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half way. The ghaut there very bad. Mundlaysir situated on the right bank of the Nerbudda, here tolerably wide, but confined by very steep banks. Madras houses miserably bad; it is 1,700 feet lower than Mhow. Friday, Oct. 15, 1819. Commenced our march from Kurnaul towards Neemutch; marched from Kurnaul at five A.M., arrived at our ground at Geroundah at 8-30 A.M.–country a jungle the whole march. Saturday 16. Marched from Geroundah at five A.M. to Panneef, arrived at mine A.M.; country open; distance ten miles. Mundlaysir, July 3, 1820. Itains not commenced yet; weather very pleasant. A very bad place for snakes; great numbers of them beginning to appear. July 5. Rains set in ; weather very cool —finding cloth jacket comfortable throughout the day. July 6. Killed a snake in my sleeping rootn. Aug. 1. Delightful weather, very little rain. Aug. 13. The first heavy fall of rain we have had this year commenced to-day, and continues. Aug. 15. Rain still continues, weather very pleasant; since the commencement of the rains we have had delightful weather. Until three days ago we had scarcely any rain, but fine cloudy cool days, and the nights so cool that, since the beginning of June, I have slept every night with a blanket; indeed since our arrival at Malwa we have not known what a hot night is. Route from Mhow towards Calcutta, via Saugor and Mirzapore. 1820. Oct. 27. Marched from Mhow to Jillane, in progress to Saugor, distance about fourteen miles; the road tolerably good and country flatin general, but interspersed with hills. Jillane is a pretty large place, and the vicinity of it very pretty: some fine trees about it, and a very good tope for encamping in ; water is also good, and plenty of supplies for a detachment or battalion. At sun-set marched from Jillane, intending only to go three miles; but no village was to be found where I exPected one, and I was therefore obliged to Proceed for another hour, through a jungle dark as possible, until I at length reached * village, when I found very good quarters in the Potail's house. Oct. 28. Started about two hours before Asiatic Journ—No. 97.
daylight, with a very bright moon; and after riding about five hours, through a pretty country and over a good road, came to a small village called Rageaghur, where I halted: passed several villages on the route this morning, the principal of which was Akberpoor, about two miles from this, where there appears to be an abundance of everything requisite for supplying a camp. Rageaghur is a small village, very prettily situated at a short distance from a range of hills (over which I believe my route lies tomorrow); it is distant from Jillane about eighteen miles; the last part of the road lies through rather a picturesque country, well cultivated. Oct. 29. At an hour before daybreak left Rageaghur for Billaole: the first part of the road was good, but lay through a very thick jungle, which did not give rise to the most pleasant sensations; for as this part of the country is full of tigers, it is really dangerous passing through the smallest portion of jungle during the night. A short time before daybreak the road got very stony, and began to descend. At daybreak, to my great satisfaction, I found myself out of the jungle, and over the hills I saw yesterday, in a very prettily wooded
valley, extending for a long distance both to
the right and left; the road again not good, and at sun-rise brought me to the village of Kennawd, a small village on the right; about four miles further passed Pepleu, a tolerably large place, in which there are plenty of supplies for any party; about four miles beyond this is a miserable village called Billaolee, where there actually were not supplies for my small party; the road in general lay E. N.E., distance about thirteen miles. At an hour before sunset started again for Tuppa, a village about eight miles distant; the road was good, but lay through a jungle, in which the guide twice lost the way, so that we did not reach Tuppa until eight o'clock, where I took up my quarters. Intense cold during the night: passed two nuhahs after dark, and several villages. Tuppa is rather a large village, with a gunee, there are supplies in plenty. Oct. 30. At daylight started for Gajna, and a little after entered a pass (over a range of hills running north and south) which was about two miles long. After getting through it, crossed a small nullah; at eight o'clock arrived at Gajna. The Wol. XVII. D
road from Tuppa is good, but lies through a jungle the whole way: there are several small villages close to the road, with little patches of cultivation about them. Gajna is a very small wretched place, containing not above thirty houses, built in a square by way of a defence; it is distant from Tuppa about eleven miles, the direction same as yesterday. At the village of Coterie there are supplies for a camp. Oct. 31. Started about two hours before daybreak for Ashta, distance about ten miles; the road is tolerable in general, but in some places bad. Arrived at Ashta a little after daybreak: it is a large place, with a considerable fort, very prettily situated, a number of fine trees all round it; it has a fine bazar, and appears capable of supplying a large camp. The Rajah was very civil, sent me fowls, kids, eggs, and milk, in great plenty. At four P.M. started again for Umlay (or Imlay), where I arrived after dark, and took up my quarters for the night; distance from Ashta about thirteen miles. Umlay is rather a large village. The road was good the whole way. Nov. 1. Started at a little before daybreak for Sehore: the country improved very much this march, cultivation almost the whole way; arrived at Sehore at eight o'clock, distance thirteen miles; was kindly entertained by Major Henly, who is in political charge of this part of the country: he has a pretty place at Sehore, which he bas laid out very tastefully. Nov. 2, Halted at Sehore, Nov. 3. Marched from Sehore at three A.M. for Bigonia, distance eighteen miles. The first part of the road I did not see, being asleep on Major Henley's elephant; arrived at Joomrah at sunrise, where I found my horse, which I mounted, and arrived at Bigonia at eight A.M. The road from Joomrah is good, but lies through a grass jungle, without a spot of cultivation the whole way. Bigonia is a small place, but there are supplies, good water, and a capital tope for encamping in : there is also a good deal of cultivation about the village, principally badjera and sugar cane. This part of the world will in a few years be the finest province in India. Ever since our arrival, the revenue of the district of Bhopaul has increased five lacs of rupees, and is capable of yielding fifty if fully inhabited. Nov. 4. Marched from Bigonia at half past three A.M. for Hindola, at daylight
arrived at the village of Goonga, distance from Bigonia eight miles; the road was bad and stony; crossed several nullahs : a very dangerous ride, on account of the immense grass jungle through which the road lay. After passing Goonga about half a mile the jungle ceases, and a most pleasing view presents itself, a beautiful valley, richly cultivated, and studded with noble trees. There are two other pretty villages close to the road, with very fine topes about them: the road is good, and lies through luxuriant crops of sugar-cane, badjera, Indian corn, and wheat (just appearing). There are great numbers of date trees, as far as the eye can reach. At eight A.M. arrived at Hindola, a very small place, but we have got supplies in plenty = there is here one of the finest banian trees I ever saw ; it has extended its branches into seventeen fine trees—the circumference of the ground in which it has taken root is 205 good paces, and I fancy it must shade 500. Hindola is distant from Bigonia eighteen miles. There is a large mullah here, the water of which supplies the village, there being no well; it is tolerably good, but is the better for being boiled before you drink it. Nov. 5. Marched same time as yesterday, and had a great deal of trouble in crossing the nullah, which should be crossed in daylight if possible; it is very rocky and uneven, one step not over your horses hoof, the next up to his girths : I fancy it must be almost impassable in the rains. About a mile further on passed another, but not so bad. At daylight arrived at the village of Pawa Mullah, distance about five miles from Hindola ; it has a large stone fort, the walls of which are very low. The road was not very good so far, but from Pawa to Kam Keira was capital; the nullah at Pawa has a very soft bottom, in which my horse sunk up to his knee. About three miles and a half further crossed another nullah, with the same fault. The country from Pawa was cultivated; it is very flat, and is surrounded by hills, at about eight or nine miles distance. There is no village to be met with between Pawa and Ram Keira, the distance is about seven miles. Ram Keira is built on a small hill, which rises in the centre of the plain, and makes it conspicuous for some distance round; it has also a peculiar appearance from all the houses being tiled, rather an uncommon circumstance in Indian villages There is a tank here, the water of which is the only procurable;—it is tolerably good; supplies are plenty. Killed a large snake on the march this morning. The coss are here about two miles and threequarters long. At four P.M. marched again for Bhilsa, distance twelve miles; the road was in general good, but in some places very stony, especially at a village four miles from Bhilsa. The approach to Bhilsa is also very bad; there is a very large nullah, which you cross three times, the last ford is very bad indeed. Arrived at Bhilsa at nine P.M. Bhilsa must be an immense place; the only part of it I saw was the bazar, which is without exception the finest street I have met with in India. It being a Hindoo holiday, the whole town was illuminated, and looked very well; I am sorry I had not an opportunity of seeing Bhilsa in daylight, as it is well worth seeing. Nov. 6. Marched from Bhilsa a little before daylight for Attaree Ka Kejna, distance fifteen miles. The road was good, and the country beautiful; fine wheat-fields extended to the right and left as far as I could see, and very pretty villages are to be met with every two or three miles. Arrived at Kejna at nine o'clock, very much fatigued, having marched forty miles in the twenty-four hours. Kejna is a middle sized village, with capital water, plenty of supplies, and a fine tope, three very necessary articles for the Indian traveller. All the villages in this part of the
country are tiled, which gives them a very
peculiar appearance. Nov. 7. Marched at three A.M. for Bagrode, distance fifteen miles. At daylight arrived at the village of Gaspoora, situated at the foot of a low range of hills (which my guide called the Muttall Hills). The road was good as far as Gaspoora, but at the entrance into the hills very bad indeed, not passable for wheeled carriages. Gaspoora is distant from Kejna seven miles and a half. The road from thence to Bagrode lies over the hills, through a nasty jungle. About a mile from Gaspoora, we came on the track of a couple of tigers, which lasted about three miles, when we lost their marks about a mile from Bagrode, where we began to descend, and at eight A.M. arrived at Bagrode, which is situated at the east side of the hills, distant from
Gaspoora seven miles and a half. It has a kind of fort built on the hill immediately above the village; there are supplies and water. Nov. 8. Marched at four A.M. for Rutghur, distance twelve miles. The road was good, but the country uncultivated. At daybreak arrived at a small village called Myrzapoor, situated at the foot of a low range of hills, the name of which the guide could not tell me; at half past nine A.M. arrived at Rutghur. It is a large place (with a fort) built on the right bank of the Bhena river, the course of which is N. W. : it is rather wide here, and must be very troublesome to pass during the rains. The fort is built on a hill imme. diately over the town, and has a fine appearance; it covers the entire top of the hill. This was one of the coldest mornings I have experienced in India; my feet were almost frozen in the stirrups, and when I dismounted at daylight I could hardily stand. At four P.M. started again for Gumeria, where I arrived a little after dark; distance six miles, through a jungle. Gumeria is situated on the banks of the Dussanei. Nov. 9. Marched an hour before daybreak for Saugor, where I arrived at eight A.M., distance ahout ten miles. Liked Saugor very much, it is a very pleasant station; it is built in the midst of low stony hills, but is very healthy. Nov. 12. At eleven o'clock P.M. started for Putterah on an elephant, another being laid at Soonoudra, where I arrived about one o'clock in the morning of the 13th Nov. : started again for Shapore, where my horse was laid, at which place I arrived a little beforeday break; mounted and proceeded to Putterah, where I arrived a short time after sun rise. Putterah is a large and very pretty place, distant from Saugor thirty miles. The road was good, but the latter part was jungle, from Shapore to Putterah. Nov. 14. Started at three A.M. for Nursingghur, where I arrived (after riding over a most abominable road) at eight A.M. and found the Dawk I expected; started for Kootree, where I intend remaining during the month. Kootree is a small place in itself; there are some fine bungalows built: it is situated on the right bank of the Sonar river, here rather wide and deep. Nov. 28. At two A.M. started from Koo
tree for Tigra, distance about thirty-six miles. Passed numerous villages, the principal of which were Huttah, Bhintee, Gyzabad, and Symmeriah. A little on this side Gyzabad crossed the Cane river, the bed of which is very wide, but the channel at present insignificant. At ten A.M. arrived at Tigra, which is a small village, built on the left bank of the Cane river. Nov. 29. At three A.M. marched from Tigra for Mahewah, distance about sixteen miles. Immediately below Tigra crossed the Cane river again: it is here very wide, with steep banks, and at the bottom rather stony. The first part of the road to-day was a good deal broken, and intersected by several nullahs; it lay also through a dock jungle : about an hour before daybreak, passed the village of Khodue, and at sun-rise passed another called Tuall, both tolerably large. No cultivation except round the above mentioned villages; the country one continued flat, bounded to the north-east and south-west, by ranges of hills, at about twenty miles distance. Mahewah is rather a large place, with a stone ghurree. Nov. 30. Marched at three A.M. for Lohargong, where I arrived at half-past seven, distance fifteen miles. The road is very good, the latter part hilly. Lohargong was lately a station for a battalion of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and brigade of guns; the two latter are all that now remain. It is a miserable place; the country about it one continued prospect of black stony hills, covered here and there by a few loose dock bushes: there is actually only one tree in cantonments. Dec. 1, 1820. Rode a troop charger as far as Silgce, about fourteen miles, where my own horse waited for me; arrived there at sun-set, and set forward for Magoud, distance eleven miles, where I did not arrive until past nine o'clock, the guide having twice lost the way. Crossed a wide nullah with steep banks. Dec. 2. Marched at five A.M. for Sohaul, distance fourteen miles; road very good, and lay through a beautiful country, cultivated as far as the eye can reach, and studded with groves of noble trees, Arrived at Sohaul at half-past eight A.M. It is a large and very pretty place, the approach, for upwards of a mile, being through a wood of fine trees, swarming with the largest apes I ever saw : close to
the village crossed a wide and deep nullah, called Russerie. The weather is now most intolerably cold. The people here are very civil. Dec. 3. At three A.M. marched for Durgunpoor, distance seventeen miles : the road was very good this morning. At daylight, after a small descent, arrived at the village of Putterhut, rather large, with an extensive stone ghurre. Before passing through the village crossed the Russerie nullah once more; it has here, immediately below the ford, a very wide and deep reach for about a mile. At eight A.M. arrived at Durgunpoor, distant from Putterhut about seven miles. It is also a large place, with a ghurre. Dec. 4. At four A.M. started, and a little before daybreak arrived at the village of Rampoor, distance from Durgunpoor seven miles, At nine A.M. arrived at the village of Umerie, and (Rewah being still distant eight miles) halted. Umerie is nineteen miles from Durgunpoor; it is a small place, but has plenty of supplies. The road this morning was very good, and the country well cultivated; about four miles from Umerie a gentle ascent commenced, and continued as far as the village, where the country again gets flat. To the right of the road, at about sixteen miles distance, are a number of high hills, detached from each other, but running parallel, and ending in a point to the N. E. Dec. 5. At daylight started for Rewah, distance eight miles; the road was capital this morning, and the country really beautiful. At eight A.M. arrived at Rewah, and was much disappointed at its appearance; it is a mean place, and not half the size that might be expected. The fort is extensive, but its defences very paltry : a six-pounder would demolish the whole in ten minutes. At three P.M. marched again for Roypore, distance twelve miles; the road and country were the same as in the morning, a verdant green as far as the eye could reach. Arrived at Roypore a little after sun-set; it is a large place, but the houses are little paltry huts, so we slept under a tree. Dec. 6. Started at daylight for Moorgamah, distance twelve miles, where I arrived at half-past eight. The road this morning presented to me a new and pleasing appearance, namely, crowds of travellers moving in all directions, giving me
hopes of soon coming into a civilized country: on the road I have hitherto travelied I never saw any one except my own servants. Moongamah is rather a large village. At six P.M. marched again for Laur or Launee, distance thirteen miles: there I arrived a little after sunset; the road was capital, and the country the same as the two last marches. Laur is a small village, situated some distance from the road. Dec. 7. At daybreak started for Mowgunge, distance thirteen miles. At about six miles from Laur crossed the Udder Nullah, and three miles farther crossed the Tharmer Nullah ; the latter has got very steep banks. The road this morning was capital, and the country, as usual, beautiful; every three or four miles there are fine tanks. The road for the last five marches has been gradually ascending. Mowgunge is rather a large place, but the huts are miserable; indeed . that is the case in all the villages about here, I have not seen a tolerable house in one of them. At four P.M. marched again for Kutkunie, distance twelve miles. About four miles from Mowgunge crossed the Kharrie Nullah ; its banks are very steep and stony, guns or wheeled carriages would find great difficulty in passing it. Two miles further passed the village of Patera, a large place situated in the midst of beautiful topes. A short distance from Patera crossed the Junkie Nullah; it is also very rocky. At six P.M. arrived at Kutkunie, which is a large village, but the huts as usual miserable; the approach to it is very bad. Dec. 8. At daybreak marched for Puttera, distance eleven miles. The first part of the road was through a jungle, which however did not last above three miles;
it was also very much broken. At about six miles from Kutkunie crossed the Bhwerma Nullah, which is very rocky; a little on this side of it, the ascent becomes much greater than it has hitherto been, but it discloses to your view one of the finest prospects imaginable , the country to the right is really beautiful. Guns or wheeled carriages would find great difficulty on this march, the road being a good deal broken, and very rocky. At eight P.M. arrived at Puttera, which is an immense collection of pig-styes huddled together in the greatest confusion; it is really surprising that the natives of this fine province should be so filthy in their habitations.
At four P.M. marched for the Ghaut, at the top of which I arrived at sunset; it is distant from Puttera ten miles, and is two miles to the bottom, where I arrived at six P.M.
Dec. 9. Marched at day-light for Hilleah,
distance ten miles; was much impeded by the baggage of a wing of the 9th, who were ascending the ghaut on their way to Hussingabad. Arrived at Hilleah at eight A.M. : it is a large and very pretty place: feel quite at ease again, having got into our own territories. At three P.M. started for Lalgunge, distance thirteen miles, where I arrived at seven o'clock: it is a large place.
Dec. 10. At five A.M. started for Tana, distance ten miles, where I arrived at eight A.M. The road was tolerable, with the exception of the ghaut above Tana. At three P.M. started again for Myrzapore, distance six miles. I arrived at sun-set, and met the kindest welcome from my dear and valued friends there, and so ended my march from Mhow.—[Cal. Jour.
NEW ZEALAND FLAX. To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal.
SIR : It appears that the Phormium tenar, or flax of New Zealand, has been successfully cultivated in France. Whether it be not worth the attention of our agriculturists to try the experiment in this country, is a question I cannot solve; but beg to subjoin the account given of this fact in the Annales de Chimie for August 1823,
p. 418. The writer calls this article New Holland flax: the Phormium tenar is not, however, indigenous there, but has been introduced by the English settlers from New Zealand: M. de Labillardière, in 1802, detailed to the Institute the many advantages that would accrue from naturalizing in France the Phormium tenar, or flax of New Hol