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tional established civil rights groups * * *." (Editorial, “Mrs. Richardson's Revolt," vol. III, No. 11, November 1963, p. 1)

“What is needed at this juncture is a truly national Liberation Front with a program aimed squarely at basic changes in our economic and social structuree.g. a planned economy based on public ownership subject to the needs and will of the masses who will hold power-which will make for rapid social advance, freedom and equality.

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“the prospects of victory for our Second Revolution are more than promising; and through it, perhaps, America can at last rejoin the human family.” (James A. Kennedy, "Toward a National Liberation Front,” vol. III, No. 11, November 1963, pp. 19, 20)

"* * * Afro-America lacks adequate leaders. "The acknowledged so-called “Negro leadership” serves as the white man's neutralizer of Black America's struggle. Therefore it will be removed by dedicated younger Black militants who are more responsive to the fundamental needs of the Black Masses.' * (Donald Freeman, “The Cleveland Story," vol. III, No. 6, June 1963, p. 18)

"The white racist policeman in the Black ghetto does not represent law and order for Afro-Americans, he is merely the extension of the repressive economic, political and social system that is imposed on the ghetto by the white power structure. * * *” (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, “Genocide or Murder?” vol. V, No. 8, August 1965, p. 3) "The white power structure which had supported these negro anglo-saxons was calling in the chits. The house niggers responded by saying 'we can't control the natives, they are not one of us. You (whites) must put down the rebellion. We will back you up, as far behind you, as we can get.' * * *” (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, "Watts, L. A.,—The Nation's Shame," vol. V, No. 9, September 1965, p. 3)

“The cry is Black Power. Very curiously, of all the slogans that the so-called civil rights revolution has generated, to date, only the cry of Black power has instill [sic] fear in the hearts of big and little charlie. Why? Why suddenly, the most 'freedom' loving of whites, have been driven from the civil rights circles by the cry of Black power? Is it because after 350 years of struggle we have finally got to where the action is? Power? Black Power?

“Black power! Power to punish, Power to destroy, and above all Power to survive the most brutal system of oppression ever devised by man. * **

"Brothers and Sisters, charlie's finger is on the panic button, let our Black Power help him push it, to hell. T.C.B.” (Daniel H. Watts, editorial, “Audacious' Black Power,” vol. VI, No. 7, July 1966, p. 3)

АСТ ORIGIN:

March 1964 at a conference in Chester, Pa. PURPOSE:

To support local "action groups" in civil rights activity “when their antidiscrimination projects are attacked and 'undercut by the standard civil rights organizations such as the NAACP * * * and the Urban League.'" ORGANIZATION:

ACT leader Julius Hobson has stated that the group is "not a civil rights organization in the classical sense but a revolutionary one in the American tradition."

Chapters were formed in Chicago, Ill. ; New York City; Chester, Pa.; and
Washington, D.C.
KEY LEADERS:

Lawrence Landry_chairman
Stanley Branche
Gloria Richardson
Julius Hobson
John Wilson
Jesse Gray
Nahaz Rogers

ACTIVITIES:

ACT has(1) planned nationwide school boycott in 1964 to protest de facto school

segregation throughout the country; (2) planned a nationwide boycott of California wines and fruits to protest a

voter referendum on housing law. ACT took the position that the right to

open occupancy should not be decided by popular vote; (3) sponsored a 7-day rights offensive, May 24-30, 1965; (4) participated in the attempted "stall-in" at the 1964 New York World's

Fair; (5) organized civil rights school boycotts, buying boycotts, etc. STATEMENTS: JULIUS HOBSON, TAE EVENING STAR (WASHINGTON, D.C.), AS QUOTED IN THE

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, MAY 22, 1967, P. H5866: “ 'You can't make Socialist promises within the Capitalist system. It won't work. I'm a Marxist Socialist, not a Communist, but I don't have any illusions that I can change the system, although I think I can improve it.'” TAE EVENING STAR (WASHINGTON, D.C.), JULY 21, 1967, P. B-1:

Hobson saw the Newark riot of 1967 as “the beginning of the new "Civil War" in the United States.'' JULIUS HOBSON, THE WASHINGTON POST, NOVEMBER 6, 1966, P. A-27:

“We know what colonialism is right here at home,' he said. "We don't have to go to Vietnam to impose the kind of freedom I've enjoyed here. * * *?" NAHAZ ROGERS, THE MILITANT, APRIL 27, 1964, P. 1:

“ 'The old line of making the Negro revolution acceptable by the guidelines of deportment and graciousness that are acceptable to the white community is gone. ACT will not function in a manner that is acceptable to white people. It will do things that are accaptable [sic] to Negroes.'"

ORGANIZATION FOR BLACK POWER ORIGIN:

May 1965 at a conference in Washington, D.C. PURPOSE:

To serve as a political action arm for ACT leaders. "Its aim is to gain political control of major U.S. cities through mobilization and control of the Negro residents.” According to its literature, it “ 'is part of the revolutionary struggle of people all over the world to liberate themselves from the determination of the United States to impose its way of life on the whole world and to build a new world free from exploitation.'" ORGANIZATION:

"Individuals connected with its founding represent various facets of the militant Negro extremist community. The chairman of the organization is Jesse Gray. He is a former Harlem organizer for the Communist Party, USA." “ 'Membership in the Organization for Black Power shall be of organizations and individuals who accept the perspective of Black Power and the discipline of the organization in the struggle for this power.'” (J. Edgar Hoover, Testimony before Appropriations Subcommittee, February 10, 1966, pp. 256, 257.) KEY LEADERS:

Jesse Gray-chairman
Lawrence Landry-Chicago chairman

Julius Hobson-member of steering committee
ACTIVITIES:

At a meeting in Chicago in July 1965 a program was adopted which included the following points : (1) Dissemination of information on “fraudulent nature" of the poverty

program;

(2) Institute a drive in every ghetto to stop all cooperation by the poor with

poverty programs; (3) Campaign to drive the “social work lobby" and their “Negro lackeys"

from the ghettos; (4) Refuse to continue discussions about poverty, civil rights, etc., with

Government social workers; (5) Create immediate programs to deal with Negro "Uncle Toms"; (6) "Train the poor for a nationwide campaign designed to obstruct the

status quo and to force the hand of those seeking to exploit * * * black

people"; (7) "Resolve that militant organizations will cooperate and work with any

and all persons to achieve these goals and objectives."

FREEDOM NOW PARTY
81 E. 125th Street, Suite 207, New York, N.Y. 10035

Tel. MO 2-0681
ORIGIN:

August 28, 1963 (Call for a Freedom Now Party distributed in Washington, D.C.) PURPOSE:

Formed by former Communist Party member Conrad Lynn and Red China travel-ban violator William Worthy for the purpose of running an all-Negro slate of electors in the 1964 elections. ORGANIZATION:

Believed very small.
KEY LEADERS: !.

Conrad Lynn-national chairman
Mrs. Pernella V. Wattleycorresponding secretary
Rev. Albert Cleage--Michigan State chairman

Peter Pierre-chairman, Brooklyn Freedom Now Party
PUBLICATIONS:

None ACTIVITIES:

The Freedom Now Party(1) ran a small slate of candidates for State and local offices in 1964 in Michi

gan and New York, including Paul Boutelle, vice-presidential candidate of the Trotskyist Communists, as candidate for State Senator from

Harlem; (2) ran a total of 39 Negro candidates in 1964 for offices ranging from U.S.

Senator to Wayne County drain commissioner. Single candidates were offered in New York, Connecticut, and California. Greatest strength was in Michigan. However, all Freedom Now Party candidates were soundly defeated.

CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY (CORE) National Office, 135th Street and Seventh Avenue (Harlem), New York City, N.Y. ORIGIN:

Spring 1942

Originally formed as the Committee of Racial Equality by James Farmer and Jim Robinson after they were reluctantly served in a white restaurant in Chicago. Farmer and Robinson, then working for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), drew support from FOR members and picketed the restaurant until full integration was achieved. PURPOSE:

Originally considered one of the more "moderate" civil rights organizations, CORE, since the early 1960's, has gradually increased in militancy and has

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become increasingly separatist, black supremacist, and ideologically aligned with the so-called new left. ORGANIZATION:

CORE claims 80,000 members in 200 chapters.

The organizational structure of CORE consists of a large advisory board and a slate of five officers under which an administrative staff, field staff, field secretaries, and task force workers function. In addition a national action committee oversees the regional operations of the chapters and individual members. KEY LEADERS:

Wilfred Ussery-national chairman
Floyd B. McKissick-national director (1966—to date)
Lincoln 0. Lynch-assoc. national director (1966—to date)

James L. Farmer-national director (1960–1966)'
ACTIVITIES:

In addition to organizing and sponsoring numerous civil rights rallies, demonstrations, and picket lines, CORE, its national leaders and its chapters, have

(1) exhorted Negroes to be ready to “kill for freedom;" (Lincoln 0. Lynch) (2) taken a "Get out of Vietnam" war protest stand nationally and has par

ticipated at the chapter level in nearly every major anti-Vietnam war

demonstration; (3) attempted to unlawfully block traffic leading to the World's Fair in New

York City in 1964; (4) attempted to make a "citizen's arrest” of N.Y. Mayor Robert Wagner

immediately before the Harlem riot of 1964. STATEMENTS: FLOYD McKISSICK, THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, OCTOBER 1, 1967, P. 101: “As long as the white man has all the power and money, nothing will happen because we have nothing. The only way to achieve meaningful change is to take power.'" Emphasis added.] ROBERT CARSON (CHAIRMAN, BROOKLYN CORE), THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE,

OCTOBER 1, 1967, P. 104: "'We will work on our land by day and plan at night for that day when the Negroes and the black people will call us from our forced exile to lead the vanguard, to structure the change which must come about, if we members of the black race are to survive in this country.'' WILLARD D. DIXON, JR., EDITOR, THE BLACK DISPATCH, A CORE PUBLICATION FOR

THE BALTIMORE TARGET CITY PROJECT, AS QUOTED IN THE BALTIMORE SUN,

NOVEMBER 30, 1967, P. C-6: "The police will be barred completely from the ghetto or else suffer the ultimate penalty.'

“ 'The vigilantes will become the legitimate law enforcement agency in the black community' * * *.

NATION OF ISLAM (also known as Muslim Mosque, Inc., and Black Muslims) National headquarters of the Nation of Islam is located at the Central Mosque in Chicago, Ill. (5335 Greenwood Avenue, Chicago, Ill.), and is the home of Elijah Muhammad (Poole), the “Messenger of Allah." ORIGIN:

1931 in Detroit, Michigan

An ex-convict, W. D. Fard (also known as Ford) actually organized the sect with the help of Elijah Poole, a Georgia farm worker. Fard had been released from San Quentin Federal Prison after serving out the term of a narcotics conviction. Fard left Detroit after his followers offered a human sacrifice in 1933. His whereabouts have been unknown since that time. Poole then began teaching that he was the messenger of Allah and that Fard was Allah who had come and gone. Poole served prison term as a WWII draft evader.

1 Farmer is currently chairman of CORE's advisory board.

PURPOSE:

Elijah Muhammad Poole claims to have discovered the lost Nation of Islam at the time Allah (Fard) instructed him to rescue the American Negro from his enslavement” by Christianity and Western culture. The Black Muslims believe that the white man is the devil incarnate and integration with the white man is refused on this basis.

In testimony before the Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations on February 16, 1967, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover stated that the Nation of Islam (NOI) was an "all-Negro, violently antigovernment and antiwhite organization.” Mr. Hoover characterized the NOI as "a very real threat to the internal security of the Nation." ORGANIZATION:

About 70 mosques in as many cities with "an active membership of about 5,500." KEY LEADERS:

Elijah Muhammad Poole-messenger of Allah
Raymond X Sharrieff (real name Raymond Hatchett)-national commander

of the Fruit of Islam and son-in-law of Elijah Muhammad PUBLICATION:

Muhammad Speaks (published twice monthly)
Published by Muhammad's Mosque # 2
634 E. 79th Street, Chicago, Ill. 60619

Alternate address : 5335 S. Greenwood Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
ACTIVITIES:

The Nation of Islam (NOI), through its leadership and newspaper, consistently urged Negroes to refuse to be drafted into the armed services of the U.S. on grounds NOI members do not consider themselves U.S. citizens in the sense of the word. STATEMENTS: ELIJAH MUHAMMAD, “BEWARE OF FALSE PROMISES, SEPARATION OR DEATH!"

MUHAMMAD SPEAKS, JULY 5, 1963, P. 9: “You send armies of heavily-armed policemen to slay the unarmed so-called Negores [sic]. Does this act of murder of unarmed people show that you are brave or cowards? You, like your fathers, hate and despise your slaves, and you beat and murder them daily. And after such inhuman treatment you want them to love you so that you may carry out your evil doings on them without resistance." EDITORIAL, "CAPTIVE NATIONS WEEK,” MUHAMMAD SPEAKS, AUGUST 2, 1963, P. 9:

"Perhaps some sort of Nobel Prize for 'Hypocrisy' should go to those lily-white souls who have the effrontery to conduct "Captive Nation's Week,' a memorial dedicated to concern for the eventual 'freeing of other white souls said to be 'enslaved' behind the Iron Curtain in the midst of the current race crisis." ELIJAH MUHAMMAD, “THE MUSLIM PROGRAM,” MUHAMMAD SPEAKS, JUNE 4, 1965,

PP. 23, 24: "We want the government of the United States to exempt our people from ALL taxation as long as we are deprived of equal justice under the laws of the land.”

“We believe that we who declared ourselves to be righteous Muslims, should not participate in wars which takes the lives of humans. We do not believe this nation should force us to take part in such wars, for we have nothing to gain from it unless America agrees to give us the necessary territory wherein we may have something to fight for.ELIJAH MUHAMMAD, MUHAMMAD SPEAKS, JULY 9, 1965, P. 1: "I have warned you that the Catholic religion, which means the whole of Christianity, is one of the worst enemies of the so-called Negro in the world.

“These people and their religion are so terrible and evil that the Bible (Revelations of John) gave them the name, while prophesying of them, as the beast.' The head of the church (Pope) is referred to as the 'dragon' who aided the 'beast, the ruler, (President of the United States) and gave him the knowledge of how to destroy the people. Rev. 13:4."

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