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At this time in history, there are few things that pose a greater danger to our overall security than the deliberate instigation of mass violence which is designed to destroy our national unity, set citizen against citizen, groups and classes of citizens against their Government, and undermine the power, the prestige, and the good name of our country in all parts of the world.

This committee has explicit and unquestioned authority to investigate such activities.

Investigations conducted by this committee over a period of almost 30 years have revealed that individuals and organizations with these aims exist in this country. Have they been involved in any way in these riots or in instigating them?

This question must be answered. If we are going to find a solution to the causes of these riots, then this as well as other factors must be explored thoroughly. If only a partial investigation is made, if certain factors are ignored, then only a partial, incomplete, and unsatisfactory answer will be found.

A preliminary inquiry into this matter was made by the committee over a period of 10 months. It was on the basis of that inquiry-an inquiry which clearly revealed subversive involvement in the riots that the committee determined to conduct a full-scale investigation.

As usual, there has been opposition to our investigation. Moscow radio started out the new year-on last January 2-with an attack on the committee's preliminary inquiry. It said, "the progressive forces of America demand that the witch hunters cease the shameful investigation."

Various Communist and fellow-traveler groups in the United States and certain self-proclaimed civil rights leaders have taken the same position. This is par for the course. It does not disturb the committee, which is confident that the American public is completely capable of judging the motivation behind these protests.

An explanation for Moscow's concern on this matter, perhaps, is found in the committee's Annual Report for 1960, which included a chapter on “Mob Violence as a Communist Weapon.” In that chapter the committee stated :

There is considerable evidence that, in the United States, as well as on a world scale, the Communists feel that the present tactical situation calls for increased utilization of rioting and mob violence. * * * That same chapter also said:

The U.S. Communist Party, the committee believes, will follow the orders of Moscow, which has told it, in effect :

"Internal violence is the order of the day. Riots are one of the weapons you are to use in the present situation to assist our grand strategy for victory."

I regret to say that the above-quoted committee analysis, or prediction, whichever you may call it, has proved to be accurate.

Finally, I believe the last paragraph in that chapter of our Annual Report for 1960 deserves repetition because it spells out clearly the issue we face in this inquiry into the role of the Communists and the subversives in rioting:

It is not merely the committee that will be the target of Communist force and violence. Whether future Communist-inspired mob violence has the committee or some other agency or group as its target, it will be freedom and the United States form of representative government which, in the final analysis, are under

assault. The violence will be part of an over-all plan of battle, engaged in by the Communists to promote the coming of the day when Khrushchev's dream will come true and the United States of America, like all other nations, will have its effective government in Moscow.

I regret the chairman of the committee, the distinguished gentleman from Louisiana, is not here due to illness in his family, but he appointed a subcommittee on October 19, 1967, by memorandum as follows: To: MR. FRANCIS J. MONAMARA, Director, Committee on Un-American Activities.

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck, Honorable Richard Ichord, Honorable John M. Ashbrook and Honorable Albert W. Watson, as associate members, and myself, as Chairman, to conduct hearings in Washington, D.C., commencing on or about Wednesday, October 25, 1967, and/or at such other times thereafter and places as said subcommittee shall determine, as contemplated by the resolution adopted by the Committee on the 2nd day of August, 1967, authorizing hearings concerning subversive influences in the riots, the looting and burning which have besieged various cities in the Nation, and other matters under investigation by the Committee.

Please make this action a matter of Committee record.
If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me.
Given under my hand this 19th day of October 1967.

/s/ Edwin E. Willis,

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. Since then Mr. John C. Culver, of Iowa, has been also appointed. Are you ready, Mr. McNamara ? Mr. McNAMARA. Yes, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Tuck. Will you proceed. Mr. McNAMARA. Will Mr. Archie Moore come forward, please. Mr. Tuck. Will you stand and be sworn.

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?

Mr. MOORE. I do.
Mr. Tuck. You may be seated.
(At this point Mr. Ichord entered the hearing room.)

TESTIMONY OF ARCHIE MOORE Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. Moore, state your full name and address for the record.

Mr. MOORE. My name is Archie Moore. I live at 3517 E Street, San Diego, California.

Mr. McNAMARA. What is your business or profession, Mr. Moore? Mr. MOORE. My business now is youth guidance. My former profession was the professional light heavyweight boxing champion of the world for 11 years.

Mr. McNAMARA. As I recall, Mr. Moore, your boxing career spanned approximately 30 years, and during that time you engaged in 228 ring appearances and set an all-time record of 136 knockouts; is that correct?

1 By order dated Oct. 25, 1967, Mr. Culver was appointed as an associate member of the subcommittee to serve at such times as Chairman Willis is unable to be present.

Mr. MOORE. That is correct, Mr. McNamara. Mr. ICHORD. Mr. Chairman, at this point, if the director will yield, I want to take the opportunity of welcoming Mr. Moore to this committee. I think all of the committee know who Archie Moore is. As a matter of fact, he has been one of my favorite sports figures since I was just a small figure,

Mr. Moore, I have followed your work since you were light heavyweight champion of the world. I have noticed that in your work as a good samaritan you have excelled just as much as you did in the ring.

It is a pleasure to have you with us today, Mr. Moore.
Mr. MOORE. Thank you, Mr. Ichord.

Mr. TUCK. Let the record show that the other members of the committee share those views and

Mr. CULVER. Mr. Chairman, could I say also at this point, Mr. Moore, that I think your fight against Yvon Durelle in Nova Scotia in 1958 was the most inspiring and courageous demonstration I have ever seen in competitive athletics. I want to commend you at this time.

Mr. MOORE. Thank you, Mr. Culver.
Mr. Tuck. You may proceed.

Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. Moore, are you appearing today in response to an invitation and request of the chairman that you testify in these hearings?

Mr. MOORE. Yes, sir.

Mr. McNAMARA. Is it not a fact, Mr. Moore, that in addition to being the former light heavyweight boxing champion of the world you are also “Mr. San Diego”?

Mr. MOORE. A title that was given me this year for 1968, "Mr. San Diego.” Mr. ASHBROOK. Will you repeat that? The acoustics are very bad.

Mr. McNAMARA. “Mr. San Diego.” It is an annual award presented to an outstanding citizen of San Diego, or the outstanding citizen, I should say.

Mr. Moore, the instances of rioting, looting, and burning which have taken place in this country during the past few years have been a matter of deep concern to all Americans, no matter what their race, religion, or national origin.

Will you tell the committee your reaction to these riots?

Mr. MOORE. My reactions to the rioting are that it does not make sense for people to riot in this sense. It does not make sense to loot and burn and destroy people's property or do any kind of things that are wrong, morally or physically wrong; to harm other people, to shoot at people whom you don't even know, and this sort of malicious disturbance.

Mr. McNAMARA. As indicated in the chairman's opening statement, Mr. Moore, and in a committee release of August 2, there is evidence of Communist and other subversive involvement in these riots. That evidence will be presented for the record in later hearings of the committee.

Will you state for the committee your belief concerning the Communists' professed interests in civil rights for Negroes and other minorities? Are they sincere in this? Can minorities accept them and work with them in their efforts to win full equality ?

Mr. MOORE. This is only my opinion.

I do not believe in the Communist doctrine. I have been to an antiCommunist meeting, at which Senator Dodd was present, in San Diego to hear a speaker who was also a writer of a book on communism, Dr. Fred Schwarz.

What Dr. Fred Schwarz relayed to the public at this meeting thoroughly convinced me that the communistic area was not one I wanted to be in and that they would seek to destroy a nation the way, mostly, worms destroy fruit, from the inside.

(At this point Mr. Watson entered the hearing room.)

Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. Moore, a few months ago you wrote a statement about rioting which you submitted to the San Diego Union, which published it as a page-one feature. This statement has won national acclaim. It has been circulated abroad by the USIA, the United States Information Agency. Will

you be good enough at this point to read that statement for the record, please?

Mr. MOORE. I will.

The devil is at work in America, and it is up to us to drive him out. Snipers and looters, white or black, deserve no mercy. Those who would profit from their brother's misfortunes deserve no mercy, and those who would set fellow Americans upon each other deserve no mercy.

I'll fight the man who calls me an Uncle Tom. I have broken bread with heads of state, chatted with presidents and traveled all over the world. I was born in a ghetto, but I refused to stay there. I am a Negro, and proud to be one. I am also an American, and am proud of that.

The young people of today think they have a hard lot. They should have been around in the '30s when I was coming up in St. Louis. We had no way to go, but a lot of us made it. I became light heavyweight champion of the world. A neighbor kid down the block, Clark Terry, became one of the most famous jazz musicians in the world. There were doctors, lawyers and chiefs who came out of that ghetto. One of the top policemen in St. Louis came from our neighborhood.


We made it because we had a goal, and we were willing to work for it. Don't talk to me of your guaranteed national income.” Any fool knows that this is insanity. Do we bring those who worked to get ahead down to the level of those who never gave a damn? The world owes nobody-black or white-a living. God helps the man who helps himself !

Now then, don't get the idea that I didn't grow up hating the injustices of this world. I am a staunch advocate of the Negro revolution for the good of mankind. I've seen almost unbelievable progress made in the last handful of years. Do we want to become wild beasts bent only on revenge, looting and killing and laying America bare? Hate is bait, bait for the simple-minded,

Sure, I despised the whites who cheated me, but I used that feeling to make me push on. If you listen to the professional rabble-rousers, adhere to this idea of giving up everything you've gained in order to revenge yourself for the wrongs that were done to you in the past-then you'd better watch your neighbor, because he'll be looting your house next. Law and order is the only edge we have. No man is an island.

Granted, the Negro still has a long way to go to gain a fair shake with the white man in this country. But believe this: If we resort to lawlessness, the only thing we can hope for is civil war, untold bloodshed, and the end of our dreams.

We have to have a meeting of qualified men of both races. Mind you, I said qualified men, not some punk kid, ranting the catch phrases put in his mouth by some paid hate-monger. There are forces in the world today, forces bent upon the destruction of America, your America and mine. And while we're on the subject, do you doubt for a minute that communism, world communism, isn't waiting with bated breath for the black and white Americans to turn on each other full force? Do you want a chance for life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness in the land, of your birth, or do you want no chance at all under the Red heel?

. :: NOT ONE SQUARE INCH : There are members of the black community who call for a separate nation within America. Well, I do not intend to give up one square inch of América. I'm not going to be told I must live in a restricted area. Isn't that what we've all been fighting to overcome? And then there is the element that calls for a return to Africa.

For my part, Africa is a great place to visit, but I wouldn't want to live there. If the Irishmen want to go back to the Emerald Isle, let them. If the Slavs want to return to the Iron Curtain area, OK by me. But I'm not going to go any part of Africa to live. I'm proud of ancestry, and of the country that spawned my forefathers, but I'm not giving up my country. I fought all my life to give my children what I'm able to give them today; a chance for development as citizens in the greatest country in the world.

I do not for a moment think that any truly responsible Negro wants anarchy. I don't think you'll find intelligent-no, let's rephrase that-mature Negroes running wild in the streets or sniping at total strangers. God made the white man as well as the black. True, we haven't acted as brothers in the past, but we are brothers. If we're to be so many Cains and Abels, that's our choice. We can't blame God for it.

Something must be done to reach the Negroes and the whites in the ghettos of this country, and I propose to do something.

'ANY BOY CAN' As a matter of plain fact, I have been doing something for the past several years. I have been running a program which I call the ABC-Any Boy Can. By teaching our youth, black, white, yellow and red, what dignity is, what self respect is, what honor is, I have been able to obliterate juvenile delinquency in several areas.

I would now expand my program, change scope. If any boy can, surely any man can. I want to take teams of qualified people, top men in their fields, to the troubled areas of our cities. I know that the people who participated in the recent riots, who are participating and who will participate, are misguided rather than mad.

If some bigot can misguide, then I can guide. I've spent too much of my life building what I've got to put it to torch just to satisfy some ancient hatred of a man who beat my grandfather. Those men are long dead. Do we have to choke what could be a beautiful garden with weeds of hate? I say NO! And I stand ready to start “Operation Gardener." I invite the respected Negro leaders of our country to join me.

Mr. McNAMARA. Mr. Moore, you referred in your statement to your youth guidance program, ABC, Any Boy Can.

Will you outline the program for the committee, telling when and why and how it was started, what its purposes are and its principles and accomplishments?

Mr. MOORE. Yes, sir. ABC is a program that I devised years ago and I wanted to work on this program. However, being champion of the world occupied most of my time.

But having a fine memory, I memorized parts of this program. I memorized very vividly many parts of this program, feeling that it would help young people step off in life with their best foot forward because this program was based on truth, honesty, respect for self and for other people, their rights and property. With this program, a youngster in 2 short months would show some signs of dignity.

We all know and feel that when a youngster is fearful of things that might happen to him his potential is down real low. So, in order to bring this potential up he must be motivated. How can I'motivate this youngster who is in the neighborhood, who is going to school and is having his lunch taken away from him by the bigger boys and being

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