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the growth of weeds, and in gathering, drying, and packing the leaves, now raised a commodity 'exchangeable in the markets of Europe. In this way they obtained various supplies, which they could not have obtained in any


In this way also they found the means of purchasing more slaves. As the number of slaves increased, the cultivation of tobacco was extended; some roads were made and solid houses were built. In the course of a few years the face of the colony was changed, and the tobacco planters of Virginia became noted for their prosperity.

These are the arguments which this author employs to apologize for the partiality to slavery, which so strangely finds its supporters in the boasted land of liberty. To show the tendency of colonies to understand the value of slaves, the author says, that the system of employing convicts in New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, is equivalent in principle to that of slavery, for that the inhabitants set the greatest value upon it, is proved by the extreme fear which they shew of the discontinuance of transportation. It has been said, however, that the Puritans, and followers of Penn, the founders of New England, did without slavery. But such is not the fact, for though their religious 'sentiments prompted them to abstain from the purchase of negroes, so severely did they, on that very account, feel the want of constant and combined labour, that they were led to carry on an extensive trafic in white men and children, who, kidnapped in Europe, were virtually sold to those fastidious colonists, and treated by them as slaves. But the number of Europeans kidnapped for the purpose of sale in those parts of America where negroes could not be sold, though considerable, in proportion to the number of settlers then wanting combined labour, was small when compared with the number of Europeans, who, first decoyed to America by the offer of a passage cost free, and the promise of high wages, were then transferred for terms of years to colonies who paid for their passage. These, under the name of redemptioners, were, for a long period, the principal servants of those colonies in which slavery was forbidden by law. Even so lately as within the last twenty years, and especially during the last war between England and America, which put a stop to Irish emigration, vast numbers of poor Germans were decoyed to those states which forbid slavery, and there sold for long terms of years to the highest bidder, by public auction.

This employment of slave-labour also receives illustration in another form, if we look to the late experience which has been had of colonies formed without it. The most remarkable instance is the Spanish colony of Buenos Ayres. The vast plain which lies between the South Atlantic and the mountains of Chili contains hardly any sterile land. Nearly the whole of it consists of the most fertile soil, which, though in a state af nature, exhibits vegetation more luxuriant than could be produced in the greater part of Europe by the most skilful cultivation. This, then, was the finest situation in the world, in which to take advantage of

abundance of good land. The Spaniards who got possession of these fertile plains emigrated from one of the civilized European states. Yet, according to the best information that can be obtained of a society now more than half barbarous, this colony never prospered,

And then let us turn to the other side of the world, and see what has been the result of the last attempt at colonization on the part of England. On the west coast of New Holland there is abundance of good land, and of land too, cleared and drained by nature. Those who have left England to settle there have carried out, amongst them, more than enough capital to employ such of them as were of the labouring class. The capital taken out, in seeds, implements, cattle, sheep and horses, cannot have been less, in money value, than 200,0001.; and the labourers must have amounted to a thousand at the very lowest. What is become of all that capital and all those labourers? The greater part of the capital has perished; some few of the labourers have died of hunger; some, falling into extreme want, have been glad to escape to Van Dieman's Land, where there are slaves; and the remainder are independent land-owners, isolated, not well supplied with even the necessaries of life, and as wild as Englishmen could become in so short a time, This colony may prosper in the course of years; but for the present it must be considered,

when compared with the expectations of those who founded it, a decided failure. Why this failure with all the elements of success, a fine climate, plenty of good land, plenty of capital and enough labourers? The explanation is easy. In this colony, there never has been a class of labourers, Those who went out as labourers no sooner reached the colony than they were tempted by the superabundance of good land to become landowners. One of the founders of the colony, Mr. Peel, who, it is said, took out a capital of 50,0001. and three hundred persons of the labouring class, men, women and children, has been represented as left without a servant to make his bed or fetch him water from the river.

It appears, from all these facts and arguments, that the cause of the continuance of slavery in America is a want of free labour-. not that it is too dear, or that the land-owners would not pay the wages that might be asked; but it does not exist-it is not to be found; and, in such circumstances, what is to be done for the cultivation of the soil? Nevertheless a separate consideration must certainly be applied to those countries which constantly boast of their paramount attachment to freedom, and yet consent to receive all the benefits of the system which they seek to condemn.

After concluding a long chapter, the object of which is to justify the American tariff, the author proceeds to an extensive and elaborate consideration of what he calls the Art of Colonization. Several works are now extant in England on the subject of colonies, but hitherto no proper attempt has been inade to expound the ends and means of colonization. The author defines this

term as signifying the removal of people from an old to a new country, and the settlement of people on the waste land of the new country. So far as the mother country of the people forming the new colony is concerned, she, in promoting their emigration, may be actuated by a wish to extend the market for her own produce, or to relieve herself from excessive numbers: or, finally, to enlarge the field for the employment of her capital. With respect to the creation of markets, a good exemplification of the process by which England could avail herself of her power in this respect, is laid down by our author. There is no part of the world, according to his view, from which England could more properly expect to get cheap corn, but the United States, Canada, and her own colonies in South Africa and New Holland, because, in all these countries, men with English habits and language compose the inhabitants, and would be of necessity consumers of British goods, for which in return they would give cheap corn. The conclusion then is, that for obtaining the greatest market by which cheap corn could be purchased, England is bound to plant or extend her colonies.

In speaking of the experiments made by the English government on emigration, the author shews that the measures to which this name was given, were so futile, that their consequences exhibit no certain foundation for any thing like a safe conclusion, and that, therefore, they furnish no argument against emigration. On the other hand, that she would benefit by such a measure is most likely, since she would be, as already stated, enlarging the market for her productions, to say nothing of the advantage, also, of her being able to prevent, by the same means, civil tumults at home, to keep the peace there, to maintain order, to uphold confidence in the security of property, to hinder interruptions of the regular course of industry and trade, to avert the terrible evils which, in a country like England, could not but follow any serious political convulsion.

We are under the necessity of pausing in this place, having now gone through the principal portion of the work. We have had to complain, in the course of this article, that the author had frequently deviated from the object to which the work was expressly devoted, and we now renew the expression of our disappointment at the manner in which the engagement thus contracted has been fulfilled. The length to which the comparison between the two countries has been carried is very limited indeed, scarcely occupying more than a quarter of his pages. Enthusiasm seems to have excited him to a forgetfulness of his plan throughout the whole of the latter part of his work. Nevertheless, the matter substituted for what would have been more appropriate is certainly unobjectionable, and is particularly well worthy the perusal of all those who are concerned in the welfare of the country.

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ART. XII.--The Popular Encyclopædias, it gives to every branch of

pædia; being a General Diction- knowledge its proper amount of atary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, tention, and does not limit itself to Biography, History, and Political the sciences and their technicalities, Economy; reprinted

from the Ame- but comprehends articles on familiar rican Edition of the Conversa- subjects, themes which nearly affect tions Lexicon,"with corrections and every individual in his domestic life additions, so as to render it suitable and ordinary occupations. It may to this country, and bring it down be said to be the most complete to the present time, with of general reference which has tions on the Rise and Progress of ever yet been presented to the pubLiterature. By Sir D. K. SAND- lic, and may be said to be, especiFORD, LL.D. Oxon: and on the ally complete in biography, comProgress of Science, by THOMAS merce, geography, history, statistics, THOMSON, M.D., F. R. S. L. & and the fine arts. The publishers, E., &c. &c. Vol. I, Part 1. we perceive, of the present volume, Glasgow: Blackie and Son, 1833. have felt the propriety of retaining

in this edition the whole of the conWhilst we lament, in this instance, tents of the original, in consequence that Great Britain should be one of the perfection and accuracy with of the latest countries to adopt the which it was executed; besides.which, improved methods of giving instruc- the present publication has all the tion which are produced in other advantages of the latest improve kingdoms, we feel no little degree ments in it, whether contributed by of satisfaction at the manner in the Germans themselves or by Ame: which, though tardily, she has ful- rican writers. Several important filled her duty in this respect. subjects, such as banking and bankAmongst the whole of the editions rupt; which may be said to be pecuof the Conversations Lexicon, whe

liar to this country, are of course ther we regard the German or the treated by the editors with the care French, or the American, there is and copiousness which would not not one of the whole succession have been necessary in the original. 'which can be said to be more care- The only objectionable part of the fully or more splendidly executed arrangement effected by the publishthan that which we have now the .ers in this: volume, is the insertion pleasure of seeing before us." In of the disquisitions, which has no type, paper, and in illustrations, this other : rational object, than a mere specimen may be said to be a master compliance with a custom founded piece of art.

on gross affectation. What is there The plan and details of the ori- so peculiar in the sketch of physical ginal work, of which the present science, for example, which is prevolume is a part, have been selected fixed to the present volume, that on a principle that has rendered it would prevent it from being placed one of the most popular productions in its natural position according to of the age. Unlike other Encyclo- its alphabetical rank? It would

VOL. 111. (1833) no. Iv.


have been just as well if the pro- choice without it. Mr. Bagshaw prietors had insisted upon the plan does not hesitate to seek an analogy of the original being preserved per- for his spiritual theory in the physifectly undisturbed, save only where cal phenomena which occur around the necessity of attending to those us every day. Those who may be British subjects which were either disposed, then, to believe that it is omitted or imperfectly treated by idle to dwell on choice as emanating the Germans or Americans.

from opposition, should consider the stupendous results resulting from

this agency: for is it not owing to Art. XIII.-On Man; his Motives, the opposing powers of impulse, at

their Rise, Operations, Opposi- traction, and gravitation, that the tion, and Results. By WILLIAM heavenly bodies, in our planetary Bagshaw CLARK, M.A., former- system, are confined in a periphery ly of Brazen Nose College, Ox- more or less elliptical ? This result, ford. In 2 Vols. 12mo. Lon

Mr. Bagshaw contends, resembles don: Longman, Rees, and Co., the result of that mutual opposition 1833.

which subsists between the appe

tites of the body on the one hand, The abstruse and even very doubt- and on the other the dictates of ful nature of the subject chosen by conscience and duty. Such is the Mr. Bagshaw would afford, we are principle which is sought to be sure, but little attraction, and cer- elucidated in these volumes. The tainly no great practical benefit, were work, as a literary composition, rewe here to follow him through the flects credit on the erudition, talents, whole of his statements and argu- and taste of the author; perhaps he ments. The object of his work is may be said to enter too far upon to demonstrate, or at least to ren- questions which he has not had the der probable, that human beings professional opportunities of duly are formed of a two-fold nature, the investigating ; but there is the evi-. one being the soul, the other the

dence of much good sense in the body, and that the motives which work, such, at least

, as preserves operate upon them are adapted re- the author from the impending perspectively to each of these natures, ils of absurdity which are hardly to and, finally, that these natures act be escaped in the dangerous navias antagonist powers, opposing each gation to which he has trusted his other, and are constantly challeng- fragile bark. ing the exercise of a choice in him who is thus constituted. The great feature of originality which Mr. Art. XIV.-Progressive Exercises Bagshaw claims in this work, and in English Composition. By R. which he gives as his reason for G. PARKER, A. M. 1 Vol. 12mo. publishing it, is his description of London: J. R. Priestley, 1834. the mode in which the choice of man between the two hostile influ. Every day brings us in some fresh ences is elicited; for that having di- token of the progress which the rected his attention to motives, their true principle of education is makrise, and opposition, it incidentally, ing at the present era, namely, that as it were, occurred to him, that op- of calling on the mind of the learner position of motives gave birth to to teach itself. The little work of choice, and that there could be no Mr. Parker, now before us, admi

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