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face of the earth, and oppressed at different times by Pagans, Christians, and Mahometans.-3. It shows us that the increase of Christianity produced in the countries where it was received, the overthrow and extinction of paganism, which, after a feeble resistance, perished about the sixth century.-4. It shows us how Christianity hath been continued and delivered down from the apostolical to the present age.-5. It shows us the various opinions which prevailed at different times amongst the fathers and other Christians, and how they departed more or less from the simplicity of the Gospel.-6. It will enable us to form a true judgment of the merit of the fathers, and of the use which is to be made of them.-7. It will show us the evil of imposing unreasonable terms of communion, and requiring Christians to profess doctrines not propounded in Scriptural words, but inferred as consequences from passages of Scripture, which one may call systems of consequential divinity.-8. It will show us the origin and progress of popery; and, lastly, it will show us,-9. The origin and progress of the reformation. See

ECSTACY, or EXTACY, a transport of the mind, which suspends the functions of the senses by the intense contemplation of some extraordinary object.

ECTHESIS, a confession of faith, the form of an edict published in the year 639, by the emperor Heraclius, with a view to pacify the troubles occasioned by the Eutychian heresy in the eastern church. However, the same prince revoked it, on being informed that pope

Dr. Jortin's Charge on the Use and Im-Severinus had condemned it, as favourportance of Ecclesiastical History, in ing the Monothelites; declaring, at the his Works, vol. vii. ch. 2. same time, that Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, was the author of it. See EUTYCHIANS.

For ecclesiastical historians, See Eusebius's Eccl. Hist. with Valesius's notes; Baronii Annales Eccl.; Spon

EDIFICATION; this word signifies

dani Annales Sacri; Parei Univer-a building up. Hence we call a buildsalis Hist. Ecc.; Lampe, Dupin, ing an edifice. Applied to spiritual Spanheim, and Mosheim's Eccl. Hist.; things, it signifies the improving, adornFuller's, and Warner's Eccl. Hist. of ing, and comforting the mind; and a England; Jortin's Remarks on Eccl. Christian may be said to be edified when Hist; Millar's Propagation of Chris- he is encouraged and animated in the tianity; Gillies's Historical Collections; ways and works of the Lord. The Dr. Erskine's Sketches, and Robinson's means to promote our own edification Researches. The most recent are, Dr. are, prayer, self-examination, reading Campbell's, Gregory's, Milner's, and the Scriptures, hearing the Gospel, meDr. Haweis's; all which have their ditation, attendance on all appointed orexcellencies. See also Bogue and Ben-dinances. To edify others there should net's History of the Dissenters. For be love, spiritual conversation, forbearthe History of the church under the ance, faithfulness, benevolent exertions, Old Testament, the reader may consult and uniformity of conduct. Miller's History of the Church; Prideaux and Shuckford's Connections; Dr. Watts's Scripture History; and Fleury's History of the Israelites. ECLECTICS, a name given to some ancient philosophers, who, without at-likewise said to have denied the divinity taching themselves to any particular of the Holy Spirit. sect, took what they judged good and solid, from each. One Potamon, of Alexandria, who lived under Augustus and Tiberius, and who, weary of doubting of all things, with the Sceptics and Pyrrhonians, was the person who formed this sect. ECLECTICS,

EFFRONTES, a sect of heretics, in 1534, who scraped their forehead with a knife till it bled, and then poured oil into the wound. This ceremony served them instead of baptism. They are

EICETÆ, a denomination in the year 680, who affirmed that, in order to make prayer acceptable to God it should be performed dancing.

or modern Platonics,

a sect which arose in the Christian church towards the close of the second century. They professed to make truth the only object of their enquiry, and to be ready to adopt from all the different systems and sects such tenets as they thought agreeable to it. They preferred Plato to the other philosophers, and looked upon his opinions concerning God, the human soul, and things invisible, as conformable to the spirit and genius of the Christian doctrine. One of the principal patrons of this system was Ammonius Saccas, who at this time laid the foundation of that sect, afterwards distinguished by the name of the New Platonics in the Alexandrian school.

EJACULATION, a short prayer, in which the mind is directed to God on any emergency. See PRAYER. ELCESAITES, ancient heretics, who

Dr. Guise, on the passage 1 Tim. v. 17, "that the apostle intends only preach-. ing elders, when he directs double honour to be paid to the elders that rule well, especially those who labour in the word and doctrine; and that the distinction lies not in the order of officers, but in the degree of their diligence, faithfulness, and eminence in laboriously fulfilling their ministerial work; and so the emphasis is to be laid on the word labour in the word and doctrine, which has an especially annexed to it."

ELECTION. This word has differ

made their appearance in the reign of
the emperor Trajan, and took their
name from their leader, Elcesai. They
kept a mean between the Jews, Chris-
tians, and Pagans: they worshipped but
one God, observed the Jewish sabbath,
circumcision, and the other ceremonies
of the law; yet they rejected the Pen-
tateuch and the prophets: nor had they
any more respect for the writings of the
apostles.
ELDER (EOCUTEgos,) an overseer,
ruler, leader.

Elders, or seniors, in ancient Jewish polity, were persons the most consi-ent meanings. 1. It signifies God's derable for age, experience, and wis- taking a whole nation, community, or dom. Of this sort were the 70 men body of men, into external covenant whom Moses associated with himself in with himself, by giving them the advanthe government: such likewise after- tage of revelation as the rule of their wards were those who held the first belief and practice, when other nations rank in the synagogue as presidents. are without it, Deut. vii. 6.-2. A temElders, in church history, were origi-porary designation of some person or nally those who held the first place in persons to the filling up some particular the assemblies of the primitive Chris- station in the visible church, or office in tians. The word presbyter is often used civil life, John vi. 70. 1 Sam. x. 24.-3. in the New Testament in this significa- That gracious and almighty act of the tion; hence the first councils of Chris- Divine Spirit, whereby God actually tians were called Presbyteria, or coun- and visibly separates his people from cils of elders.-Elders in the presbyte- the world by effectual calling, John xv. rian discipline, are officers, who, in con- 19.-4. That eternal, sovereign, unconjunction with the ministers and deacons, ditional, particular, and immutable act compose the kirk sessions, who for- of God, whereby he selected some from merly used to inspect and regulate mat- among all mankind, and of every nation ters of religion and discipline; but under heaven, to be redeemed and whose principal business now is to take everlastingly saved by Christ, Eph. i. 4. care of the poor's funds. They are 2 Thess. ii. 13. See DECREE, and PREchosen from among the people, and are received publicly with some degree of ceremony. In Scotland there is an indefinite number of elders in each parish, generally about twelve. See PRESBY

DESTINATION.

TERIANS.

It has long been a matter of dispute, whether there are any such officers as lay-elders mentioned in Scripture. On the one side it is observed, that these officers are no where mentioned as being alone or single, but always as being many in every congregation. They are also mentioned separately from the brethren. Their office, more than once, is described as being distinct from that of preaching, not only in Rom. xii. where he that ruleth is expressly distinguished from him that exhorteth or teacheth, but also in that passage, 1 Tim. v. 17. On the other side it is said, that from the above-mentioned passages, nothing can be collected with certainty to establish this opinion; neither can it be inferred from any other passage that churches should be furnished with such officers, though perhaps prudence, in some circumstances, may make them expedient. incline to think," says

ELOQUENCE, Pulpit. "The chief characteristics of the eloquence suited to the pulpit are these two-gravity and warmth. The serious nature of the subjects belonging to the pulpit requires gravity; their importance to mankind requires warmth. It is far from being either easy or common to unite these characters of eloquence. The grave, when it is predominant, is apt to run into a dull, uniform solemnity. The warm, when it wants gravity, borders on the theatrical and light. The union of the two must be studied by all preachers, as of the utmost consequence, both in the composition of their discourses, and in their manner of delivery. Gravity and warmth united, form that character of preaching, which the French call onction: the affecting, penetrating, interesting manner, flowing from a strong sensibility of heart in the preacher, the importance of those truths which he delivers, and an earnest desire that they may make full impression on the hearts of his hearers." See DECLAMATION, SERMONS.

EMULATION, a generous ardour

kindled by the praiseworthy examples || a becoming act of charity to let them. of others, which impels us to imitate, have the public prayers of the church, to rival, and, if possible, to excel them. at which they were permitted to be This passion involves in it esteem of the present. person whose attainments or conduct we emulate, of the qualities and actions in which we emulate him, and a desire cf resemblance, together with a joy springing from the hope of success. The word comes originally from the Greek au, contest, whence the Latin æmulus, and thence our emulation. Plato makes emulation the daughter of envy: if so, there is a great difference between the mother and the offspring; the one being a virtue and the other a vice. Emulation admires great actions, and strives to imitate them; envy refuses them the praises that are their due; emulation is generous, and only thinks of equalling or surpassing a rival; envy is low, and only seeks to lessen him. It would, therefore, be more proper to suppose emulation the daugh, ter of admiration; admiration being a principal ingredient in the composition of it.

ENCRATITES, a sect in the second century, who abstained from marriage, wine, and animals.

ENDOWMENT, ECCLESIASTICAL; a term used to denote the settlement of a pension upon a minister, or the building of a church, or the severing a sufficient portion of tithes for a vicar, when the benefice is appropriated.

ENTHUSIASM. To obtain just de finitions of words which are promiscuously used, it must be confessed, is no small difficulty. This word, it seems, is used both in a good and a bad sense. In its best sense it signifies a divine afflatus or inspiration. It is also taken for that noble ardour of mind which leads us to imagine any thing sublime, grand, or surprising. In its worst sense it signifies any impression on the fancy, or agitation of the passions, of which a man can give no rational account. It is generally applied to religious characters, and is said to be derived (aro rwy y fueras μavoμevv) from the wild gestures and speeches of ancient religionists, pretending to more than ordinary and more than true communications with the gods, and particularly i uciais, in the act or at the time of sacrificing. In this sense, then, it signifies that impulse of the mind which leads a man to suppose he has some remarkable intercourse with the Deity, while at the same time it is nothing more than the effects of a heated imagination, or a sanguine constitution.

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That the Divine Being permits his people to enjoy fellowship with him, and that he can work upon the minds of his creatures when and how he pleases, cannot be denied. But, then, what is the criterion by which we are to judge, in order to distinguish it from enthusiasm ? It is necessary there should be some rule, for without it. the greatest extra

Among the Dissenters, they are benefactions left to their place or congregation, for the support of their ministers. Where the congregation is poor

or small, these have been found benefi-vagancies would be committed, the most cial; but in many cases they have been notorious impostors countenanced, and detrimental. Too often has it tended to the most enormous evils ensue. Now relax the exertions of the people; and this criterion is the word of God; from when such a fund has fallen into the which we learn, that we are to expect hands of an unsuitable minister, it has no new revelations, no extraordinary prevented his removal; when, had he gifts, as in the apostles' time; that whatderived no support from the people, ever opinions, feelings, views, or imnecessity would have caused him to de- pressions we may have, if they are inpart, and make room for one more consistent with reason, if they do not worthy. tend to humble us, if they do not inENERGICI, a denomination in the fluence our temper, regulate our lives, sixteenth century; so called because and make us just, pious, honest, and they held that the eucharist was the uniform, they cannot come from God, energy and virtue of Jesus Christ; not but are evidently the effusions of an enhis body, nor a representation thereof. thusiastic brain. On the other hand, if ENERGUMENS, persons supposed the mind be enlightened, if the will to be possessed with the devil, concern- which was perverse be renovated, deing whom there were many regulations tached from evil, and inclined to good; among the primitive Christians. They if the powers be roused to exertion for were denied baptism and the eucharist; the promotion of the divine glory, and at least this was the practice of some the good of men; if the natural corchurches; and though they were under ruptions of the heart be suppressed; if the care of exorcists, yet it was thought peace and joy arise from a view of the

goodness of God, attended with a spi- | God, and ordained to judge the quick ritual frame of mind, a heart devoted to and dead. Eon was, however, solemnly God, and a holy, useful life: however condemned by the council at Rheims this may be branded with the name of in 1148, and ended his days in a prison. enthusiasm, it certainly is from God, He left behind him a number of followbecause bare human efforts, unassisted ers, whom persecution and death, so by him, could never produce such ef- weakly and cruelly employed, could fects as these. Theol. Misc. vol. ii. p. not persuade to abandon his cause, or to 43.; Locke on Underst. vol. ii. ch. 19.; renounce an absurdity, which, says MoSpect. No. 201. vol. iii.; Wesley's Ser. sheim, one would think, could never on Enthusiasm; Mrs. H. More's Hints have gained credit but in such a place towards forming the Character of a as Bedlam. young Princess, vol. ii. p. 246.

ENVY, a sensation of uneasiness and disquiet, arising from the advantages which others are supposed to possess above us, accompanied with malignity towards those who possess them. "This," says a good writer, "is universally admitted to be one of the blackest passions in the human heart. No one, indeed, is to be condemned for defending his rights, and showing displeasure against a malicious enemy; but to conceive ill will at one who has attacked none of our rights, nor done us any injury, solely because he is more prosperous than we are, is a disposition altogether unnatural. Hence the character of an envious man is universally odious. All disclaim it; and they who feel themselves under the influence of this passion, carefully conceal it. The chief grounds of envy may be reduced to three: accomplishments of mind; advantages of birth, rank, and fortune; and superior success in worldly pursuits. To subdue this odious disposition, let us consider its sinful and criminal nature; the mischiefs it occasions to the world; the unhappiness it produces to him who possesses it; the evil causes that nourish it, such as pride and indolence: let us, moreover, bring often into view those religious considerations which regard us as Christians: how unworthy we are in the sight of God; how much the blessings we enjoy are above what we deserve. Let us learn reverence and submission to that divine government which has appointed to every one such a condition as is fittest for him to possess; let us consider how opposite the Christian spirit is to envy; above all, let us offer up our prayers to the Almighty, that he would purify our hearts from a passion which is so base and so criminal."

EONIANS, the followers of Eon, a wild fanatic, of the province of Bretagne, in the twelfth century: he concluded, from the resemblance between eum, in the form for exorcising malignant spirits, viz. " per eum qui venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos," and his own name Eon, that he was the son of

EOQUINIANS, a denomination in the sixteenth century; so called from one Eoquinus, their master, who taught that Christ did not die for the wicked, but for the faithful only.

EPICUREANS, the disciples of Epicurus, who flourished about A. M. 3700. This sect maintained that the world was formed not by God, nor with any design, but by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. They denied that God governs the world, or in the least condescends to interfere with creatures below: they denied the immortality of the soul, and the existence of angels; they maintained that happiness consisted in pleasure; but some of them placed this pleasure in the tranquillity and joy of the mind arising from the practice of moral virtue, and which is thought by some to have been the true principle of Epicurus; others understood him in the gross sense, and placed all their happiness in corporeal pleasure. When Paul was at Athens, he had conferences with the Epicurean philosophers, Acts xvii. 18. The word Epicurean is used, at present, for an indolent, effeminate, and volup tuous person, who only consults his private and particular pleasure. See ACADEMICS.

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EPIPHANY, a Christian festival, otherwise called the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, observed on the 6th of January, in honour of the appearance of our Saviour to the three magi, or wise men, who came to adore and bring him presents.

EPISCOPACY, that form of church government in which diocesan bishops are established as distinct from and superior to priests or presbyters.

The controversy respecting episcopacy commenced soon after the reformation; and has been agitated with great warmth, between the Episcopalians on the one side, and the Presbyterians and Independents on the other. Among the Protestant churches abroad, those which were reformed by Luther and his associates are in general episcopal; whilst such as follow the doctrines of Calvin, have for the most part

thrown off the order of bishops as one cers, called evangelists, who were asof the corruptions of popery. In Eng-sistants to the apostles; for there is land, however, the controversy has great reason to believe the first epistle been considered as of greater impor- to Timothy was written prior to those tance than on the continent. It has from Rome in the time of Paul's imbeen strenuously maintained by one prisonment, as some think the second party, that the episcopal order is essen- was also. To which we may add, that tial to the constitution of the church; it seems probable, at least, that they and by others, that it is a pernicious en- had very extraordinary gifts to furnish croachment on the rights of men, for them for their superior offices, 1 Tim. which there is no authority in Scrip- iv. 14. Eph. iv. 11. 2 Tim, iv. 5. And ture. We will just briefly state their though Timothy was with Paul when arguments. he took his leave of the elders of Ephe sus (Acts xx.) the apostle gives not the least hint of any extraordinary power with which he was invested, nor says one word to engage their obedience to him; which is a very strong presumption that no such relation did subsist, or was to take place.

3. As to the angels of the seven churches in Asia, it is certain that, for any thing which appears in our Lord's epistles to them (Rev. ii. and iii.) they might be no more than the pastors of single congregations with their proper assistants.

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I. Episcopacy, arguments for. 1. Some argue that the nature of the office which the apostles bore was such, that the edification of the church would require they should have some successors in those ministrations which are not common to Gospel ministers.-2. That Timothy and Titus were bishops of Ephesus and Crete, whose business it was to exercise such extraordinary acts of jurisdiction as are now claimed by diocesan bishops, 1 Tim. i. 3. Tim. iii. 19, 22. 2 Tim. ii. 2. Tit. i. 5, &c. Tit. iii. 10.-3. Some have argued from the mention of angels, i. e. as they understand it, of diocesan bishops, in the seven churches of Asia, particularly the angel of Ephesus, though there were many ministers employed in it long before the date of that epistle, Acts xx. 17, 18. 4. It is urged that some of the churches which were formed in large cities during the lives of the apostles, and especially that at Jerusalem, consisted of such vast numbers as could not possibly assemble at one place.-5. That in the writers who succeeded the inspired penmen, there is a multiplied and concurring evidence to prove the apostolic institution of episcopacy.

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II. Episcopacy, arguments against. 1. To the above it is answered, that, as the office of the apostles was such as to require extraordinary and miraculous endowments for the discharge of many parts of it; it is impossible that they can have any successors in those services who are not empowered for the execution of them as the apostles themselves were; and it is maintained, that so far as ordination, confirmation, and excommunication, may be performed without miraculous gifts, there is nothing in them but what seems to suit the pastoral office in general.

4. To the fourth argument it is answered, 1. That the word uupades may only signify great numbers, and may not be intended to express that there were several times ten thousand, in an exact and literal sense: compare Luke, ch. xii. ver. 1. (Greek.)-2. That no sufficient proof is brought from Scripture of there being such numbers of people in any particular place as this supposes; for the myriads of believing Jews spoken of in the preceding text, as well as the numbers mentioned, Acts ii. 41. Acts iv. 4, might very probably be those who were gathered together at those great feasts from distant places, of which few might have their stated residence in that city. See Acts, ch. viii. ver. 1.—3. If the number were so great as the objec tion supposes, there might be, for any thing which appears in Scripture, several bishops in the same city, as there are among those who do not allow of diocesan episcopacy, several co-ordinate pastors, overseers, or bishops: and though Eusebius does indeed pretend to give us a catalogue of the bishops of Jerusalem, it is to be remembered how the Christians had been dispersed from thence for a considerable time, at and after the Roman war, and removed into other parts, which must necessarily very much increase the uncertainty which Eusebius himself owns there was, as to the succession of bishops in most of the ancient sees.

2. That Timothy and Titus had not a stated residence in these churches, but only visited them for a time, 2 Tim. iv. 9, 13. Tit. iii. 12. It also appears, from other places in which the journeys of Timothy and Titus are mentioned,

5. As to the ancient writers, it is ob

that they were a kind of itinerant offi-served, that though Clemens Romanus

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