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how all these titles of antiquity, whereof they boast so much, are quite shaken out of their hands, and that there is more pith in this our cause than they thought for :—we then hope and trust that none of them will be so negligent and careless of his own salvation, but he will at length study and bethink himself to whether part he were best to join him. Undoubtedly, except one will altogether harden his heart, and refuse to hear, he shall not repent him to give good heed to this our Defence, and to mark well what we say, and how truly and justly it agreeth with Christian religion.
Sect. 10. For where they call us Heretics, it is a crime so heinous, that unless it may be seen, unless it may be felt, and in manner may be holden with hands and fingers,’ it ought not lightly to be judged, or believed, when it is laid to the charge of any Christian. For heresy is a forsaking of salvation-a renouncing of God's grace-a departing from the body and spirit of CHRIST.
Sect. 11. But this was ever an old and solemn accustoined] property with them and their forefathers : if any did complain of their errors and faults, and desired to have true religion restored; straightway to condemn such for heretics, as men new-fangled, and factious. CHRIST for no other cause was called a Samaritan, but only for that he was thought to have fallen to a certain new religion and to be the author of a new sect. And Paul, the Apostle of CHRIST, was called before the judges, to make answer to a matter of heresy; and therefore he said : “After the way which they call
tion with Roman is a sufficient condemnation of those who arrogate it to themselves" the Holy Roman Catholic Church !"-how would it sound to talk of the ENGLISH universal Church, or the FRENCH universal Church ? and why not either of these, with as much propriety, as the Roman? It is an unwise concession on the part of Protestants, which affords the partizans of the Papacy no small advantage with the ignorant and inconsiderate, to speak of them by their assumed name of Catholics, and to use the absurd title 'Roman CATHOLIC' when speaking of their Church.]
2 (JEWELL evidently alludes to 1 John i. 1.; considering that passage as having reference to the palpable proofs (as we yet speak) of the truth of Christianity, possessed by the Apostles.]
heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and the prophets."a [In short, all that religion which we Christians now profess, in the beginning of Christianity was, by the Pagans, called a sect or heresy. With these words they filled the ears of princes, that when, out of prejudice they had once possessed their minds with an aversion for us, and that they were persuaded, that whatever we said was factious and heretical, they might be diverted from reflecting upon the thing itself, or even hearing or considering the cause.]
The Method of Defence proposed.
Sect. 1. But the more sore and outrageous a crime heresyd is, the more it ought to be proved by plain and strong arguments ; especially in this time, when men begin to give less credit to their words, and to make more diligent search of their doctrine than they were wont to do. For the people of God are otherwise instructed now than they were in times past, when all the Bishop of Rome's sayings were allowed for gospel,
a Acts xxiv. 14.
b TERTULLIANUS in Apologetico. (c. i. “Nimis operata sectæ hujus infestatio obstruit viam defensioni.” JEWELL alludes to the primitive acceptation of the word heresy, in the signification of a sect, or schismatic party, rather than the errors embraced by such a sect or party.]
The paragragh included in brackets is not contained in the folio edition of the Apology. As it is in the Latin, and is alluded to in the Defence, it has been added froin the Fathers of the English Church, Vol. VII. p. 13.]
d (Here Jewell uses the word in the sense affixed to it in times posterior to the Apostolic age, and subsequently admitted into exclusive use,-that of the maintenance of false doctrine, or opinions contrary to the word of God.)
(How little exaggeration there is in this application of a common saw, appears by JEWELL's defence of it against HARDING's exceptions. “In the late new Council of Lateran (that held in the Lateran at
OF and when all religion did depend only upon their authority. Now-a-days, the holy Scripture is abroad, the writings of the Apostles and Prophets are in print, whereby all truth and Catholic doctrine may be proved," and all heresy may be disproved and confuted.
Since then they bring forth none of these for themselves, and call us nevertheless heretics, which have neither fallen from CHRIST, nor from the Apostles, nor yet from the Prophets, this is an injurious and a very spiteful dealing.
Sect. 2. With this sword did Christ put off the devil, when he was tempted of him :: with these weapons ought all presumption which doth advance itself against GOD, h to be overthrown and conquered. For 6 all Scripture," saith St. Paul, “is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness : that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.” Thus did the holy fathers always fight against the heretics with none other force than with the holy Scriptures.
St. AUGUSTINE, when he disputed against PETILIAN, the Donatist heretic: “Let not these words," quoth he, “ be heard between us, I say, or, You say: let us rather speak in this wise: Thus saith the Lord. There
Rome in 1512—1517] under Pope Leo [the Tenth] these words are openly pronounced, and well allowed of:-" In Papa est omnis potestas, supra omnes potestates, tam cæli, quam terræ.' 'In the Pope is all power, above all powers, as well of heaven as of earth.' Conc, Lat. Sess. 10. in oratione Ep. Petracensis."- "Sylvester Prierias, late Master of Pope Leo's palace, writeth thus: 'Indulgentiæ authoritate Scripturæ non innotuere nobis, sed authoritate Ecclesiæ Romanæ, Romanorumque Pontificum, quæ major est.' 'Pardons [the Romisli indulgences*] are not warranted unto us by the authority of God's word, but by the authority of the Roman Church, and of the Bishops of Rome, which is greater. If this be not sufficient, he addeth further, 'a doctrina Romanæ Ecclesiæ et Romani Pontificis, Sacra Scriptura robur et authoritatem trahit.' The holy Scripture taketh strength and authority of the doctrine of the Bishop and Church of Rome.' Sylv. Prierias contra Lutherum." Defence, p. 49.] f 2 Timothy iii. 16, 17.
© Matt. iv. Heb. iv. 12. h 2 Cor. x. 4, 5.
* See Standard Works, Vol. II. p. 121.
let us seek the Church: there let us boult out the cause."i
Likewise St. JEROME : “All those things,” saith he, “ which without the testimony of the Scriptures are holden, as delivered from the Apostles, be thoroughly smitten down by the sword of God's word."k
i AUGUSTINUS de Unitate Ecclesiæ, c. 3. The same sentiment is also found in his book Contra Maximin. Arianor. Episc. Lib. iii. c. 14. ["St. AUGUSTINE, in the same matter, and against the same heretic, Petilian, although not in the same book, writeth thus : 'Sive de CHRISTO, sive de ejus Ecclesia, sive de quacunque re alia quæ pertinet ad fidem vitamque nostram, non dicum si nos, sed, si angelus de cælo, nobis annunciaverit præterquam quod in Scripturibus legalibus et evangelicis accepistis, Anathema sit.' "Whether it be of CHRIST, or of his Church, or of any thing else whatsoever pertaining either to our life or to our faith, I will not say, if I, but if an angel from heaven, shall teach us otherwise than we have received in the books of the Law and in the Gospels, hold him accursed.' Contra Liter. Petilian. Lib. ii. c. 6." Defence, p. 57; where JEWELL quotes several other passages from AUGUSTIN, AMBROSE, CHRYSOSTOM, and ORIGEN, to the same purpose, and full as strong.
AUGUSTINE, or, as the name is often abbreviated, Austin, was bishop of Hippo, in Africa, in the early part of the fifth century. After a dissipated youth, he embraced the errors of the Manichees, which he renounced in his 32d year, being converted partly by the preaching of AMBROSE, bishop of Milan, partly by the perusal of St. Paul's epistles. He was ordained priest in 388 or 389, and at the request of Valerius, then Bishop of Hippo, consecrated joint bishop of that diocese in 393.
His talents, and ardent disposition, rather than any extraordinary degree of learning, brought him forward prominently in the religious disputes of his day. In those with the Donatist schismatics, with his former associates the Manicheans, and with the Pelagians, he was the acknowledged champion of the Church. His zeal against the Pelagians drove him into the contrary extreme, and, his ignorance of the Greek language probably helping not a little, produced that system which, revived and set in its strongest light by Calvin, has derived its name from that reformer.
AUSTIN is without doubt the most eminent, and perhaps the most useful of the later Latin fathers. His writings gave the tone to LuTHER's opinions, which afterwards led to his rejection of the entire body of Romish error.]
* In Primum Cap. Aggai. “Sed et alia quæ absque authoritate et testimoniis Scripturarum, quasi traditione Apostolica, reperiunt atque confingunt, percutit gladius Dei."
[In the text the word alia (other) is improperly rendered as if it had been omnia (all.] The mistake was pointed out, in no gentle terms, by HARDING, and is acknowledged by JEWELL, who observes, however, that the pertinency of the declaration of JEROME to his argument is not affected by the change. That writer had been treating of errors for which authority from the word of Gop had been pretended,
St. AMBROSE also, to Gratian the Emperor : “ Let the Scripture,” saith he, “be asked the question ; let the Prophets be asked ; and let Christ be asked.”]
and had said that the same word afforded a sufficient confutation of those false pretensions. He then adds that other errors, pretending only 'apostolical tradition for their support, were irrefragably destroyed by the same 'sword of the Spirit.' The inference that he regarded pretended apostolical authority, unsupported by the Scriptures, as insufficient, remains as strong as though the reading in the text were correct.
JEROME (in Latin HIERONYMUS) is, of all the Latin fathers, the most renowned for eloquence and learning. He was born at Stridon, a city in Pannonia, (now Hungary,) in 331. After travelling extensively, embracing a recluse life in a desert in Syria, and quitting it in consequence of persecution, he received holy orders, in Jerusalem, about the 45th year of his age, but with a stipulation on his own part, to be confined to the charge of no particular congregation. He subsequently visited Constantinople and Rome, in which last city he received the appointment of secretary to Damasus, then its bishop. At Rome he instructed several ladies of high rank in the languages and the Holy Scriptures. Fancied ill treatment from Siricius, the successor of Damasus, drove him again to Syria, where he resided in a monastery at Bethlehem, until his death in 420.
The works of JEROME are voluminous, and diversified in their character and subjects. The best are those on Sacred literature, and his Epistles. The Latin translation of the Bible, recognized as the only authentic version by the Church of Rome, and known as the Vulgate, is his production.
JEROME's learning far surpassed both his judgment and his Christian temper. Meekness, and patience under injuries and opposition, formed a very small proportion of his character; and even his regard for truth was not always proof against the keenness of his resentment, or his thirst for victory.]
1 Ad Gratianum de Fide, Lib. I. “Interrogentur Scripturæ; interrogentur Apostoli; interrogentur Prophetæ ; interrogetur CHRISTUS."
TAMBROSE, bishop of Milan from 375 to 397, was raised to that dignity by popular acclamation, in the 41st year of his age, when he was only a catechumen. His eloquence and blameless life, together with his successful interference, as governor of the city, to appease the tumultuous contest between the Catholics and Arians respecting the choice of a bishop, procured him this unexampled honour. The firm dignity and holy zeal with which he discharged the duties of his office, during times full of trouble and distress, showed that it had not been ill bestowed. The anecdote of his excluding the emperor Theodosius from communion, on account of the massacre at Thessalonica, is well known. His victory over the Pagan orator Symmachus, in the dispute respecting the re-erection of the temple of Victory, is not less celebrated. His oration on that occasion is still extant.
AMBROSE, as might be expected from the circumstances of his elevation to the episcopate, was a better moralist than theologian. His writings are full of warmth and practical devotion, but not distinguished for solidity or sound Scriptural knowledge.]