst the persons concerned in executing the project for removing the king.
After the revolution of the 10th of August 1792, it is well known that Lafayette was under the necessity of leaving France, for the Jacobins, with the intention of destroying him, had decreed his arrest. The army which he had under his command, abandoned their loyalty to him, and, finding that he was pursued by persons for the purpose of securing him, he took the opportunity of immediately leaving the army encamped at Jedan. Lafayette was at this period an adopted American citizen, and accordingly remonstrances proceeded from all the American envoys at the courts of Europe, and, among the rest, from Mr. Morris.
The sufferings of Lafayette are thus described by himself, during his incarceration in the prison of Magdeburgh. It is of the date of 15th March, 1793, and was addressed to the Princess D'Henin.
• You have been informed of all that has happened to us, from time to time, of the fatal rencounter at Rochefort, till, given up by Austria to Prussia, we were transported to Wessel. You must also have learnt some particulars respecting our captivity in that citadel. It would require a very long account to inform you of all the precautions, that were devised to cut off every communication between us and the rest of the world, to retain us in prison, to watch us closely, and to multiply our privations. Lameth was dying for several weeks; I suffered very much in my lungs and nerves, from fever and want of sleep; our two companions suffered also; and as the King of Prussia had again prohibited us from taking fresh air, although the physician thought it necessary; as it had been signified to Maubourg, who was by accident apprized of my condition, that even on the bed of death we should not see each other; and as the commandant was responsible with his head for his vigilance, we were glad to hear of our removal, which would reunite us again for some time, and which, by enabling us to respire fresh air, would greatly contribute to re-establish our health. "Our passage through Germany, whatever may have been the original intention, was most highly honourable to the martyrs of a glorious cause, and has not a little contributed to excite towards us a flattering interest, and ideas very different from those which were anticipated. The observations that were made respecting the last sixteen years of my life, the state of things on this side of the Rhine, and the spectacle of the four captives, did not appear to me during our journey to indicate anything that could alarm us. And now I will present you with a description of my prison and my manner of life. *259014 911
110 10 Represent to yourself an opening made in the rampart of the citadel, and encompassed with a high and strong pallisade. t is by that passage, that entering successively through four gates, each of which is armed with chains, locks, and bars of iron, you may reach, not without difficulty and noise, my cell. This cell is three paces broad and five and a half long, containing no other ornament than two French verses, which rhyme with the words to suffer and to die (souffrir et mourir). The wall next to the diteh is dripping with moisture, and that opposite permits the light of day, but not the rays of the sun, to enter, through a small but closely grated window. Imagine also two sentinels, whose eyes constantly penetrate my subterranean abode, but from beyond the pallisade, in order to prevent our speaking to each other; spies set over us distinct from the guard; and in addition to this, the walls, the ramparts, the ditches, and the guards, within and without the citadel of Magdeburg, and you will see, my dear Princess, that the foreign powers neglect nothing to retain me in their dominions,
Books are furnished me, from which the white leaves have been torn out, but I have no news, no gazettes, no communica tion, neither ink, nor pen, nor pencil; and it is by a miracle that I possess this sheet, on which I write to you with a toothpicku
My health declines; my physical has almost as much need of liberty as my moral constitution. The small quantity of air, which reaches me in this subterranean cell, affords little relief to my lungs; I am often afflicted with fever; I have no exercise, and little sleep; yet I make no complaint, knowing by experience how useless it would be. But I am tenacious of my life, and my friends may be assured of the active concurrence of all the sentiments which lead me to value the preservation of my existence; although, considering my situation, and the progress of my suffering, I cannot much longer answer for their efficacy. Perhaps it. is better to prepare them in this manner, than to surprise them hereafter with the worst.”. Sa, 13.3 117 mm
Mr. Morris, to his great honour, sent Madame Lafayette one hundred thousand livrés, during the absence of her husband, whose affairs became embarrassed." The letter of acknowledge ment which she sent, expressed her gratitude in language of the greatest warmth. Having been, in common with the rest of the nobility, confined to the province, Madame Lafayette was at last brought up to Paris, and put into prison. During the eventful scenes of the first days of the revolution, Mr. Morris was frequently admonished by his friends to follow the example of the other foreign ministers, and withdraw; but he chose to remain,