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our Saviour Jesus Christ, to reprove the negligence of the Scribes and Pharisees in teaching, did with these words rebuke them, saying, “ Woe unto you Scribes and Pharisees ! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge, and have shut up the kingdom of heaven against men."
Seeing then the key whereby the way and entry to the kingdom of Godis opened unto us, is the word of the gospel, and the expounding of the Law and Scriptures; we say plainly, where the same word is not, there is not the key. And seeing one manner of word is given to us all, and one only key belongeth to all, we say, there is but one only power of all ministers, as concerning opening and shutting. And as touching the Bishop of Rome, for all that his flattering parasites sing these words in his ears-6 to thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven,"(as though these keys were fit for him alone, and for nobody else) except he go so to work as men's consciences may be made pliant, and be subdued to the word of God, we deny that he doth either open or shut, or hath the keys at all. And although he taught, and instructed the people (as would God he might once truly do, and persuade himself that it were at the least any piece of his duty!) yet we think his key never to be a whit better, or of greater force than other men's. For who hath severed him from the rest? Who hath taught him more cunningly to open, or better to absolve, than his brethren?
Sect. 10. Marriage.-We say that matrimony is holy and honourable in all sorts and dates of persons; as in the Patriarchs, in the Prophets, in the Apostles, in the holy Martyrs, in the Ministers of the Church, and in Bishops: and that it is “an honest and lawful thing," as ChrysOSTOM saith, " for a man, living in matrimony, to take upon him therewith the dignity of a Bishop."
And, as SoZoMEN saith of Spiridion,h and as NAZIAN: ZEN saith of his own father, we say, that “a good and diligent bishop doth serve in the ministry never the worse for that he is married, but rather the better, and with more ableness to do good.'
e [Here, again, Jewell evidently quotes from memory, and has mingled two texts; (Matt. xxiii. 13. Luke xi. 52.) without, however, in the least altering the sense or application of either.]
i Matt. xvi. 19. 5 Chrysost. Hom. 11. in Tit. i. So THEOPHYLACT, ad Titum i. 6. . i SOZOMENI Hist. Eccles. Lib. I. c. xi, Eyéve to yap butos üyPoixos,
Further we say, that the same law which by constraint taketh away this liberty from men and compelleth them against their wills to live single, is “the doctrine of devils," as Paul saith ;k and that ever since the time of this law, a wonderful uncleanness of life and manners in God's ministers, and sundry horrible enormities,'have followed; as the Bishop of Augusta,m as FABER,"
γαμετών και παιδας έχων· αλλ' και παρά τουτο τα θεια χείρων. "He was a husbandman, married and having children : but not the worse on that account in relation to divine matters."
1 GREGORIUS NAZIANZENus in Epitaphio Patris. Αλλά και αρχηγός γίνεται έργω τε και λόγω προς τα κράτισα-δι' εαυτης άγουσα της ευσεβείας, duk åtoxuvouévn mapéxeiv čavrny kai didáokalov. My mother, being given to my father of God, became, not only his helper, for that had been no great wonder, “but also his leader, both by word and by deed training him unto the best," and albeit in other things it were best for her to be subject unto her husband, for the right of marriage, " yet in religion and godliness she doubted not to become his mistress.' (Quoted in the Defence, p. 184.]
1 Tim. iv. 1. I of these enormities, the accounts of the visitation of the monas, teries in England by command of Henry VIII. given by Fuller, in the seventh book of his Church History, and by Burnet, in the Appendix to the first volume of his History of the Reformation, furnish melancholy, and but too abundant proofs. And that these effects are not confined to that age, is evident from the similar details relative to monastic institutions in Tuscany at the close of the last century, which may be found in the Life of Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. See the Quarterly Theological Review, Vol. iv. p. 261. ss.)
m (HULDERIC, or UDALRIC, Bishop of Augusta in Germany, consecrated in 925 : “ for his virtue and holiness counted a saint," says JEWELL, Defence, p. 191.]
n (F'ABER, generally quoted by the name of FABER STAPULENSIS, in his native language Jacques le Fevre, of Estaples, could scarcely be quoted, with fairness, as 'a champion of the Pope's hand,' although he never formally renounced the errors of Popery. He was born about the year 1435. He taught the mathematics with much reputation at Paris, until theological disputes with the Faculty of the Sorbonne forced him to leave that city. Subsequently, he returned, and filled the honourable station of preceptor to the third son of the king, Francis I. His opinions becoming daily more suspected, he finally retired for peace and safety to Nerac, where the advocates of reformation were protected by the queen of Navarre. There he died, in 1537, a hundred and one years old. Commentaries on the Psalms, the Gospels, the Epistles of Paul, and the Catholic Epistles-an edition of the Psalter in Hebrew,
as Abbas Panormitanus,• [the Abbot of Palermo,] as LATOMUS, P as the Tripartite Work, [Opus Triparti
with four versions in parallel columns--and a French translation of the Bible--are his principal works. The circumstances of his death are too interesting to be omitted; especially as they prove how little Faber had in him of the 'Romish champion, yet at the same time add weight to his expressed opinions.
“Queen Margaret sent hin word that she would dine with him at his cottage at Nerac. She brought with her some learned persons, in whose society she took great delight, and a pleasing and edifying conversation was sustained; but in the midst of the repast the aged professor burst into tears. " Jacques !" said her majesty, "you ought to be in good spirits to-day, now I am come to dine with you." "Madam, I am a hurdred and one years of age ; as to immoral acts, I bless God I have been graciously preserved from them ; but-but, there is one thing, my queen, one thing that lies on my consciencewhich vet. I trust. may be forgiven me !"_" Come, come “tell me what it is." "Madam, how shall I stand before the bar of God! I, who have preached the holy Gospel of his Son to so many who have followed my doctrine, and have met a thousand torments, and death itself, with constancy--while I, their teacher, fled-fled from persecution—and have lived to this advanced age--though it ought to have been my earnest desire to fear death in no shape and privately withdrew myself, and basely deserted the post allotted me by my God." When the queen and her friends had comforted the weeping patriarch by assurances of the Divine forgiveness of unfaithfulness, both from reason and example, he added, " Then nothing remains for me now, but to depart hence to Gov, if it be his pleasure, as soon as I have made my will; nor ought I to delay, for I think God has called me. I appoint you, Madam, my heir; all my books I bequeath to your chaplain, M. Gerrard; my clothes, and whatever else I have, I leave to the poor; the rest I commend to God.” “Why, Jacques,” said Margaret, smiling, " what shall I get by being your heir ?"--" The office, Madam, of dis tribution to the poor.” “Be it so!" replied the amiable princess; "and here I solemnly declare, that this inheritance is more pleasing to me, than if my brother, the King of France, had nominated me to all his possessions." The old man's countenance brightening, he said, "Now, O Queen, I require some rest; may you all be happy together! mean. while, farewell !" He lay down on a couch, and fell into a gentle dose. After a little time one of the party went to wake him, but his spirit had departed."'-Hub. THOME LEODII Annal. L. xi. de reb. gest. Frid. II. Elect. Pal. pp. 229, 230. Quoted by MIDDELTON, Lives of the Reformers, Vol. II. p. 239. s.]
• [By this name it was customary to cite the famous canonist Nicolas TUDESCHI. He was Archbishop of Palermo, assisted in the Council of Basle, was created Cardinal and Legate a latere by the anti-Pope Felix, and died at Palermo in 1445. He left a great number of works, principally on the canon law, comprised in 9 folio volumes. So great was the estimation in which these were held, that they obtained for the author the epithet Lucerna Juris, "the lamp of the law.”]
p [JACORUS LATOMUS was a scholastic theologian of the sixteenth century, celebrated for his controversial writings against Luther, and
ccasion k the CC nject ? pocrypha
already bee apo nove
tum,) which is annexed to the second Tome of the Councils, and other champions of the Pope's handyea, and as the matter itself, and all histories, do con. fess. For it was rightly said by Pius THE SECOND, Bishop of Rome, that " he saw many causes why wives should be taken away from priests : but that he saw many more, and more weighty, causes why they ought to be restored to them again.”
Sect. 11. The Scriptures. We receive and embrace all the canonical Scriptures, both of the Old and New
his part in the debates occasioned by the Reformation. He died in 1544.
9 (Better known by the name of Æneas Sylvius, that which he bore before his accession to the Papal dignity. He was a native of the district of Sienna, in Italy, and was elected Pope in 1458. Previously to that time, during the sitting of the Council of Basle, he had written in defence of the authority of that Council, against the Pope. But when invested with his new dignity, he issued a bull forbidding appeals to a future General Council, and another retracting what he had formerly advanced. He was a man of strong mind and great learning, but little principle.]
r (From this general expression, JEWELL's Romish antagonist takes occasion to cavil, asking, “Why do ye not here plainly declare which be the books of Scripture that ye allow, and which they be that ye reject ?"'—for the Church of Rome considers those books which we call apocryphal, a part of Scripture. The enumeration of the books allowed by Protestants as canonical was not incumbent upon Jewell, as it had already been made in the VIth Article. That the difference there made is no novelty, but based upon, and supported by, the testimony of the primitive Church, is shown by Jewell in his Defence,
“We embrace and reverence every parcel and tittle of the Scriptures without exception, not refusing any part thereof that hath been allowed by the ancient, learned, catholic fathers of the Church of God.
"We deny no more than by St. AUGUSTINE, ST. JEROME, and other holy catholic fathers hath been denied.
“St. CYPRIAN saith : ' Alii libri sunt qui non Canonici, sed Ecclesiastici appellantur, &c. Hujus ordinis est libellus Tobiæ, ct Judith, et Machabæorum libri.'--'oiher books there be that are not called Canonical, but only Ecclesiastical, for that they be allowed to be read in churches. Of this sort are the books of Tobit, of Judith, and of the Maccabees.' (in Expositione Symboli.) .
"St. JEROME saith: 'Machabæorum libros legit quidem Ecclesia ; sed eos inter canonicas Scripturas non recipit.' -- The Church indeed readeth the books of Maccabees; but receiveth them not among the canonical Scriptures. (in Proæmio in Prov. Salomon.)
“AUGUSTINE saith : In Machabæorum libris etsi aliquid mirabilium numero inserendum conveniens fuisse ordini inveniatur, de hoc tamen nulla cura fatigabimur : quia tantum agere proposuimus, ut de divini Testament; giving thanks to our God, who hath raised up unto us that light, which we might ever have before our eyes, lest either by the subtlety of man, or by the snares of the devil, we should be carried away to errors and lies. Also we profess that these be the heavenly voices, whereby God hath opened unto us His will ; and that only in them can man's heart have settled rest: that in them be abundantly and fully comprehended all things, whatsoever be needful for our health ; as OriGEN, AUGUSTINE, CHRYSOSTOM, and CYRIL, have taught: that they be the very might and strength of God to attain unto salvation :t that they be the “ foundation of the apostles and prophets,”u whereupon is built the Church of God: that they be the very sure and infallible rule, whereby may be tried whether the Church do swerve or err, and whereunto all ecclesiastical doctrine ought to be called to account: and that against these Scriptures neither law, nor ordinance, nor any custom, ought to be heard—no, “though Paul himself, or an angel from heaven," should come and teach the contrary.'
Sect. 12. The Sacraments. Moreover, we allow the Sacraments of the Church, that is to say, certain
Canonis mirabilibus exiguam expositionem tangeremus.' _' Although there may be something found in the books of the Maccabees meet for this order of writing, [the extract is from a Treatise on Miracles) and worthy to be joined with the number of' miracles; yet hereof we will have no care, for that we intended only to touch a short rehearsal of the miracles contained in the books of the holy Canon.' (De Mirabilibus Sacræ Scripturæ, Lib. II. cap. 34.) Here AUGUSTINE telleth you, that the books of the Maccabees are no part of the Canonical Scriptures, and that therefore he will make none account of the miracles therein contained.
“ Again, these be St. AuguSTINE's words : ‘Hæc supputatio non in Scripturis Sanctis, quæ appellantur Canonicæ, sed in aliis invenitur, in quibus sunt et Machabæorum libri.'--' This reckoning is not found in the Holy Scriptures, that are called Canonical, but in certain other books, among which are the books of Maccabees.' (De Civitat. Dei. Lib. xviii. cap. 36."--Defence, p. 197.]
o(" The prophet David saith : “Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.” (Ps. cxix. 105.) And again, "The commandment of the Lord is pure, (JEWELL has it, from the old translation, 'lightsome,'] enlightening the eyes.' (Ps. xix. 8.) And THEOPHYLACT saith : 'The word of God is the candle, whereby the thief (or false teacher) is espied." "--Defence, p. 196.)
t Rom. i. 16. . u Eph. ï. 20. • Gal. i. 8.