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war, Prayaga, Uttarobahimi, and Gangasgar; with this they make the Adishekam, or aspersion of the god, the Vaidyanath Lingam, and worship him with sandal and flowers, &c. Any person who brings the water from each of these five places, and presents them for three years to the god Vaidyanath Swami, will undoubtedly obtain his desires. It is said that the pilgrims bring every year one lack of carboys, and present them. North of the temple of Vaidyanath Swami is a temple called Sitta Ramaswami, in which are placed five images, called Bharata, Satrughna, Rama, Lakhsmana, and Sita. On the north of this is the temple of the goddess Chandi or Kali, where sheep and goats are offered in sacrifice. On the south side of the temple of Vaidyanath Swami is the temple of Bhairava Lala, in which is an image. All the travellers, as they pass, exclaim, Bham Vaidyanath, or Bhairavalal-ji. This last resembles a Bauddha image, sitting in the posture called pad
masanam: the statue is of the height of
four cubits, and wears a yogapattali, or cloth bound across the breast. The people say that this image is the Khazanchi, or treasurer of the god Vaidyanath Swami; on the north of the village is a large tank. 'eb. 10. Arrived at Bhagalpur, having left Vaidyanath on the 7th. Bhagalpur is a large town, where the Collector and Judge reside. In the city is a Jain temple, in which is placed the Padam, or the sculptured feet of the god Vasupujya Tirthakara, who obtained mocsham, or salvation, at this place. It is said that this temple was established formerly, by the king Srenika Maha Rajah, and in the front of that temple," stood
two pillars or turrets, built with choonam and bricks, of the height of two cocoanuttrees. It is said that, about four centuries ago, there was a merchant named Manikya Chund, of the Jaina sect, who dwelt at this city. He built four pillars of the same size at this place, and laid a terrace upon them, standing upon which every morning after he rose, he could see the hill of Sumedha Parvattam, and so visit the temples of that sacred place. Of the four pillars, two have disappeared entirely; the other two are still in good condition, in the front of the feet of Vasupujya Tirthakara. At the bottom of the pillar, on the left hand, is a bil, or hole, into which it seems a man can pass: the Jain pilgrims, after worshipping the sculptured feet of Vasupujya, proceed to the mouth of that hole, and cast into it, cocoa-nuts, cardamoms, nutmegs, sweetmeats, &c. It is said that there are many Jain images in that cavity, and that all the ancient sages were accustomed formerly to go into the cavern to visit those images. On the east and north of the temple of Vasupujya are two tanks, and between them is a mango grove, where the pilgrims encamp.– Oriental Magazine.
* This temple, however, is now only a small brick room, in a niche of which the black stone with the sculptured feet of Vasupujya, is erected on particular occasions ; at other seasons it is in the charge of a Brahmin, who lives in the adjoining village. There is no connexion apparently *tween this stone and the turrets, and its date docs not, therefore, affect the account given in the
text of the period of their erection. Some pains have been taken by Colonel Franklin to establish for these turrets an antiquity of 2,535 years (lnquiry, &c. part i. 50) derived from the supposed date of 2,559 upon the slab, and which he refers to the period of Yudhishthir, or, what is the same thing, that of the Kali-Yug, of which 4,900 years have elapsed. The whole of his translation, however, is very incorrect; and it contains one phrase which overturns the pretensions of the inscription to a remote origin: this is, “Inhabitant of the fair city of Jayapoor,” but the fair city of Jaypur is not a century old, being built in the reign of Mohammed Shah. The word “City,” however, does not occur; the term is St'han (place), and the district must be intended, as the stone does contain a prior date, in two forms, indeed, one confirming the other, or Samvat 1698 (A. D. 1636), and the other Saka 1559 (A.D. 1639); the real date, therefore, of this very ancient record. The turrets of Bhagalpur are delineated in Lord Valentia's Travels, and in the first part of Colonel Franklin's Palibothra.-T.
HIS MAJESTY'S FORCES IN INDIA.
Bengal Parsidency.—General Staff. Commander-in-Chief of all the Forces in India, Gen. the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B., K.T. S., Col. of 28th Foot. Commanding the Station of Meerut, Major Gen. T. Reynell, C.B., 71st Foot. Commanding the Presidency Division, Major Gen. R. A. Dalzell. Adjutant General H.M.'s Forces in India, Col. Sir T. MacMahon, Bart. 17th Foot. Quarter-Master General H. M.'s Forces in India, Col. Sir Samford F. Wittingham, Knt., K.F., C.B., Half-pay. Light Dragoons. 11th Regt. Stationed at Meerut. 16th, (Lancers Queen's)...Cawnpore. Infantry. 14th, (Buckinghamshire)...Meerut. 38th, (1st Staffordshire)....Berhampore. 44th, (East Essex)..........Fort William. 59th. (2d Nottinghamshire) Cawnpore. 87th, (Prince of Wales' own Irish) 13th, (1st Somerset)......... In England.
MADRAs PREsidency. Commander-in-Chief, Gen. Sir Alex. Campbell, Bart. K.B.C., Col. of 8th Foot. Commanding Centre Division, Major Gen. Robert Sewell, 89th Foot, Arcot. In England, Major Gen. Sir Theoph. Pritzler, K.C.B., 13th Dragoons. On Field Service, Col. Geo. Molle, 46th Foot, Camp. Commanding Bangalore, Col. Thomas Hankle, 13th Lt. Dragoons. Commanding Wallajahbad, Col. Chas. Bruce, C.B., 69th Foot. Commanding Trichinopoly, Col. Neil Mackeller, C.B., 1st, or Royal Regt. Commanding Malabar and Canara, Lieut. Col. Edw. Miles, C.B., K. F. S., 89th Regt. Deputy Adjutant General H. M.'s Forces in India, Lieut. Col. Robt. Torrens, 38th Foot. Deputy Quarter-Master Gen. H. M.'s Forces in India, Lieut. Col. Stanhope, Half-pay, 56th Foot, Europe.
Bomb AY PREsinexcy. Commander-in-Chief, Lieut. Gen. the Honble. Sir Chas. Colville, G.C.B., K.T.S., Half-pay, 94th Foot. Commanding Poonah Division of Army, Major Gen. Sir Lionel Smith, K.C.B., 65th Foot. Commanding Northern Division Guzerat and Inspector of Cavalry, Col. Jas. Chas. Holbiac, 4th Lt. Dragoons. Commanding Poonah Brigade, Col. Willoughby Cotton, Aide-de-Camp to H. M., and 47th Foot. Major of Brigade to King's Troops, Capt. G. Moore, 65th Foot. Light Dragoons. 4th Regt. Stationed at Kaira. (Queen's own) ... ........ Guzerat. Infantry. 20th, (East Devonshire). Bombay. 47th, (Lancashire).......... Poonah. 67th,(Southamptonshire) Camp, Sholapore.
TRANSMISSION of INDIA LETTERS. To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal.
SIR : It would be well if the Postoffice department at Calcutta would pay some attention to the selection of ships which convey their letters to Europe, for they are frequently sent on ships that touch at different ports, and consequently the receipt of them is considerably delayed. Take, for instance, the Hastings (and it would be easy to particularize many others), which left Bengal on the 25th May, and, as avowed by the Calcutta papers, “to complete her lading at Madras;” from whence she sailed about the
middle of July, making a delay of above seven weeks, in which time many ships left Bengal, and of course brought letters of a much later date. I am aware that persons resident in Calcutta may (if they are inclined to take the trouble), select their ships, though thisarrangementis generally left to the Post-office: those who live far up the country have no such opportunity, and to them the evil is of great magnitude. I am, Sir, &c. &c.
Jan. 1824. B.
TRADE OF COCHIN-CHINA.
Gover NMENT Notification.
Calcutta, Political Department, July 4, 1823.
The public are hereby informed, that the Government of Cochin China has officially communicated to the Agent of the Governor General, lately deputed to that country, its consent to the admission of all British vessels into the ports of Sai-gun, Han or Turan, Faifo, and Hue, on the terms specified in the annexed translation of an official copy of the Cochin-Chinese Tariff and Regulations of Trade delivered to the Governor General's Agent.
Translation of the Cochin-Chinese Tariff.
These are the Regulations of Commerce for all nations trading to the kingdom of Cochin-China.
Vessels of Canton, Chu-chao," Namhong," Wai-Chao," Suheng,” To-Kein, Chi-Kang, and the ships of the European nations pay as follow:
Vessels measuring from fourteen to twenty-five cubits in the beam, pay eightyfour kwans per cubit. Vessels measuring from eleven to thirteen cubits, fifty-four kwans; from nine to ten cubits, fortytwo kwans, and from seven to eight cubits twenty kwans a cubit.
* Provinces of Canton,
Vessels of Canton, Chu-Chao, Namhong, Wai-Chao, Su-heng, To-Kein, ChiKong (Tehe-Kian), and the ships of European nations, pay as follow :
Vessels measuring from fourteen to twenty-five cubits, pay one hundred and forty kwans per cubit; from eleven to thirteen cubits ninety kwans; from nine to ten cubits seventy kwans, and from seven to eight cubits thirty-five kwans a cubit.
For the Port of Han.
Vessels of Canton, Chu-Chao, Namhong, Wai Chao, Su-heng, To-Kein, ChiKong, (Tehe-Kian) and the ships of European nations pay as follow :
Vessels measuring from fourteen to twenty-five cubits in the beam pay one hundred and twelve kwans a cubit; from eleven to thirteen cubits, seventy-two kwans; from nine to ten cubits, fifty-six kwans, and from seven to eight cubits, twenty-eight kwans.
Cardamums, pepper, cinnamon, ivory, rhinoceros' horns, esculent bird's nests, Sapan Wood, Ebony and Rose Wood, pay a duty on every 100 kwans of five kwans.
Wood for coffins or ship-building, pay a duty of ten per cent.
In passing the duties, Spanish dollars are received at the rate of one kwan five mas, and the silver currency of CochinChina at the rate of two kwans and eight mas for cach ingot. Payment of the duties may be made in silver, or in the zinc currency of the country, or partly in each, at the option of the merchant.
The exportation of the wood called Tet-lan (a fancy wood), and the wood Nam (a perfumed wood, used by the rich in making coffins) is prohibited.
The exportation of the gold and silver ingots of the country is also prohibited, as also of the seed called suk, rice, salt, copper, zinc coin, agila wood. The carrying off men and women from the country is also prohibited.
Ships or vessels paying the duties at one of the forts enumerated, are exempted during that voyage from the payment of duties at any other, with the exception of export duties. This applies if they should stay a year on the coast of CochinChina; provided that, during that time, they should not visit any other foreign country.
(The seal of the First Minister.)
A true copy of a translation through the
N.B. A Cochin-Chinese cubit, used in measuring the ships and vessels for the tonnage duty, is equal to sixteen inches English.
By command of the Governor General
Geo Swinton, Sec. to Govt.
[Cal. Govt. Gaz.
Letter to the Editor of the Bengal
Sir:-Having observed a notification in the Government Gazette, which stated the amount of the duties payable on the Cochin-Chinese vessels visiting certain Ports of China little known to Europeans, I have the pleasure of forwarding to you the following account of some of them, as desirable to convince the merchants of this city of the great advantages which might accrue to them from properly proseouting the trade from hence to that in*resting country, the Government of which is so fast rising into respectability,
and the character of the people of which is so high above that of any other people of Eastern Asia, as regards punctuality principle, and honour in their commercial dealings. From the subjoined account, it will be found that a most extensive trade may be carried on, extending itself to the least known provinces of the Chinese empire in the first place, and eventually to Japan, without at all interfering with the trade at present carried on with Canton. Besides this, the internal traffic by the way of Yu-nan, through Kai-chao, the capital, of Tonquin, and which is conducted with Lao, and many other countries of the interior, including, no doubt, part of Chinese Tartary, would be very considerable. It is much to be regretted that no adventure was made during the time that the gentleman who was at the head of the mission to that country was here, as he was particularly well qualified to give information on this subject, which he did in numerous instances, and which he was at all times very willing to do. The places which I find named in the Government Gazette are the following, and some of them rank among the most extensive ports of commerce in the Chinese empire: Canton, Chu-chao, Nam-hong, Kiang-nan, Wai-chao, Su-heng, Fo-kein, and Chi-kiang. The trade with Canton is so well understood by the generality of people trading from this port, that it would be more than superfluous for me to say any thing of it; but this I may remark, that no one has had better opportunities than myself of obtaining all the information that could be obtained upon the subject. I shall therefore proceed to give you some account of the two principal places with which trade may be conducted: these are Fo-kien and Kiang-nan. Kiang-nan is considered as the second province of the Chinese empire, yielding to none in fertility, commerce and riches. Nankin, which is the capital of it, is well known as having once been the capital of the empire, until the court was removed to Pekin. This province contains ninety cities of the second and third classes, and fourteen of the first, which are very populous, and are almost all of them famed for some branch of trade or other. The river Yang-tse-kiang runs through the province, and connects itself by means of canals with almost the whole of these. In one
town alone, the name of which I do not remember, there are upwards of 300,000 weavers of cotton cloths, in which branch of trade the women are the principal labourers. Every article manufactured in this province bears a much higher value than that which is the produce of others. The principal trade of this place consists of silk-stuffs, lacker-ware, ink and paper, and the last of these, with medieines, forms the principal part of the exports to CochinChina. Salt is found on the sea-coasts, and the marble which is sometimes sent to the Malayan countries, is almost all the produce of this province. The natives of it too, are remarkably quick, and acquire the sciences with much facility, which occasions so many of them to be raised to places of rank and dignity. Sou-tcheou is the second city of the province, and Du Halde states, that the largest barks may sail from it to the sea, through canals and branches of rivers, in two days. This is reckoned the most delightful city in China, and has given rise to a Chinese proverb, that “above is the celestial paradise, but the paradise of this world is Sou-tcheou.” This place is famed for its brocades and embroideries. The province of Fo-kein is distinguished for the spirit and enterprizing industry of its inhabitants. This is sufficiently evinced by the number of them who emigrate to our settlements to the eastward, where their numbers far exceed those of the natives of any other Chinese province, and where they are always classed amongst the most valuable portion of the Chinese population. In Singapore their number is very considerable, as it is also at Penang and Malacca. The province of Fo-kein is not very extensive, but it is thought to be one of the most prosperous in the empire. It produces musk, black tea, iron, tin, quicksilver, and precious stones; and its manufactures consist of a quantity of black tea, the produce of the province. Dependent upon Fo-kein is E-mui, an anchoring place sufficiently extensive to contain 1000 ships. It was frequented by European ships at the beginning of the eighteenth century; but at present it is closed against them, and Canton is the only port open for their trade. Another place mentioned in the Govern
ment notification is Chi-kiang, which is situated between Fo-kien and Kiang-nan, and in the province of which is produced a greater quantity of raw silk than any where else in China. This they manufacture into beautiful brocades, embroidered with gold and silver, of which a great quantity is sent to the Philippine Islands, to Japan, and even to Europe. Under this province is the port called by Europeans Liampo, but by the Chinese, NingPo. A short distance from this place is an island called Cheo-chou, on which the English first landed when they came to China. Trade is conducted with Japan, where silks are exchanged for copper, gold, and silver, to obtain which the merchants from Batavia used to come every year to this port. Having referred to the province of Yunan, and the trade with the interior conducted through it, perhaps the following short account of it may not be uninteresting. This is bounded on the west by Ava and Pegu, on the south by Lao and Ton. quin, on the east by Kwang-sai, and on the north by Se-tchuen. The province itself is reckoned one of the most fertile in the empire, and its inhabitants are brave, robust, affable, and fond of the sciences; its rivers are broad and navigable, and the principal part of the tutenague of commerce is produced in it. “Its commerce," says an old author, “is immense, and its riches are said to be inexhaustible.” The facilities for opening a trade with countries such as these are now in our power. The junks come from them all to Cochin China, and after having disposed of cargoes, are generally obliged to take home with them the silver coin of the country, for want of other returns. Our ships could provide them with articles for return cargoes, and they would furnish us in return with all the rich produce of China, at rates considerably less than those at which they could be procured in China, because they would be free from all the duties imposed upon our vessels in the ports of that country.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
A TRAveller. Calcutta, Aug. 6, 1823.