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hundred Sabbath-school children and twenty-six teachers, and by his mourning congregation. His death was improved on the following Sabbath, in the morning by the Rev. Charles Howell, of Sidbury, from Heb. xiii. 7, and Rev. xiv. 13; and in the evening, by the Rev. John Horsey, of Launceston, from Job xix. 25–27. It will, perhaps, tend further to elucidate his character as a preacher, if we conclude with a brief extract from one of those sermons preached on that occasion to his people: —“Your late minister was a scribe well instructed unto the kingdom of heaven. He had clear views of the Christian system, and delighted to point others, where he himself found peace and rest, to the Lamb of God, who alone taketh away sin. He firmly held and enunciated the great doctrine of justification by faith, but as earnestly insisted on personal holiness to be developed in every social and relative duty, and in the general conduct of life. He was never beguiled by a false philosophy from the simplicity of the gospel. He could never be induced to

interpret the doctrine of Jesus Christ and his apostles through the dim and obscuring medium of German metaphysics, nor to resolve the plain facts and verities of the gospel into myths, symbols, allegories, and figures. He believed the Bible to be what it purports, a divinely authoritative rule of faith and practice everywhere, and for all times, based on an inspiration peculiar to itself, and from whose decisions there is no appeal. Neither, on the other hand, had the system of semipopish ritualism and sacramental efficacy any charms for him. He had other views of the ethereal spirit and sublime bearings of Christianity than to reduce it to an affair of forms and ceremonies. He was eminently a scriptural preacher, and in his mode of instruction was simple, perspicuous, and calmly earnest. He sought by a manifestation of the truth to commend himself to the understanding, consciences, and hearts of the hearers. His testimony is now sealed up until the great day of the Lord's appearing." J. H.



“Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness."—LUKE xvi. 9.

THESE words form part of our Lord's application of the parable of the Unjust Steward. Their meaning to many cursory readers is not apparent. It comes within the scope and design of these Scripture Studies to mingle the exegetical with the practical, that the practi. cal may be the more weighty and impressive. Truths are brought forward which the church ought often to hear—which it needs now to hear. In explaining the language of Christ upon this occasion, two errors are espe

cially to be guarded against. It cannot be supposed either that Jesus meant to extol the dishonest course adopted by the unjust steward, or to teach that we can purchase, by any conduct of ours, the everlasting habitations of felicity. The lesson of the language is, that we ought so to act in our position in this world, and in reference to its perishable possessions, as to be prepared,—and even make our use of them a means of preparing us, – for the kingdom of heaven. In truth, the words of our Lord lay down, tho principle on which every phristiau, to far as worldly property is concerned, is bound to act; and, by acting op which, he will give the fairest exhibition to the world of the beauty and power of bis religion. The "maroraou of unrighteousness" does not refer to ill-gotten wealth, but to the »haraoter of riches as deceitful— not to be trusted, in opposition to the "true riches" which they possess who have the kiugdom of God withiu there. The Christian, by the right use of earthly possessions, is to make for himself friends, who, when he dies, will receive him to the mansions of glory. Riches are to be used for the furtherance of spiritual ends, so as to secure the advancement of the spiritual life. The spirit of our Lord's, exhortation points to the conduct of a self-denying and generous Christian.

L The Possession oj? Amy Portion Of Ibis World's goons, is A Trust.

This is a truth, reader, which we are prone to forget. Amount of property has nothing to do with the principle. Whether.we are rich or poor in this world, of that which we possess we are but the stewards. It is not our own. The reckoning-day with the Master will come, when we shall have to give an account of our stewardship. Yet, although this is uniformly insisted on by God in his word, how rarely it is acted on by men in the world. By multitudes, indeed, it is practically denied. They first adopt the idea that what they have of-worldly property is their own, and then act upon the assumed principle that they have a right to do what they will with their own. But in reference to all earthly possessions, the first principle to be admitted by the Christian man is, that whatever he has, be it much or little, is a trust from the Great Master ti him. What an influence would the habitual recognition of this truth have upon the right disposal of wealth!


Our Lord's exhortation implies this. The dilliculty arises from our depravity, —from man's native preference for things "seen and temporal." Prayer, as well as prudenco, is necessary to use this world without abusing it. Instead of making friends, many make unto themselves enemies of the deceitful mammon, —epemies which disturb them hare, and which will torment them for ever. Hence, there is great difficulty in the caso: dangers and temptations are on every side. There is, on the one hand, the danger of avarice, of loving this earthly mammon too much; while, on the other, there may be the danger of prodigality, which will manifest itself in useless expenditure or sinful n aste There is the danger of selfishness, into which all are prone to fall, using that which we have exclusively for ourselves; while blind generosity, on the other band, is an evil into which some men fall, bestowing their property with a benevolent design, yet so as to encourage folly, foster error, or support vice. These are but a few of the dangers with which our stewardship here is surrounded. Probably some reader may be inclined to say, " All that I have is so little—enough only for securing my daily bread—that I can bo neither in difficulty nor danger about it" But every Christian man is n steward, and the less that there is of a worldlv portion, the greater may be the difficultv of managing [it well. There may be prodigality, or selfishness, or avarice, in the cottage of tbo poor, as well as in the mansion of the rich. Nevertheless,—

III. This Trust May Be Managed


It is pot to be understood that the mammon itself can be made a friend, but that by means of it, by the proper use of it, we may make friends who, "when wo fail may receive us into everlasting habitations." The question then arises, Who or what ore these friends > Some understand by the term, such poor saints aa may have been the <>1>jects of our compassaion and benelioenee here; while others say, they are angels who are sent to oonvey to the mansious of gtory the heirs of salvation when they pass from time into eternity. But it is very difficult to see the fitness of either of these explanations. It appears to me much simpler, and therefore better, not to refer the term "friends," to person* at all, but to feelings, principles, habits of thought and action, which are formed and cultivated by the proper use of this present world. These become, so to spoak, a part of the soul's life, dwelling in it, abiding with it, forming congenial elements of its present enjoyment, and preparing it for future felicity. To cherish and foster such feelings is, in the best and highest sense, to make friends of mammon. For instance, there will be gratitude to Ood for that whioh is possessed, how much or little soever it may be. There will be conscious dependence on him for every needful blessing, and for guidance in the proper use of all that is possessed. There will be a desire to honour him with our substance, from the conviction that any portion of this world's goods is a talent to be used for him. Such feeliugs and principles cherished will be our true friends, and will go before us to receive us to the mansions of our Father's house above.

But how are these friends to be made,—how are we to reach the possession and exhibition of such principles? We can never make friends of mammon without regarding all property as given or lent of Ood. Industry, perseverance, and skill may be expended in vain, unless God crown them with success; and if his blessing is necessary, is not wealth his gifts' further, in order to make friends of it, we must make tho use of it a imitUr of conscience. Vet, how seldom is this done? Men buy and sell and get gain; they give or they withhold, as if the use of

money had nothing whatsoever of a moral character in it—as if they were amenable neither to conscience nor to Qod. But he that looks upon himself as a steward, will strive to aot in all his worldly affairs under the sense of moral obligation. And, moreover, if we would make friends of the deceitful mammon, ice mutt lend it to the Lord. In this way, more than any other, may we most oerUinly secure the friendship which property can secure. This is the highest and best use of worldly substance. It is a celestial investment, which will yield an eternal return. How much have very many Christians yet to learn in this matter? Giving to the cause of Christ is not looked upon bj them as lendiDg to the Lord. Many professors of religion spend as much on their own pleasure and amusement in a single day, as they give to the support or spread of religion in a year. Appeals arc made to them in vain, or are met with a stinginess and illiberality which too plainly declare that they do not believe that giving is lending to the Lord. They forget that tho "Lord loveth a cheerful giver;" and that, "it is more blessed to give than to receive." Thoy forget that tbey may make everlasting friendship by the right use of money. This can never be done, without lending it to God. If Christ did not condemu the widow for casting her last mite into the treasury, —an act which many of our modern professors would denounce as highly imprudent,—no one, certainly, needs be afraid of giving to the cause of godliness or humanity. Besides, in this matter the future reckoning is to be remembered. If we forget this, it is not likely that we shall use present possessions either wisely or well. We arc accountable to God for what we spend, as well as for what we gain,— for what we keep, as well as for what we give; and if we would make such friends as the right use of property can moke, we must ever have before us the future reckoning day. Thus shall we he prepared to give in our account with joy, and not with sorrow; and thus shall we be forming principles to bo elements in our everlasting happiness.

IV. If The Trust Be Sightly Used


If we thus make friends of deceitful mammon, they will receive us into everlasting habitations. If we properly use the world, the feelings thereby cherished and the principles received go to form our character, and to be elements in our destiny for ever. Dependence, gratitude, mercy, benevolence, generosity—are principles for man's nature which cannot die. All the actions of a man go to the formation of his character; and every man's character goes to form his everlasting home, so that, in truth, it may be said, that a man's conduct here advances to prepare his abode, and to receive him hereafter. In this way we may make friends of the mammon of unrighteousness—friends that will receive us into eternal habitations. The Saviour most simply and beautitifully taught this sentiment in his sublime representation of the last judgment. The cup of cold water given to a disciple in the Master's name, was not forgotten, but formed a friendship which was never to perish. Every benevolent effort—every act of self-denial —every labour of love—every cordial and generous contribution to the cause of truth or mercy, helps to form a man's character in this world, and will meet him in the next. Jesus says to every one of his people, " Do that with your property here which will meet you and welcome you hereafter, and help to fill you with joy for ever." All the good that a man does remains, and, when done from proper motives, will be a congenial element in his endless life, amidst the glorious circles aud happy mansions of heaven. What an inducement is there in this for the Christian to devise liberal things!

But, alas! many make to themselves

foes of the property which they possess. How awful will it bo for a man's riches to torment him for ever! How terrible will be the thought of having been deaf to the cry of wretchedness, or the appeal for charity; of having refused aid to the progress of knowledge or religion, when it was in the power to comfort, to relieve, to give! The memories of the past, in such a case, will be the basis of torment. And how much will the future enjoyment even of the Christian be diminished, if, instead of making friends by his worldly possessions, he has cherished feelings of parsimony, illiberality, or avarice? A character formed on such principles has less of true enjoyment in this life, than the geuerous and liberal-minded giver to the cause of truth and mercy; and assuredly such a character will remain with a lower capacity for the enjoyments of eternity. This is the negative punishment,—if we may use the terms, —which the worldly-minded believer is bringing on himself. It is true, that he will be as happy in heaven as he can be, but if he refuse to expand his mind and enlarge his heart by exercising self-denial, devising liberal things, and practising generous deeds, he refuses to make himself capable of a higher enjoyment hereafter, to which he might attain. The righteous will "shine as the stars for ever and ever;" but "one star differeth from another star in glory." By indulging selfishness or covetousness, we may he sub trading from that measure of holy felicity to which we might rise. How important is it, then, to remember our stewardship, that we may use the world without abusing it, and, in our use of it, cultivate those feelings and principles which shall minister to our happiness for ever.

Reader, perhaps you are a professor of religion, and God may have sent you worldly prosperity. What of your stewardship? What use do you make of th at which you possess? Appeals are made to you of the most imperative nature in behalf of the ignorant, the godless, and the wretched around you. Are you reluctant, or ready to give? Do you cheerfully lend to the Lord, or do you foster a selfish and illiberal spirit? You may give, but do you give according to your ability,—as God hath prospered you? Must there not be a change in this matter of giving on the part of tho church, before the world can be converted to God? You are in connection avowedly with that church. The progress of Christ's cause is, in a sense, intrusted to you. Remember, I beseech you, your stewardship and ac


countability. Remember the claims of God upon you, and your obligations to him. Make friends of the deceitful mammon, for this is the only true and profitable use of it. Increase your enjoyment and ennoble your character by the outgoing of compassion, benevolence, and generosity. Thus will you gather around you elements of enduring blessedness, and prepare to render in your account with joy. "Now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three: But


Let your deeds, for your Master's sake, go before you to glory!

J. S.


II.—On Inspihation.

We turn now to the author's views of Inspiration, embodied in the 6ixth chapter. These will be gathered from the following extracts:—

"Inspiration does not imply anything generically new in the actual processes of the human mind. It does not involve any form of intelligence essentially different from what we already possess; it indicates rather the elevation of the religious consciousness, and with it, of course, the power of spiritual vision, to a degree of intensity peculiar to tho individuals thus highly favoured of God. We must regard the whole process of inspiration, accordingly, as being in no sense mechanical, but purely dynamical, involving, not a novel and supernatural faculty, but a faculty already enjoyed, elevated supernaturally to an extraordinary power and susceptibility: indicating, in fact, an inward nature so perfectly harmonized to the Divine; so freed from the distorting influences of prejudice, passion, and sin; so simply recipient of the Divine ideas circumambient around it; so re

sponsive in all its strings to the breath of heaven,—that truth leaves an impress upon it which answers perfectly to its objective reality." — (Pp. 148, 149.)

"According to this view of the case, inspiration, as an internal phenomenon, is perfectly consistent with the natural laws of the human mind,—it is the higher potency of a certain form of consciousness, which every man to some degree possesses. The supernatural element consists in the extraordinary influences employed to create these lofty intuitions, to bring the mind of the subject into perfect harmony with truth, and that, too, at a time when, under ordinary circumstances, such a state could not possibly have been enjoyed." —(P. 159.)

"We cannot infer that any one of these books was written by an express commission from God! We cannot infer that they are verbally inspired, any more than were the oral teachings of the apostles. We cannot infer that they had any greater authority attached to

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