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land. He found that the threads made from the leaves of this plant were twice as strong as those of common hemp ; and also that the elasticity of the former was greatly superior to that of the latter. M. de L. predicted that the Phormium tenar would succeed in France. This prediction has been verified by the exertions of M. Cachin, Inspector General of Highways and Bridges, who has transmitted to the Linnean Society a stalk of Phormium of three metres (3} English feet) high, which he had grown in his garden at Cherburg. This stalk had seed vessels containing ripe seeds. Messrs. Gillet, Laumont, and Thorin have sown them in Paris, and on the 1st of September
last more than half of them had appeared. The experiments made with the threads obtained from the plant of M. Cachin fully confirm the favourable opinion of M. de Labillardière. It appears by the report of Commissioner Bigge, that the superiority in point of strength of the New Zealand flax over the Baltic hemp has been fully established by experiments made both at Sydney and at Deptford. It possesses, besides, peculiar qualities which greatly enhance its value. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, AGREs.TIs.
The Jainas constitute a sect of Hindoos, differing in some important tenets from the Brahminical, but following in other respects similar practices. The essential character of Hindoo institutions, is the distribution of the people into four great tribes. The Jainas admit the same division into four tribes, Brahmins, Khetries, Vaisyas, and Sudras, and perform like ceremonies, from the birth of a male until his marriage. They observe similar fasts, and practise still more strictly the received maxims of refraining from injury to any sentient being. They appear to recognize as subordinate deities some, if not all the gods of the prevailing sect; but do not worship in particular the five principal gods of these sects, nor address prayers, nor perform sacrifices to the sun or fire. They differ, also, from the Brahminical Hindoos, in assigning the highest place to certain deified saints, who, according to their creed, have successively become superior gods. Another doctrine, in which they materially disagree with the orthodox Hindoos, is the rejection of the Vedas, the divine authority of which they deny. In this particular the Jainas agree with the Buddhists, or Sangatas, who equally deny the divine authority of the Vedas, and who, in a similar manner, worship certain pre-eminent saints, admitting likewise, as subordinate deities, the whole pantheon of the orthodox Hindoos. The two sects (the Jainas and the Buddhists) differ in regard to the history of the personages
whom they have deified: and hence it may be concluded that they had distinct founders, but the original notion seems to have been the same: all agree in the belief of transmigration. Jaina priests usually wear a broom adapted to sweep insects out of the way, lest they should tread on the minutest being. In Hindostan, the Jainas are usually called Syauras, but distinguish themselves into Sravacas (Shrawuks) and Yatis, or laity and clergy. The following is a brief account of them : 1. The derivation of the name Jaina or Joinu, is derived from the word jinu (ji, to conquer). He who has overcome the eight great crimes, is called jinu. These crimes are, eating at night; slaying an animal; eating the fruit of those trees that give milk; tasting honey or flesh; taking the wealth of others; taking by force a married woman; eating flowers, butter, cheese; and worshipping the gods of other religions. 2. Their Origin. This sect is said to owe its rise to Rishubhuadevu, a Hindoo; and of whom it is related, that he became incarnate thirteen times. After him, twenty-two persons are mentioned, as the successive leaders of the sect. The last of the Jaina yogees was Muha-veeru, who is said to have been incarnate twenty-seven times. This yogee had many disciples, and amongst the most distinguished was Goutumu-Swamee, for whom he had a particular regard, and whom he sent, on the day of his absorption (death), to the residence Devu-surmmu, lest his mind
should be too much affected. Seventeen of his disciples obtained deliverance from the body at the same hour with their master.
3. Their Doctrine. It is difficult to give a system which will apply to the whole sect, among whom various opinions prevail. A number of Jainas come near to the orthodox Hindoos. They acknowledge something of a deity, yet deny a Creator, and reverence in a limited sense Hindoo deities. They retain the ten ceremonies connected with progress through life up to marriage. They marry like the Hindoos—burn their dead, but observe no thraddhu. Strict Jainas are constrained to a life of mendicity. The chief Jainas were gloomy ascetics, assuming the rights of deity, and denying the authority of God. They say, that the earth is formed by nature, that is, by inherent properties existing in itself; that spirit is found in two conditions, emancipated, and enclosed by matter; that but one spirit is individuated through the whole universe of animated existence (although Chervvaka, a Jaina leader, denied the existence of spirit altogether)—that all human affairs are regulated by religion, and irreligion, i.e. by works of merit and demerit; that religion naturally purifies and immortalizes its possessor, and that irreligion defiles, degrades, and ruins men; that the future births of men are regulated by present actions; that works of merit will raise a person to one of the twelve heavens; that for eight miles beyond the highest heaven, all is darkness; that below this heaven is a heaven, in which all who obtain unchanging happiness remain, and is 36,000,000 miles long; that the inhabitants of this world occupy 1,332 cubits of these regions; that below are five other heavens, occupied by ascetics somewhat less pure than the former; that lower still are twelve heavens, one below the other; that the earth is next hung in air; beneath, water; and still lower, darkness. Persons sinning in the above-named heavens, be
come men or animals, and sink into a region of torments; while others ascend from the earth, and occupy their couches, or places of repose in heaven. 4. Their Duties. The Jaina bathes in the morning, shakes his garment and mat to purify them, repeats prayers to persons possessing the five qualities of Urihuntu, Siddhu, Acaryu, Oopadhyaya and Sadhoo; makes an address to wisdom, religious light, excellent conduct, and devotion; walks round a Jaina temple three times; bows, and prays to the image of a Jaina yogee, carved in a sitting posture; goes to his spiritual guide, and makes his vows to him for the day; solicits alms at a certain number of houses, for the food of the day; returning, he mutters incantations, to remove the sins committed in killing insects, by treading on them unwittingly as he passed through streets; eats; prays again to the persons designated as above; continues silent nearly all the day; at its close again repeats incantations, &c. Many other duties must be passed over, as too numerous to introduce here. The person who, by practising the duties of the Jaina religion, renders himself worthy of the worship of Indru and the other gods; who delivers himself from chains of the world, obtaining complete emancipation from matter, becomes a proper object of worship to all creatures. Passing by the festivals, &c. of this sort, we have only room to add, that at the time of a Jaina mendicant's last sickness, a disciple repeats a certain prayer to him, and rehearses the praises of the Jaina mendicants. After his death, with his body are burnt the brush with which he swept the road or his seat, that he might not destroy animal life, his staff, his beggar's bag, and a lump of wheated pase. There are five sects of Jainas, but the difference between them is trifling. The Digumburus, who wear no clothes; the Teru-punt-hees, the Dhooriyas, the Loonkas, and the Bouddhus.-[Asiatic Observer.
energies which attach to every ambitious mind. To remove this obstacle to promotion in some degree, I can devise no other means than trenching, to a limited extent, upon the OffReckoning Fund, and by soliciting from the Company’s finances, which are now becoming annually more abundant, the sum of 10,000 rupees in aid thereof. By these means, as will be seen hereafter, the retirement of many Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors would make room for the promotion of junior officers to fill the efficient situations of those regimental ranks, now, in too many instances, occupied by worn-out constitutions.
As proofs of the tardiness of promotion, Colonel Alexander Knox, a cadet of 1780, was only last year promoted to a brigade of cavalry; Colonel Henry Worsley, C.B., and Colonel Wanrennan, also cadets of 1780, were last year promoted to the colonelcies of regiments; and the Majors promoted on those occasions to lieutenant-colonelcies were cadets of 1794. Thus, after a service of forty-two years, the three former became Colonels of regiments, and the latter, after thirty years, are their successors as Lieutenant-Colonels; so that every liberal mind will admit, that before these officers can arrive at the goal of reward for active services, their constitutions must be broken down by the effects of a tropical climate.
I will now enter upon a detail of the plan I have to suggest, through your publication, for the consideration of those who have the power to remedy the evil.
Cols. Lt.-Cols. Bengal Cavalry, 4 brigades 4 8 Do. Artillery, 4 battalions 4 8 Do. Europ. regt., 1 regt. 1 2
Do. Sepoys, 30 regiments 30 GO Madras Cavalry, 4 brigades 4 8 Do. Artillery, 4 battalions 4 8 Do, Europ. regt., 1 regt. 1 2 Do. Sepoys, 29 regiments 29 56 Bombay Cavalry, 1 brigade 1 6
Do, Europ. regt., 1 regt. 1 2 Carried forward 79 160
I have seen no distribution for many years of the Off-Reckoning Fund, (which most assuredly ought to be annually inserted in the Asiatic Jourmal, for the information of the Colonels of regiments and other officers residing in England), but I have heard it stated, that the fund admits of 12,000 rupees to each Colonel. Presuming that this statement is correct, I propose that in future 2,000 rupees per annum be deducted from each regiment, forming the annual sum of 188,000 rupees to be appropriated as under.
Upon the future retirement of every Lieutenant-Colonel, the sum of 120l. shall annually be allowed to him in addition to his pay, making his income about 485l. ; to every Major I would allow 80l., increasing his income to 362. But if the Company should bestow the sum solicited, the plan will then admit of some addition to both classes of retiring officers.
Colonels of regiments may in the outset object to this intrusion upon their Off-Reckoning receipts; but those possessing liberal minds will consider, that many of their juniors have been as long in arriving at the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, as they themselves were in obtaining regiments; and that even with this obtrusion on their fund, they are left in a better situation than Colonels of regiments in the King's army.
Should this plan meet with the countenance of the Directors, I would recommend that it be acted upon at first by offering its advantages to the junior Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors, and in case of their declining to retire, then the second LieutenantColonels and Majors to be eligible thereto,
Various plans have been offered to the Bengal Government, through the medium of the Calcutta press, for ameliorating the situation of certain ranks of the Company's army, by promotion to higher grades: but none have occurred to me so feasible as this very moderate application from the Off-Reckoning Fund, aided by any contribution the Directors may authorize. The officers designed to be thus benefited are, by sanctioned regulations, entitled to retire upon full pay after twenty-two years’ actual service in India; but the reason why so few have availed themselves of this regulation is, that the retired pay is inadequate for comfortable retirement. Numbers of Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors continually come home on furlough: and after resorting to coffee-houses in London, or beguiling their time at Cheltenham, they return to India waiting for further promotion, or some adventitious turn in the service; all which might be prevented if some liberal addition were made to their incomes. I honestly confess that I can see no just reason why a General Officer, as Colonel of a regiment, should sit quietly in England, partaking of all the advantage of the Off-Reckoning Fund, whilst his Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors are bearing the heat and burden of the day, although, as I have above observed, they have been more years in arriving at those ranks, than he was in succeeding to the command of his regiment—a fact sufficiently exemplified in the instances of Colonels Knox, Worsley, and Vanrennan, of the Bengal army. All new regulations grow out of new circumstances, as did those of 1796, from the novel introduction of numerous King's corps, causing thereby supercession and disgust. Tardy Promotion now prevails: and the only relief is, for Field Officers to be allowed to participate in the Off-Reckoning Fund, to a moderate extent. Some General Officers have been at home Asiatic Journ.—No. 97.
for twenty years, quietly enjoying otium cum dignitate, whilst their juniors have been partaking in all the hardships of Lord Lake's and the more recent campaigns. It is time, therefore, to break in upon old and impolitic regulations, whether of the East-India or any other service. ” This plan is suggested by a Bengal Retired Officer, and by one who, had health permitted, would some years ago have had the rank of Major General, and a regiment; and he would, under these fortunate occurrences, most cheerfully have subscribed to any plan like the foregoing. He is also of opinion that, to render the service still more desirable, the Court of Directors cannot do a more benevolent action, than place their Retired Captains and Subalterns upon the same rate of half-pay as was obtained for similar ranks in the King's service. The additional expense would be very trifling to a great political body like the East-India Company. It may also be remarked, that the late most liberal concession of £60,000 per annum from the Company, in aid of the royal retired full and half-pay, clearly bestows upon every King's Captain 7s., and on every Lieutenant of seven years’ standing, 4s. 2d. per diem; and as no officer of these ranks in the Company's service can, according to the regulations of 1796, be entitled to half-pay under thirteen years' service, I leave it to the obvious good sense and liberality of the worthy Directors of East-India affairs, whether their unfortunate junior servants cannot spend this additional boon of liberality as judiciously as their brethren in the Royal service in India, with whom they have jointly fought and bled for the East-India Company's interests, during the most important crisis of their political existence. I remain, Sir, &c. A BENGAL RETIRED Officer. P. S. I further beg leave to observe, that considering the paucity of reward for meritorious General Officers in the VoI. XVII. E
King's service, when compared to the number of that class, how much better it would be to regulate, that, in future, no General Officer having a regiment shall hold another situation, viz. Constable of the Tower, or any of the small Home Governments, such as Tilbury, Berwick, Blackness, Calshot, Carlisle, Chester, Dartmouth, Dunbarton, Edinburgh, and twenty or thirty more. All these should be reserved for meritorious General Officers not having regiments. All officers will allow, that whenever regiments
become vacant, they are now assigned to those officers who have seen much service, free from Parliamentary influence; but when once any General Officer gets a regiment, any secondary situation he may hold should be given up. It is to be lamented that several noblemen, whose ample fortunes prevent a regiment from being any object to them in a pecuniary point of views should still tenaciously retain the emoluments thereof: they should rather feel a pride in bestowing the Off-Reckoning upon their junior Field Officers.
MEMORANDA OF A VOYAGE ON THE GANGES.
Nov. 7.—We this day finished our navigation of the Bhaggeratty, and fairly committed our budgerow to the protecting genius of the “hallowed” stream. We had a slight view of the Ganges on the 5th, but its appearance then (as now) by no means corresponded with the high expectations we had formed, from the description given of this most sacred of Hindu rivers. The breadth at the point of entrance appears about four or five miles; and so great a body of waters should make a strong impression on the spectator, who has been accustomed to gaze on the comparative puny dimensions of the Tay, the Thames, or the dependent branch—the Hooghly. It looks more like an extensive standing pool, than a vast collection of moving waters. To this the great muddiness of the stream, as well as the general flatness of the country, must contribute; and the dull broken-down bank, does anything but inspire one with a feeling of sublimity, to counteract the effect of these degrading circumstances. At one or two points of the view, however, a very agreeable relief is afforded by the addition of some lofty trees, which, towering above the others, with variously figured summits, take away from the uniformity, and yield an object for the wearied eye to repose on. These trees are situate on the opposite, or left bank of the river, and present much the same appearance as is seen in English prospects: a considerable distance intervening between each parcel, and the horizon only bounding the view in the interval. What gives the greatest charm to the new course, and adds
a spirit to our dull energies, hitherto in tone with the surrounding scenery, is the appearance in the distance of the Rajemahal Hills. These we first observed yesterday, like dark clouds rising from the horizon; but they are now distinctly visible, running from W. to E., and apparently crossing the course of the river as it now flows. From the appearance which they make, their general elevation cannot be great. The country is become much more barren, and destitute of trees, since we left the village of Sooty; and that which now lies before us might serve, I think, to give the traveller a faint idea of what he would meet with in the deserts of Arabia, or the parched plains in the interior of Africa. We complained, on the Hooghly, that the trees presented sameness of scenery, and hailed with pleasure every opening in the wood, that gave us a view of the fields and pasture grounds; but now we strain our eyes, to no purpose, for these interesting objects, and long earnestly again for the deep umbrage which surrounds the Indian village. The soil of this bare district is extremely sandy, possessing hardly any tenacity; and the herbage which it yields is scanty and impoverished : yet even with this wretched pabulum, the natives contrive to subsist their cattle, which appear in as good condition, and not less numerous, than in the others which we passed. This village, the first we have seen on the banks of the great river, looks the picture of an Arab or Tartar kraul, from the general barrenness around it; but the houses are even more subtantially