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Of the utmost importance to the Church which he adorned, these controversial writings of Jewell gave him a full and undisputed title to the praise of being her most strenuous and efficient advocate. None could have accounted him idle, or unworthy of his office, had he devoted the ten years during which they appeared, to little else than the composition of so many and such voluminous productions on subjects requiring extensive research and cautious accuracy. Yet these were but the occupations of his leisure hours. During all this. interval, the peculiar duties of his office in the Church were discharged as punctually and as thoroughly as if they alone had been his care.
After his consecration, he remained in the metropolis a few months, occasionally preaching, and probably occupied by his correspondence with Dr. Cole. He took up his residence in his diocese in autumn, and with a slight interruption by a visit to London in the spring of 1561,t continued it until called to attend the Convocation of 1562–3.
This interval was spent in the most assiduous attention to the business of his diocese. He found every thing, at his entrance, in the most disordered state. The revenues of the see diminished—its property dilapidated the ecclesiastical courts filled with scandalous abuses—the cathedral chapter wholly corrupt and irre. gular—the livings of the diocese in the hands of laymen, or unworthy clergymen, fattening on accumulated plu-ralities, while their pulpits were unfilled, and their flocks. famishing for want of the bread of life :-all these things required no common energy and zealous industry for their redress. Jewell set about the work without delay, and without neglecting any part of the varied mass of business.—Deeming himself bound to transmit the revenues of his see unimpaired to his successors, he was firm in resisting the numerous attempts at encroachment which it was the fashion of the times to make and countenance; and extended the same care to the other
s It is certain, from one of his letters, that he had not gone to his diocese, May 22. The correspondence with Cole closed in July, and was published by Jewell in August. November 2, he had been in his diocese (some time.' BURNET, Hist. of Ref. III. 293.
· He preached at St. Paul's April 13, 1561. STRYPE.
benefices under his control. Yet he was still more careful to show, by the manner in which he applied those revenues, that he considered himself but as a usufructuary, and strictly accountable to God and to the Church for their employment. The relief of the poor, the maintenance of needy students, the augmentation of insufficient livings in his diocese, the recompense of preachers to supply the more pressing wants of destitute parishes ;—such were the objects to which he devoted his episcopal income, little diminished by the maintenance of his frugal household, and nothing by expenditure upon himself.
His doors were always open to the poor; and he was at all times ready to listen to their complaints, and, if in his power, afford or procure relief. His bounty to the needy among his foreign friends has already been mentioned. Even the prisons were objects of his watchful benevolence, which frequently provided necessaries for their suffering inmates.
The decay of learning, especially among the clergy, and the extreme want of well-educated pious men to fill the many vacant cures, was a common subject of lamentation at that period, among all who felt anxiety for the growth of true religion. Jewell continually introduces it in his sermons, with the most pathetic and stirring exhortations to all possessed of influence and wealth, to employ those gifts for the advancement of God's glory by the restoration of sound learning and the maintenance of a competent clergy. His own example was the best enforcement of these exhortations. Six poor youths were constantly maintained in his family, and educated under his own eye. His greatest almost his only, recreation, was to witness their debates on the subjects of their studies, to moderate, and to assist, while he enjoyed his frugal meal. Beside these,
u As an instance of this, it is related that a person at court, having by some means obtained the control of a prebend in Salisbury cathedral, and being anxious to transfer it to another layman, applied to Bishop Jewell for his confirmation of the project; adducing the opinions of several lawyers in its favor. What your lawyers may answer,' was the bishop's reply, 'I know not : but for my part, to my power, I will take care that my church shall sustain no loss while I live.' FEATLY'S Life, p. 8.
several more were maintained at the University by his bounty, and fostered into piety and scholarship by his paternal counsels and supervision. The immortal HOOKER was among the number of these beneficiaries, from the very commencement of Jewell's bounties with his entrance on his office. Seven years he received from the good bishop a yearly pension for his schooling; and in 1567, was sent, under his patronage, to Oxford ; the stipend being still continued, and eked out to a sufficient maintenance by college promotions, obtained by the bishop's interest.
The administration of justice in the ecclesiastical and temporal courts, occupied no inconsiderable portion of Jewell's time. The former he did not think it right to intrust to his chancellor, the officer who presided as his representative; but in person investigated the abuses for
Izaak WALTON's simple narrative of the last interview of the young student with his kind protector, is too interesting to be omitted.
During the last year of Jewell's life, Hooker had been two months dangerously ill. "As soon as he was perfectly recovered from his sickness, he took a journey from Oxford to Exeter, to satisfy and see his good mother, being accompanied with a countryman and companion of his own college, and both on foot; which was then either more in fashion, or want of money, or their humility made it so: But on foot they went, and took Salisbury in their way, purposely to see the good bishop, who made Mr. Hooker and his companion dine with him at his own table ; which Mr. Hooker boasted of with much joy and gratitude, when he saw his mother and friends : and at the bishop's . parting with him, the bishop gave him good counsel, and his benediction, but forgot to give him money; which when the bishop had considered, he sent a servant in all haste to call Richard back to him; and at Richard's return, the bishop said to him, “Richard, I sent for you back to lend you a horse which hath carried me many a mile, and
í thank God, with much ease;' and presently delivered into his hand a walking-staff, with which he professed he had tra
ed he had travelled through many parts of Germany.--And he said, 'Richard, I do not give, but lend 'you my horse; be sure you be honest, and bring my horse back to me at
your return this way to Oxford. And I do now give you ten groats, "to bear your charges to Exeter; and here is ten groats more, which i
charge you to deliver to your mother, and tell her, I send hera bishop's "benediction with it, and beg the continuance of her prayers for me. "And if you bring my horse back to me, I will give you ten groats
more, to carry you on foot to the college : and so God bless you, my 'goodRichard.
"And this, you may believe, was performed by both parties. But alas ! the next news that followed Mr. Hooker to college was, that his learned and charitable patron had changed this for a better life.” Walton's Lives, ed. Zouch, 4to. p. 212, s.
which the so-called spiritual courts had become notorious, and applied the proper remedies as far as was in his power. In the temporal courts he deemed it his duty to be often present, in discharge of his official functions as a justice of the peace; though he is said to have seldom intermeddled, except when his opinion was asked concerning some religious or ecclesiastical matter.
But the purely spiritual duties of his office were those in which he most delighted, and to which he devoted the greatest portion of his time. To preach the word of God himself, and to see that it was preached by others in sincerity and power, he deemed the great business of his life, and acted up to that persuasion.He suffered no opportunity of discharging this duty to pass unembraced ; in his cathedral, in the parishes near his residence, in his frequent visitations of his diocese, in his visits to particular districts, nay even in the courts of justice, he was constantly employed in declaring and enforcing the word of God. His sermons' at Paul's Cross-the watch-tower of the Church-have been already mentioned; they were continued, whenever he visited the metropolis, to the very year of his death. His frequent and earnest exhortations to his clergy, to candidates for orders, to communicants, and even to persons about to give evidence in court, are recorded by his biographer." A fragment of his stated courses of sermons on the nature and uses of the Sacraments, delivered in his cathedral church, is handed down to us in a posthumous work.x His full and continuous expositions of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, delivered in the same way, are known only by name. In the Expositions of the Epistles to the Thessalonians,y we have a specimen of the groundwork of his expository lectures on those epistles, Galatians, First Peter, a great part of the Book of Acts, and
w HUMFREDI Vita, p. 110.
* A Treatise of the Sacraments, gathered out of certain Sermons, which the Rederend Father in God, Bishop Jewell, preached at Salisbury, published, with thirteen entire sermons, 'preached before the Queen's Majesty, at Paul's Cross, and elsewhere,' by GARBRAND, in 1583.
y These were, according to HUMPHREY, almost his latest occupation-'fere in Sarisburiensi ecclesia postrema cantio. They were not published until 1594, when they appeared in 8vo.
the Epistles and Gospels for all the Sundays and festivals in the year. The Treatise of the Holy Scriptures, and the View of a Seditious Bull sent into England, (the Bull of Pius IV. excommunicating and pretending to dethrone Elizabeth,) are additional relics of his indefatigable pastoral labours.
Great as those labours were, there was need of them all. “In doing this work and treading this press,' says HUMPHREY in his quaint style,' he was almost alone. He had few assistants in his diocese, who either could or would share his labours. So great was the scarcity of faithful evangelists; so extreme the want of labourers in the LORD's vineyard ! It was when exhorted to procure assistance in these arduous exertions, and reminded of Jethro's advice to Moses, that he made the reply already quoted, pleading the insufficiency of his revenues to procure substitutes on whom a portion of his personal labours might be devolved.
Such were the occupations in the midst of which he composed those controversial writings that have perpetuated his fame, and raised an imperishable monument to his learning and his talents.
The Convocation in 1562–3 caused a considerable interruption in Jewell's pastoral labours. It is certain that he took an active part in its proceedings; although what that part was, is not recorded. He was one of the compilers of the second Book of Homilies, but which are from his pen has not been specified. Whether he was concerned in the revision of the Articles is uncertain, although the part assigned him in their official publication in 1571, 2 renders it probable that he was. It is equally unascertained whether he was one of the translators of what is called the Bishop's Bible, from its hav. ing been the production of several of the bishops under the direction of Archbishop Parker.
After his return from the Convocation he appears to have been closely resident in his diocese until July 1565. a
? He moved in the Convocation of 1571, the printing of an authentic copy of the Articles, under its authority. The motion passed, and he was directed to superintend its execution.
a So closely, that in a letter to Bullinger, after stating that he is kept busy with the attacks of the Papists, he declares that it is two years