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Mr. SPAULDING. Yes, I do, Mr. McNamara. Mr. McNAMARA. Would you care to read that? Mr. SPAULDING. I would like to. Mr. Tuck. The committee expresses its gratification that you have come here. I would like to say that while the present witness is not my constituent I have the privilege of living only 40 or 45 miles from him. I know of the great work that he is engaged in in North Carolina. I know of the respect in which he is held by people of both races all over the State of North Carolina. He has one of the largest insurance companies in that State. He enjoys an unusually high degree of confidence and esteem by the people, generally, of the great State of North Carolina.

Mr. SPAULDING. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee on Un-American Activities :

I am here today in response to your request to express my views on the following two basic issues:

1. Whether rioting, looting, and burning are compatible with the American system of government and whether they will serve to advance the interests of Negro citizens in the United States;

2. Whether or not Communists sincerely have the interests of the Negro at heart and Negroes, therefore, can accept them and work with them in their efforts to achieve full equality in this country.

Before expressing my views on the two basic issues in question, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee, I would like to quote from an article I wrote in July 1963, which reads in part as follows:

A BURNING ISSUE The situation may have changed materially by the time this appears in print, but as of the time of its writing, there is no more burning issue facing the American public than that of Civil Rights.

NOT A PHONY Let no one be misled into believing that this is a phony issue which will go away if ignored, or that Communists are solely responsible for the current racial unrest and activity in this Country. The origin of the motivation is deep-seated in the Negro himself, in his determined desire to have the same freedom of movement, choice, and opportunity as his fellow Americans of other races.

NOT A SURPRISE Careful observers of racial trends since World War II, and especially since the Montgomery, Alabama, bus incident in 1955, have not been taken by surprise by what they see today. The coming events clearly cast their shadows before them, but far too many either buried their heads in the sand or assumed the attitude that “when ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise," and refused to become concerned.

It has been abundantly clear to many for several years, that the desire for freedom and a better way of life on the part of underprivileged peoples throughout the world is an ever-rising tide, and the flow of it might be DAMNED but can not be dammed. Nor can this desire be crushed without destroying a major portion of the human race.

TO BLOCK EVOLUTION IS TO INVITE REVOLUTION

... In these rapidly changing times, too strenuous efforts to block accelerated evolution in the progress toward social, economic and political justice can but be an open invitation to revolution.

DEBT IN DEFAULT

The promissory note made to the Negro 100 years ago, embodying the American Promise and the American Dream as set forth in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of Rights, and proclaimed through the Emancipation Proclamation, fell due long, long ago. The present generation is demanding payment of the principal now and in full. This is the temper of the times. The serious question confronting America today is whether or not she will honor and fulfill her obligation.

YOUTH DETERMINED TO COLLECT The young people are on the march, ... They will not be deterred by arrests, jail sentences, fire hoses, police dogs, or death itself; for they feel that freedom and first-class citizenship are in the air and they are determined to collect the full amount of the promissory note at this time. .. I am convinced that the walls of segregation and barriers of discrimination based on race must go, and are certain to be washed away by the onrushing tide of history and change. This article was written 4 years ago.

BRIDGES ACROSS CHASMS

All deprived peoples are still seeking bridges across the chasms separating their state and condition from that of the lands of greater opportunities and better living. The wide, cultural, educational, economic, social and political gaps separating members of the human family must be narrowed and/or bridged soon so that whosoever will may cross over to that better way of life.

The privileged ("the haves") will know no peace or happiness again until these bridges are built. . . . It is because these cries have been unheard so long that we have our Newarks and Detroits of today.

The foregoing statement, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee, is not an attempt to justify the riotings, looting, and burnings which have taken place, but rather is an effort to put them in proper perspective.

OPPOSED TO RIOTING, LOOTING, AND BURNING I would like to make it abundantly clear, however, that while I support all appropriate efforts to have America live up to the ideals and principles upon which the Nation was founded, I do not and cannot support and/or condone the wanton destruction of human life and property. I therefore oppose rioting, looting, and burning and consider them incompatible with the American system of government.

Whether or not from the short-range viewpoint they will serve to advance the interests of Negro citizens in the United States may be debatable. I would observe, however, that that which is taken by force must be held and/or maintained by force unless and until the hearts and minds of those involved are changed.

Right here I would like to read a statement from the current issue of the house organ of my company on the company's position :

[For the More Abundant Life] According to St. John, 10th Chapter and 10th Verse, one of the purposes of the coming of Jesus was that man might have life and have it more abundantly. This is the objective of the Civil Rights struggle. This, too, is the mission of life insurance and the purpose for which North Carolina Mutual was organized, and is the purpose to which it is still dedicated. It seeks not only to destroy poverty, but also the causes of poverty; and is the enemy not only of crime but also what breeds it. Its aim is to help ward off misery, relieve distress, dispel fear and keep hope for the future alive.

[Against Want and Despair] North Carolina Mutual has long been engaged in the war against poverty and want, ignorance, poor housing, despair, and the causes of unemployment and crime; and in trying to convert hopelessness into hopefulness.

Dr. Robert C. Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, in his address at the dedication of the Company's new home office building, had this to say:

“A quarter of a century ago, it was the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company which was unique among Negro businesses in recognizing the importance and significance of FHA insured and VA Guaranteed Mortgages. In the mid-forties, 75% of such underwritten mortgages held by Negro-controlled enterprises were in the portfolio of this insurance company ... there have been scores of instances when no other source of mortgage money was available to a Negro family. ...

[For Understanding and Cooperation] During the period of the race riots following World War I, the then General Manager, C. C. Spaulding, wrote the personnel throughout the Company's territory, in part, as follows:

"The delicate issues of our economic and civic life ... require all the caution, steadfastness, and Christian uprightness which the leaders of both races can summon for their settlement. This is the time for Negroes to talk to our white friends and not about them. We must make our position clear to the friends of the race, and with them, guide our country through this perilous time."

It was also pointed out that "cooperation and mutual friendliness of the races is the great hope for the development of the South” and that since "cooperation is a two-way street, the Negro should not be expected to do all the co-ing while the white man does all the operating.”

[The Maturing Negro] In addressing 250 agents and other representatives of the Company on June 20, 1919, at White Rock Baptist Church in Durham, Mr. Spaulding said:

"The Negro's future in America depends more on what he does for himself than on what others may do for him. I am proud that the Negro is no longer regarded as a baby, but as a full grown man and must therefore take the place of a man. The Negro is proud of his race and is not trying to get away from it.”

[Faithful to Its Mission and Heritage] North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company would be unfaithful to the Mission of life insurance, to the purposes for which it was organized, and to its heritage, were it not to support the Negro, and/or any other deprived people, in all legitimate struggles for the "more abundant life.” The Company has no other intention than to measure up to its responsibilities as a good citizen in support of all appropriate efforts to have America live up to the ideals and principles upon which the Nation was founded—first class citizenship, and equality of opportunity and treatment for all its citizens. It cannot condone the wanton destruction of human life and property, however, and therefore opposes riots and rioting. To do otherwise would be to engage in a war against its own aims and purposes which are "not to injure nor to pain, but to heal the very causes of sorrow, and to help make a better world for all."

These are sentiments of the company that I represent. With your permission I would like to present a copy of this to you, Mr. McNamara, for the record.

(Document marked “Spaulding Exhibit No.1" and retained in committee files.)

Mr. TUCK. We have a roll call in the House of Representatives. It will be necessary for us to recess. I would suggest that we recess until 2:30.

Mr. SPAULDING. Mr. Chairman, with your permission could I read these two last paragraphs which will cover the statement ? And then,

if possible, I should leave here by 3:15 to catch my plane back to Durham, if possible.

Mr. WATSON. Mr. Chairman, so far as I am concerned, I want to commend Mr. Spaulding. He has a wonderful operation in North Carolina. I appreciate the calm and considerate and intelligent manner in which he has approached this problem. In view of his travel plans, I certainly would have no questions.

Mr. Tuck. I would suggest you complete the statement then.
Mr. SPAULDING. I want to cover the question on Communists.

I am not an authority on Communists by training, experience, or association; but from my limited readings and observations, I am of the opinion that Communists never miss an opportunity to capitalize on dissatisfaction, strife, and turmoil no matter what the cause. It is also my feeling that their alliances are more or less “marriages of convenience," subject to being dissolved when it will serve their interest to do so.

I, therefore, doubt that Communists "sincerely have the interests of the Negro at heart," or that they will work with the Negro in his efforts to achieve full equality in this country beyond the point where it means more to the Negro than it does to the Communists and their cause.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee. Mr. TUCK. We thank you very much. We appreciate your taking the time to come here and give the committee the benefit of your views.

Mr. SPAULDING. Thank you. I am very happy to have had the privilege of appearing. STATEMENT OF WHITNEY M. YOUNG, JR., ON BEHALF OF

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE, INC.

Inasmuch as Mr. Young was unable to appear on this date, he submitted the following statement which the chairman authorized to be inserted at this point in the record.

(The statement follows:) STATEMENT BY WHITNEY M. YOUNG, JR., EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, NA

TIONAL URBAN LEAGUE, PREPARED FOR THE HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE, WASHINGTON, D.C., OCTOBER 25, 1967

The chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the U.S. House of Representatives has requested that the National Urban League express its views on two queries by the committee.

The first question is: "Whether rioting, looting, and burning are compatible with the American system of government and whether they will serve to advance the interests of Negro citizens in the United States."

The National Urban League has repeatedly gone on record as opposing violence and rioting. We submit a statement in which we joined with other organizations in expressing this viewpoint. In the light of the deaths, injuries, arrests, and destruction of Negro-owned property this past summer, it is obvious that the interests of Negro citizens are not advanced by riots. This is recognized by the overwhelming proportion of Negro citizens who did not participate in such activities this summer.

It would be a mistake, however, to expect the millions of Americans who have been denied equal rights and who suffer from prejudice, discrimination, jobless

1 See pp. 768, 769.

ness, inadequate housing and education, poor health, and a myriad of other social ills based on poverty and racial discrimination to bear their lot in silence. Their anger at the obvious injustice of their plight and at the lack of massive programs which would end poverty and racism must be recognized. So long as people feel they have nothing to lose, appeals to logic and reason will fail.

The question is not, then, whether rioting is "compatible with the American system of government," but whether the American system of government has been as flexible and as energetic as it should be in including all American citizens in the fruits of our society. If we were to take immediate steps to end the racial gap which condemns a disproportionate number of Negro citizens to poverty and inadequate necessities of life, we would not have to worry about rioting.

The second question posed by the chairman is: "Whether or not Communists sincerely have the interests of the Negro at heart and Negroes therefore can accept them and work with them in their efforts to achieve full equality in this country.”

In every country in which there exists a poor and downtrodden group in the population, the Communists have found their strength in that group. In every country that is, but the United States. The Communist Party has spent much time and effort in wooing the Negro population, all to no avail. If anything, its appeal to the Negro population in the United States has been less than with any other group of citizens.

Negro citizens do not want to change the American way of life. The whole history of Negro efforts to secure equality is an indication that Negro citizens desire, above all else, inclusion on an equal basis in American society.

There is little evidence that Communists have any significant influence on the civil rights movement. Their record is not one which inspires trust among Negro citizens, and Negro citizens do not accept them and do not work with them.

The National Urban League welcomes this opportunity to comply with a request for information by a committee of the United States Congress. The National Urban League, Inc., is a professional community service organization committed to securing equal opportunities for Negroes and other minorities in all areas of American life. It is nonpartisan and interracial in its leadership and staff.

[The joint statement referred to on p. 767 follows:] From: Public Relations Department, National Urban League, 55 East 52nd

Street, New York, N.Y. 10022, (212) 751-0302. Contact: Guichard Parris.

The following is the text of a statement issued jointly by, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, and Whitney M. Young, Jr., on July 26, 1967, and released from the headquarters offices of the NAACP-20 West 40th Street, New York City :

Developments in Newark, Detroit and other strife-torn cities make it crystal clear that the primary victims of the riot are the Negro citizens. That they have grave grievances of longstanding, cannot be denied or minimized. That the riots have not contributed in any substantial measure to the eradication of these just complaints, is by now obvious to all.

We are confident that the overwhelming majority of the Negro community joins us in opposition to violence in the streets. Who is without the necessities of life when the neighborhood stores are destroyed and looted? Whose children are without milk because deliveries cannot be made? Who loses wages because of a breakdown in transportation or destruction of the place of employment? Who are the dead, the injured and the imprisoned ? It is the Negroes who pay and pay and pay, whether or not they are individually involved in the rioting. And what for?

Killing, arson and looting are criminal acts and should be dealt with as such. Equally guilty are those who incite, provoke, and call specifically for such action. There is no injustice which justifies the present destruction of the Negro community and its people.

We who have fought so long and so hard to achieve justice for all Americans have consistently opposed violence as a means of redress. Riots have proved ineffective, disruptive and highly damaging to the Negro population, to the civil rights cause, and to the entire nation. We call upon Negro citizens throughout the nation to forego the temptation to disregard the law. This does not mean

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