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for that by the gospel they have their people more obedient unto them than ever they had before. Let them go, I pray you, into those places where at this present, through God's goodness and mercy, the gospel is taught. Where is there more majesty? Where is there less arrogance and iyranny? Where is the prince more honoured? Where is the people less unruly? Where hath there at any time either the commonwealth, or the Church, been in more quiet? Perhaps ye will say, From the first beginning of this doctrine the common sort every where began to rage and rise through Germany. -Allow it were so. Yet MARTIN LUTHER, the publisher and setter forward of this doctrine, did write marvellous vehemently and sharply against them, and reclaimed them home to peace and obedience.
Sect. 8. But whereas it is wont sometime to be objected, by persons wanting skill, touching the Helvetian's [Swiss] change of state, and killing of Leopold duke of Austria, and restoring by force their country to liberty—all that was done, as appeareth plainly by all stories, for two hundred and threescore years past, b or above, in the time of Pope Boniface the Eighth, when the authority of the Bishop of Rome was in greatest jollity ; [in its most flourishing condition ;] about two hundred years before ULRIC ZUINGLE either began to teach the gospel, or yet was born. And ever since that time they have had all things quiet, not only from foreign enemies, but also from all civil dissension. And if it were a sin in the Helvetians [Swiss] to deliver their
e [The subsequent experience of nearly three centuries, has abundantly confirmed Jewell's observation of the influence of Protestant principles in furthering the prosperity of the state. Witness Spain and Italy, the most bigoited io Romanism, and the most degraded, of the nations of Europe-France, and the Papist sections of Germany, in which the lower orders are only less debased than those of Spain and Italy—and contrasted with their stationary, or even retrograde condition, the constant growth of every Protestant power in Europe, since the era of the Reformation. It is a hackneyed remark of travellers, that the prevalence of the Reformation in a section of country may be recognized by the neatness, comfort, and industrious habits of its , population.
6 [The revolt of Switzerland from the dominion of Austria began in 1307; and the Confederacy of the Cantons was forn.ed eight years afterward.)
Qwu country from foreign government, especially when they were so proudly and tyrannously oppressed; yet to burven us with other men's faults, or them with the faults of their forefathers, it is against all right and reason.
Sect. 9. But, О immortal God! and will the Bishop of Rome accuse us of treason? Will he teach the people to obey and follow their magistrates ? Or hath he any regard at all of the majesty of a prince? Why doth he, then, as none of the old bishops of Rome ever did, suffer himself to be called of his flatterers “ Lord of lords," as though he would have all kings and princes, who and whatsoever they be, to be his underlings? Why doth he vaunt himself to be “King of kings," and to have kingly royalty over his subjects? Why compelleth he all emperors and princes to swear to him fealty and true obedience? Why doth he boast, that “ the Emperor's majesty is a thousand fold inferior to him,"d and that for this reason specially, that God hath made two lights in heaven; and because heaven and earth were created, not in two beginnings, but in one ?e Why hath he and his fellows (like Anabaptists and Libertines, to the end they might run on more licentiously and carelessly,) shaken off the yoke, and exempted themselves from being under a civil power? Why hath he his Legates (as much to say, as most subtle spies) lying in wait in all
e["This, I trow, it is, that the Pope proclaimeth himself heir apparent of all kingdoms. This it is, that Pope Nicholas saith, 'CHRISTUS beatro Petro, æternæ vitæ clavigero, terrarum simul, et cælestis imperii jura commisit.' 'Christ hath committed unto Saint Peter, the key. bearer of everlasting life, the right both of the terrestrial, and also of the celestial empire.' (Clementin. Lib. II. De appellation. Pastor. Dist. 22. Omnes.) This is it, that some are bold to say, Papa totius mundi obtinet principatum.' "The Pope hath the principality of the whole world. (In Sexto. Lib. III. Tit. 16. de statu reg.) And that some others have said, 'Papa est rex regum, et dominus dominantium.' "The Pope is king of kings, and lord of lords.'(ANTONIUS DE ROSELLIS.) And that Pope ADRIAN saith of himself: 'Imperator quod habet, totum habet a nobis. Ecce in potestate nostra est, ut demus imperium, cui volemus.' Whatsoever the emperor hath, be hath it of us. It is in our power to bestow the empire upon whom we will.' (Epist. ADBIAN, in AVENTỊNO.)"--Defence, p. 371.]
& INNOCENS De Major, et Obedient. Solite. • Id. ibid,
kings' courts, councils, and privy chambers? Why doth he, when he list, (pleases,] set the Christian princes one against another, and at his own pleasure trouble the whole world with debate and discord ? Why doth he excommunicate, and command to be taken as a heathen and a pagan, any Christian prince that renounceth his authority ?? And why promiseth he his indulgences
f [The first attempt to exercise the power of excommunication against the temporal authorities, was made by Pope Gregory IV. in 832. He became a party in the revolt against the emperor Lewis the Debonair, and threatened the bishops who remained faithful with excommunication. His threats, however, were treated with contempt, and he proceeded no further.
Nicholas I. in 862, first directed this spiritual weapon against a prince, in the person of Lothaire, king of Lorraine, the grandson of Lewis the Debonair; and with success: the circumstances of the monarch being such, that he was forced to submit.
Charles the Bold, uncle of Lothaire, was threatened with excommunication by Adrian II. but without success. .
John VIII. the successor of Adrian, carried his pretensions still higher, He wrote to Charles the Fat, king of France, 'Be content with your own kingdom, for I shall instantly excommunicate all who attempt to injure my son,' (so he called Boson, king of Arles, against whom Charles had formed a league.) In another letter he threatened the same king with immediate excommunication, to be followed by still severer castigation,' if his commands were not obeyed. .
Gregory VII. (known also by his real name HILDEBRAND, the other having been assumed when he was chosen to the pontificate) placed the usurped power of Rome at its highest pitch. A dispute had long existed between the emperors of Germany and the Popes respecting the rights of investiture, i. e. conferring ecclesiastical dignities, which tho emperors claimed to exercise in their own dominions, while the Popes asserted their exclusive right. In process of this dispute, Gregory summoned the emperor Henry IV. to appear at Rome, and answer charges brought against him by his subjects. Henry indignantly refused, and summoning the clergy of his dominions to Worms, declared in council that Gregory should no longer enjoy the Pope lom; the right of confirmation to that high dignity having been clained by former emperors, and allowed by several Popes, and even by Gregory himself,
But now Gregory, availing himself of the intestine discords of the empire, disregarded the sentence of the emperor, and on his part, called a council in the Lateran palace, and solemnly excommunicated Henry, adding the declaration of his deposition from the empire; of the absolrtion of his subjects from their allegiance; and of the unluufulness of further obedience to his quthority.
The emperor's subjects rebelled; his clergy forsook him; and, in despair, he was forced to cross the Alps, and in the most abject manner alone, barefooted, clad in a woollen shirt, exposed to the severity of wina ter-wait three days in an outer court of the Pope's residence, craving absolution. This took place in 1077. The same haughty pontiff menaced Philip I. king of France, with an
and his pardons largely to any that will (what way soever it may be) kill any of his enemies? Doth he maintain empires and kingdoms? Or doth he once desire that common quiet should be provided for?
You must pardon us, good reader, though we seem to utter these things more bitterly and bitingly than it becometh divines to do. For both the shamefulness of the matter, and also the desire of rule in the bishop of Rome, is so exceeding and outrageous, that it could not well be uttered with other words, or more mildly. For he is not ashamed to say in open assembly, that "all jurisdiction of all the kings and princes of the world dependeth of himself."And to feed his ambition and
interdict, and sentence of deposition; claimed the kingdom of Spain as belonging of ancient right, to St. Peter, and by virtue of that right granted territories in Spain, retaken from the Moors, to be held on a Tent payable to the Holy See ; and made similar pretensions to the kingdom of Hungary.
Pope Adrian IV. granted to Henry II. king of England, the crown of Ireland ; on the ground that all islands were the exclusive property of St. Peter.
Innocent III. "announced himself as the general arbiter of differences, and conservator of the peace, throughout Christendom :) and in exercise of the office, issued his mandates, on pain of excommunication and deposition, to almost all the kings of his time, and generally with prompt obedience on their part. It was he who obtained from the feeble John, king of England, the surrender of his crown, to be returned to him as in vassalage to the Pope, on the payment of an annual tribute of a thousand marks : which payment was made, though irregularly, by John, Henry III. and Edward I.; but was at last refused, when demanded, in the reign of Edward III. A. D. 1365.
Martin IV. absolved the subjects of Peter, king of Arragon, from their allegiance, and transferred his crown to a prince of France; though without effect.
Boniface VIII. with equally futile results, claimed the crown of Scotland as belonging to him as paramount lord ; and commanded Edward I. of England to desist from his attempts upon that kingdom.
These instances (gathered from the learned and judicious disquisition on Ecclesiastical Power in HALLAM's History of the Middle Ages) are only some of the number that might be adduced in confirmation of JEWELL's assertions in the text. They are, however, abundantly sufficient to bear out all his statements, and justify his strongest language.]
$ CLEMENS V. in Concilio Viennensi. [The Council of Vienne was held in 1311.
The Papal power had been at its extreme height during the pontificate of Boniface VIII, who died in 1303. From that time it began, not without many ineffectual struggles for its maintenance by its possessors, sensibly to wane, HALLAM, Middle Ages, Vol. II. p. 449, 469, ss, ed. Philad, 1824.]
greediness of rule, he hath pulled in pieces the empire of Rome, and vexed and rent whole Christendom asunder.
Falsely and traitorously also did he release the Romans, the Italians, and himself too, of the oath whereby they and he were straitly bound to be true to the Emperor of Greece, and stirred up the same emperor's subjects to forsake him; and calling Charlemagne out of France into Italy, made him emperor :i such a thing as was never seen before. He put Childeric the French king, being no evil prince, beside his realm, only because he fancied him not;t and wrongfully placed Pepin in
bo [“Notwithstanding, the Pope himself by this bargain lost nothing. Thereof MARSILIUS PATAVINus writeth thus : Pepin, son to Charles the French king, after he had conquered Aristolphus the king of Lombardy, took Ravenna, and all the fine cities of Romondiola, together with the emperor's lieutenants' territory, called the Exarchate, and gave all the same to the Pope. Pope Stephen finding himself well contented with these benefits, and seeing the weakness of the Greek emperor, procured that the empire should be translated from the Greeks unto the French, having utterly forgotten the benefits that he had received of the emperor; to the intent, that the Greeks being utterly oppressed, and the French little caring for these things, he alone might rule in Italy at his pleasure.”—Defence, p. 370.]
i (“Leo the Third, being by violence deprived of his bishopric in Rome, fled for aid to Charles the French king, and by him was restored. In consideration of which benefit, he proclaimed Charles the Emperor of the West.”—Defence, p. 170.
On Christmas day, in the year 800, Charles was named Emperor by acclamation of the assembled clergy and people of Rome, and as their representative, the Pope crowned him with the iron crown. In this act, there does not appear to have been any assumption of temporal power, as the Pope was merely an instrument. The imperial power was already possessed by Charlemagne ; the name of Emperor, it was fancied, must be derived from the Roman people; and as the organ of the degraded mob who then bore that character, the Pope presented his benefactor, who had just before restored him to his dignities, with the symbol of empire.]
a f" The truth of the story is this : forasmuch as Chilperic for Childeric) the king seemed void of princely gravity, and had given himself over to pleasure and wantonness, and Pepin his Lord Marshal (Mayor, or Master, of the Palace, was his title) a man full of wisdom and activity, had the government and burthen of all the realm, the nobles of France, having agreed among themselves to depose the one and to set up the other, sent unto Pope Zachary as unto a wise man, to have his answer to this question, Whether were meeter to be king, he that carried only the name, and did nothing; or he that bare the burthen of the whole? The Pope was soon persuaded to give sentence with Pepin the Lord Marshal, against the king. Whereupon the king was, shorn into an abbey, and made a monk ; Pepin, advanced unto the state,