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land. He found that the threads made last more than half of them bad apfrom the leaves of this plant were twice as peared. strong as those of common hemp; and The experiments made with the threads also that the elasticity of the former was obtained from the plant of M. Cachin greatly superior to that of the latter. M. fully confirm the favourable opinion of de L. predicted that the Phormium tenar M. de Labillardière. would succeed in France. This predic

It appears by the report of Comtion has been verified by the exertions of missioner Bigge, that the superiority M. Cachin, Inspector General of High- in point of strength of the New Zeaways and Bridges, who has transmitted to

land flax over the Baltic hemp has the Linnean Society a stalk of Phormium

been fully established by experiments of three metres (31 English feet) high, which he had grown in his garden at Cher

made both at Sydney and at Deptford. burg. This stalk had seed vessels con

It possesses, besides, peculiar qualitaining ripe seeds. Messrs. Gillet, Lau ties which greatly enhance its value. mont, and Thorin have sown them in I am, Sir, your obedient servant, Paris, and on the 1st of September

AGRESTIS.

THE J A IN A S.

The Jainas constitute a sect of Hindoos, whom they have deified : and hence it may differing in some important tenets from the be concluded that they had distinct foundBrahminical, but following in other res ers, but the original notion seems to have pects similar practices. The essential cha been the same: all agree in the belief of racter of Hindoo institutions, is the dis- transmigration. Jaina priests usually wear tribution of the people into four great a broom adapted to sweep insects out of tribes. The Jainas admit the same divi the way, lest they should tread on the mision into four tribes, Brahmins, Kbetries, nutest being. In Hindostan, the Jainas Vaisyas, and Sudras, and perform like are usually called Syauras, but distinguish ceremonies, from the birth of a male unuil themselves into Sravacas (Shrawuks) and his marriage. They observe similar fasts, Yatis, or laity and clergy. The following and practise still' more strictly the received is a brief account of them : maxims of refraining from injury to any

1. The derivation of the name Jaina or sentient being. They appear to recog- Joinu, is derived from the word jinu (ji, to nize as subordinate deities some, if not all conquer). He who has overcome the eight the gods of the prevailing sect; but do not great crimes, is called jinu. These crimes worship in particular the five principal are, eating at night; slaying an animal; gods of these sects, nor address prayers, eating the fruit of those trees that give nor perform sacrifices to the sun or fire. milk; tasting honey or flesh; taking the They differ, also, from the Brahminical wealth of others; taking by force a marHindoos, in assigning the highest place to ried woman; eating flowers, butter, cheese; certain deified saints, who, according to and worshipping the gods of other religions. their creed, have successively become su 2. Their Origin. This sect is said to perior gods. ' Another doctrine, in which owe its rise to Rishubhuadevu, a Hindoo; they materially disagree with the orthodox and of whom it is related, that he became Hindoos, is the rejection of the Vedas, the incarnate thirteen times. After him, twendivine authority of which they deny. In ty-two persons are mentioned, as the sucthis particular the Jainas agree with the cessive leaders of the sect. The last of Buddhists, or Sangatas, who equally deny the Jaina yogees was Muha-veeru, who the divine authority of the Vedas, and is said to have been incarnate twenty-seven who, in a similar manner, worship certain times. This yogee had many disciples, pre-eminent saints, admitting likewise, as and amongst the most distinguished was subordinate deities, the whole pantheon of Goutumu-Swamee, for whom he had a the orthodox Hindoos. The two sects particular regard, and whom he sent, on (the Jainas and the Buddhists) differ in the day of his absorption (deathi), to the regard to the history of the personages residence Devu-surmmu, lest his mind

should be too much affected. Seventeen come men or animals, and sink into a of his disciples obtained deliverance from region of torments; while others ascend the body at the same hour with their master. from the earth, and occupy their couches,

3. Their Doctrine. It is difficult to or places of repose in heaven. give a system which will apply to the 4. Their Duties. The Jaina bathes in whole sect, among whom various opinions the morning, shakes his garment and mat prevail. A number of Jainas come near to purify them, repeats prayers to persons to the orthodox Hindoos. They acknow- possessing the five qualities of Urihuntu, ledge something of a deity, yet deny a Siddhu, Acaryu, Oopadhyaya and SadCreator, and reverence in a limited sense hoo; makes an address to wisdom, religiHindoo deities. They retain the ten cere ous light, excellent conduct, and devotion; monies connected with progress through walks round a Jaina temple three times; life up to marriage. They marry like the bows, and prays to the image of a Jaina Hindoos-burn their dead, but observe no yogee, carved in a sitting posture; goes to shraddhu. Strict Jainas are constrained his spiritual guide, and makes his vows to to a life of mendicity. The chief Jainas him for the day ; solicits alms at a certain were gloomy ascetics, assuming the rights number of houses, for the food of the of deity, and denying the authority of day; returning, he mutters incantations, God. They say, that the earth is formed to remove the sins committed in killing inby nature, that is, by inherent properties sects, by treading on them unwittingly existing in itself; that spirit is found in as he passed through streets ; eats; prays two conditions, emancipated, and enclosed again to the persons designated as above; by matter ; that but one spirit is indi- continues silent nearly all the day; at its siduated through the whole universe of close again repeats incantations, &c. Many animated existence (although Chervvaka, other duties must be passed over, as too a Jaina leader, denied the existence of numerous to introduce here. spirit altogether)—that all human affairs who, by practising the duties of the Jaina are regulated by religion, and irreligion, religion, renders himself worthy of the i.e. by works of merit and demerit ; that worship of Indru and the other gods ; religion naturally purifies and immortalizes who delivers himself from chains of the its possessor, and that irreligion defiles, world, obtaining complete emancipation degrades, and ruins men; that the future from matter, becomes a proper object of births of men are regulated by present worship to all creatures. Passing by the actions ; that works of merit will raise a festivals, &c. of this sort, we have only person to one of the twelve heavens; that room to add, that at the time of a Jaina for eight miles beyond the highest heaven, mendicant's last sickness, a disciple repeats all is darkness; that below this heaven a certain prayer to him, and rehearses the is a heaven, in which all who obtain praises of the Jaina mendicants. After unchanging happiness remain, and is his death, with his body are burnt the 36,000,000 miles long; that the inhabit. brush with which he swept the road or his ants of this world occupy 1,332 cubits of seat, that he might not destroy animal life, these regions; that below are five other his staff, his beggar's bag, and a lump of beavens, occupied by ascetics somewhat wheated pase. less pure than the former ; that lower still There are five sects of Jainas, but the are twelve heavens, one below the other; difference between them is trifling. The that the earth is next hung in air ; beneathi, Digumburus, who wear no clothes; the water; and still lower, darkness. Persons Teru-punt-hees, the Dhooriyas, the Loonsinning in the above-named heavens, be- kas, and the Bouddhus.—[ Asiatic Observer.

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To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sir: Nothing has struck me unfortunately any officer, however forcibly as the very tardy promotion zealous he may be, before he can arwhich has for many years prevailed rive at the rank of Colonel, Lieutein the Indian army; by which means nant-Colonel, or Major, loses those

Cols. Li-Cols.

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160 tious mind.

Brought forward 79
To remove this obstacle

Bombay Sepoys, 12 regts.... 12 to promotion in some degree, I can

Bengal Engineers, 1 corps 1 devise no other means than trenching, Madras Do. to a limited extent, upon the Off- Bombay Do. Reckoning Fund, and by soliciting Thus the Indian army from the Company's finances, which

94

y} 190

comprises 94 regts. now becoming annually more

I have seen no distribution for many abundant, the sum of 10,000 rupees in aid thereof. By these means, as

years of the Off-Reckoning Fund,

(which most assuredly ought to be will be seen hereafter, the retirement

annually inserted in the Asiatic Jourof many Lieutenant-Colonels and Ma

nal, for the information of the Colojors would make room for the promo- nels of regiments and other officers tion of junior officers to fill the effi- residing in England), but I have heard cient situations of those regimental it stated, that the fund admits of ranks, now, in too many instances, oc

12,000 rupees to each Colonel. Precupied by worn-out constitutions.

suming that this statement is correct, As proofs of the tardiness of pro

I propose that in future 2,000 rupees motion, Colonel Alexander Knox, a

per annum be deducted from each cadet of 1780, was only last year pro- regiment, forming the annual sum of moted to a brigade of cavalry; Colo

188,000 rupees to be appropriated as nel Henry Worsley, C.B., and Colonel

under. Vanrennan, also cadets of 1780, were

Upon the future retirement of every last year promoted to the colonelcies Lieutenant-Colonel, the sum of 1201. of regiments; and the Majors pro- shall annually be allowed to him in moted on those occasions to lieute- addition to his pay, making his innant-colonelcies were cadets of 1794.

come about 485l. ; to every Major Thus, after a service of forty-two years, I would allow 801., increasing his the three former became Colonels of income to 362. But if the Company regiments, and the latter, after thirty should bestow the sum solicited, the years, are their successors as Lieute

plan will then admit of some addition nant-Colonels; so that

every
liberal

to both classes of retiring officers. mind will admit, that before these

Colonels of regiments may in the officers can arrive at the goal of re

outset object to this intrusion apon ward for active services, their consti- their Off-Reckoning receipts; but those tutions must be broken down by the possessing liberal minds will consider, effects of a tropical climate.

that many of their juniors have been I will now enter upon a detail of the plan I have to suggest, through Lieutenant-Colonel, as they them

as long in arriving at the rank of your publication, for the considera

selves were in obtaining regiments; tion of those who have the power to

and that even with this obtrusion on remedy the evil.

their fund, they are left in a better Bengal Cavalry, 4 brigades

situation than Colonels of regiments Do, Artillery, 4 battalions 4

in the King's army. Do. Europ. regt., 1 regt.

Should this plan meet with the Do. Sepoys, 30 regiments 30

countenance of the Directors, I would Madras Cavalry, 4 brigades

recommend that it be acted upon at Do. Artillery, 4 battalions 4

first by offering its advantages to the Do. Europ. regt., 1 regt.

junior Lieutenant-Colonels and MaDo. Sepoys, 29 regiments 29

jors, and in case of their declining to Bombay Cavalry, 1 brigade

retire, then the second LieutenantDo. Europ. regt., 1 regt.

Colonels and Majors to be eligible Carried forward 579

thereto.

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Various plans have been offered to for twenty years, quietly enjoying the Bengal Government, through the otium cum dignitate, whilst their juniors medium of the Calcutta press, for have been partaking in all the hardameliorating the situation of certain ships of Lord Lake's and the more ranks of the Company's army, by pro- recent campaigns. It is time, therefore, motion to higher grades : but none to break in upon old and impolitic have occurred to me so feasible as regulations, whether of the East-India this very moderate application from or any other service. the Off-Reckoning Fund, aided by any This plan is suggested by a Bengal contribution the Directors may au- Retired Officer, and by one who, had thorize. The officers designed to be health permitted, would some years thus benefited are, by sanctioned re- ago have had the rank of Major Genegulations, entitled to retire upon full ral, and a regiment; and he would, pay after twenty-two years' actual under these fortunate occurrences, service in India ; but the reason why most cheerfully have subscribed to so few have availed themselves of any plan like the foregoing. He is this regulation is, that the retired pay also of opinion that, to render the is inadequate for comfortable retire- service still more desirable, the Court ment. Numbers of Lieutenant-Colo- of Directors cannot do a more bene. nels and Majors continually come volent action, than place their Retired home on furlough : and after resorting Captains and Subalterns upon the to coffee-houses in London, or beguil- same rate of half-pay as was obtained ing their time at Cheltenham, they for similar ranks in the King's service. return to India waiting for further The additional expense would be very promotion, or some adventitious turn trifling to a great political body like in the service; all which might be the East-India Company. It may also prevented if some liberal addition were be remarked, that the late most liberal made to their incomes. I honestly concession of £60,000 per confess that I can see no just reason from the Company, in aid of the why a General Officer, as Colonel of royal retired full and half-pay, clearly a regiment, should sit quietly in Eng- bestows upon every King's Captain land, partaking of all the advantage of 78., and on every Lieutenant of seven the Off-Reckoning Fund, whilst his years' standing, 4s. 2d. per

and Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors are no officer of these ranks in the bearing the heat and burden of the Company's service can, according to day, although, as I have above ob- the regulations of 1796, be entitled to served, they have been more years half-pay under thirteen years' service, in arriving at those ranks, than he I leave it to the obvious good sense was in succeeding to the command of and liberality of the worthy Directors his regiment-a fact sufficiently ex of East-India affairs, whether their emplified in the instances of Colonels unfortunate junior servants cannot Knox, Worsley, and Vanrennan, of spend this additional boon of liberathe Bengal army.

lity as judiciously as their brethren All new regulations grow out of in the Royal service in India, with new circumstances, as did those of whom they have jointly fought and 1796, from the novel introduction of bled for the East-India Company's numerous King's corps, causing there- interests, during the most important by supercession and disgust. Tardy crisis of their political existence. promotion now prevails: and the only

I remain, Sir, &c. relief is, for Field Officers to be allow A BENGAL RETIRED OFFICER. ed to participate in the Off-Reckoning P.S. I further beg leave to observe, Fund, to a moderate extent. Some that considering the paucity of reward General Officers have been at home for meritorious General Officers in the Asiatic Journ.-No. 97.

Vol. XVII. E

annum

diem;

as

King's service, when compared to the become vacant, they are now assigned number of that class, how much bet- to those officers who have seen much ter it would be to regulate, that, in service, free from Parliamentary infuture, no General Officer having a fluence; but when once any General regiment shall hold another situation, Officer gets a regiment, any secondary viz. Constable of the Tower, or any situation he may hold should be given of the small Home Governments, up. It is to be lamented that several such as Tilbury, Berwick, Blackness, noblemen, whose ample fortunes preCalshot, Carlisle, Chester, Dartmouth, vent a regiment from being any object Dunbarton, Edinburgh, and twenty or to them in a pecuniary point of views thirty more. All these should be re- should still tenaciously retain the emoserved for meritorious General Offi- luments thereof: they should rather cers not having regiments. All officers feel a pride in bestowing the Off-Recwill allow, that whenever regiments koning upon their junior Field Officers.

MEMORANDA OF A VOYAGE ON THE GANGES. Nov. 7.-We this day finished our a spirit to our dull energies, hitherto in navigation of the Bhaggeratty, and fairly tone with the surrounding scenery, is the committed our budgerow to the protecting appearance in the distance of the Rajemagenius of the “hallowed” stream. We hal Hills. These we first observed yeshad a slight view of the Ganges on the terday, like dark clouds rising from the 5th, but its appearance then (as now) by horizon; but they are now distinctly no means corresponded with the high ex. visible, running from W. to E., and appa. pectations we had formed, from the de. rently crossing the course of the river as scription given of this most sacred of it now flows. From the appearance which Hindu rivers. The breadth at the point they make, their general elevation cannot of entrance appears about four or five be great. miles; and so great a body of waters The country is become much more should make a strong impression on the barren, and destitute of trees, since we spectator, who has been accustomed to gaze left the village of Soots; and that which on the comparative puny dimensions of now lies before us might serve, I think, the Tay, the Thames, or the dependent to give the traveller a faint idea of what he branch-the Hooghly. It looks more would meet with in the deserts of Arabia, like an extensive standing pool, than a or the parched plains in the interior of vast collection of moving waters. To this Africa. We complained, on the Hooghly, the great muddiness of the stream, as well that the trees preserted sameness of scenery, as the general flatness of the country, must and hailed with pleasure every opening in contribute; and the dull broken-down the wood, that gave us a view of the fields bank, does any thing but inspire one with a and pasture grounds; but now we strain feeling of sublimity, to counteract the

our eyes, to no purpose, for these interest. effect of these degrading circumstances. ing objects, and long earnestly again for At one or two points of the view, however, the deep umbrage which surrounds the a very agreeable relief is afforded by the Indian village. The soil of this bare addition of some lofty trees, which, tower district is extremely sandy, possessing ing above the others, with variously figured hardly any tenacity; and the herbage which summits, take away from the uniformity, it yields is scanty and impoverished : yet and yield an object for the wearied eye to even with this wretched pabulum, the narepose on.

These trees are situate on the tives contrive to subsist their cattle, which opposite, or left bank of the river, and appear in as good condition, and not less present much the same appearance as is numerous, than in the others which we seen in English prospects : a consider- passed. This village, the first we bave able distance intervening between each

seen on the banks of the great river, looks parcel, and the horizon only bounding the the picture of an Arab or Tartar kraul, view in the interval. What gives the from the general barrenness around it; but greatest charm to the new course, and adds the houses are even more subtantially

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