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parently with the utmost sang froid. Their hair is first cut short; and the instrument with which they are decapitated is a long sharp knife, with which the executioner seldom fails to sever the head from the body at one blow; but if he does fail, he is severely flogged for his want of dexterity. The Birmans are a very fine, athletic, and most intelligent race of men; and there is not, perhaps, in the world a finer country than that which they inhabit; but, under such a government as that which rules over it, neither the capabilities of the inhabitants nor of the soil can ever be sufficiently developed. Towards Europeans the conduct, both of the King of Ava, and of his Viceroys at Rangoon, has generally been mild and conciliatory; although they have occasionally been subjected to the most degrading treatment; instances of which have very recently occurred. It is believed, however, that the King would never sanction such proceedings, as he has shewn the most marked attention to the Europeans who have visited his capital, and evinced the greatest readiness to hear their complaints; but the fact is, the interpreters they employ dare not truly interpret what they say. It is a curious fact, that he is anxious to understand the contents of the Calcutta newspapers; and the Calcutta Journal, we understand, is regularly taken up to Ava to be translated to him : but the translators, it is said, very courteously suppress any passage that they suppose might be offensive to the “golden ears.” But, notwithstanding this timidity of the interpreters the editors of our papers here, when communicating any fact that may reflect on the King of Ava, or on the Birmah Government, should be somewhat guarded; as by any reference to the informant, they may endanger even his life, should he ever return to Pegue, and the circumstance be made known to the Viceroy, who has the power of life and death without reference to the King. In cases of common disputes or misunderstandings arising between foreigners and the natives, the Shabundar, a Mr. Lansago, by birth a Spaniard, was not long since appointed the Judge; and the Viceroy could not interfere with his decisions. It was said, however, that those resorting there, the Europeans in particular, had little cause to rejoice at this.- Bengal Hurk. May 23. Ship Launch at Rangoon.—On Satur
day, the 26th of April 1823, at half-past five P.M., was launched from the yard of Mr. John Turner, builder in Rangoon, a ship of the burthen of 844 tons. All the Europeans there, and an immense concourse of Birmahs, attended the interesting “eremony. She was named the Penang Merchant, and is the property of Catcha. toor Gallastein, Esq., Armenian merchant at Penang.—l Cal, Jour. May 20.
PENANG. CONTRIBUtion to Tu E DISTREssed Inish. To the Hon. Sir Froncis Macnaghten, &c. &c. Chairman of the Calcutta Committee for the Distressed Irish. P. W. Island, April 29, 182: Honourable Sir:-Nothing but the want of an opportunity for communicating with Calcutta has prevented my soliciting permission, at an earlier date, to enclose to your address the present, first of a set of Government bills of exchange, for Sicca Rupees 3,061 JO 9, which amount the community of Prince of Wales’ Island have subscribed, according to the accompanying list, in behalf of the distressed poor in Ireland, and which it affords me much personal gratification to become the channel of remitting for disposal to you, and the Committee at Calcutta, whose generous and patriotic labours you have directed with so much zeal and true benevolence. I have the honour to remain, Yours, &c. W. E. Phillips.
MARKETs, state of Exchange, &c.
Accounts from Batavia have been received to the 24th September. By these we learn that the coffee market remained in an unsettled state, and prices were nominal. At the eastward, however, for two or three weeks previous, there had been a considerable decline. At Sourabaya, where the quantity was very considerable, the last quotation was thirty rupees per picul, or 13 dollars 63 cents. currency on shore, and a further decline was expected. The quantity of coffee on hand is stated to be unusually large for the season, and it was thought the holders must give way. The amount of the stock at Batavia, in the hands of Government and private individuals, was about 140,000 piculs, and as much more remained to be brought forward. The market, at the date of these advices, was very favourable for imports, but it was expected in three or four months an advance would take place in almost every article. The opium farms had been sold the beginning of September, and had been purchased by several companies, which would produce a competition in the market, and very probably affect the price of the drug, as heretofore the farms were beld by one company. The exchange at Batavia was, on England, at thirty days, 4} dollars currency; on Holland, at three months, 51 to 52 st. do. On Bengal, at thirty days, 187 sicca rupees per 100 dollars. Spanish dollars, 10 to 11 per cent. slow sale; and doubloons, 164 to 16}.
Letters from Batavia of the 16th September last, bring the news of the death of his Highness the Soesochoenan of Soerakarta, Pakoebaeana-Senopatti-Ingologo-Abdul-Rachman-Saliidan-Panatogomo V., which happened on the 5th of that month. This Prince succeeded his father in October 1820. He has not left any legitimate descendants. Till the Supreme Government shall have come to a decision respecting the succession to the throne, our resident at Socrakarta has taken possession of the seals of Government, and fixed his abode in the palace.— Dutch Paper.
Rome, Jan. 22. — According to the accounts of the Missionaries in the eastern kingdom of Tonquin, Christianity makes great progress there. The Mandarins of the 1st and 2d class favour the labours of the Missionaries, and protect them in the exercise of their religion, the disturbers of which are rigorously punished. The learned men in particular are easily instructed, and break their idols to pieces after a few conferences with the Missionaries. In June 1821, a whole district sent deputies to ask to be instructed in the Christian faith.-[German Paper.
WAN DIEMAN'S LAND.
We have received a series of Gazettes from Hobart Town, Van Dieman's Land, to the end of August. The progress of improvement of this fine colony appears to be extremely rapid, of which, perhaps, the most striking instance is afforded in the projected establishment of passagevessels, constructed after the manner of the Leith and Berwick smacks, to sail regularly between Hobart Town and Sidney, for the conveyance of passengers. A company had been formed for this purpose at Hobart Town, to which the sum of £2,500 had been subscribed, the whole amount required for the undertaking being £6,000. The Berwick, a passage-vessel for Van Dieman's Land, had brought out a supply of merino, the greater part of which arrived safe; but of 24 head of horned cattle shipped on board the same vessel, the whole unfortunately perished. These cattle were of the approved breed, and in consequence of the very serious loss sustained, as well to the colony as to the individuals concerned, a legal investigation was likely to take place on the subject. We are glad to perceive that proper protection is given to the passengers on their voyage to this colony, by giving them damages in the law courts in cases of neglect or ill-treatment by the Captain. Three actions for such conduct were brought in the Lieutenant Governor's Court against the Captain of the Berwick, in all of which verdicts were given for the olaintiffs. It was in contemplation to establish a bank at Hobart Town.
Hobart Town Gazettes of the 1st Sept. have been received at the New England
Coffee-house. They mention the arrival, from England, of the ship Commodore Hayes, Capt. Moncrief, with 216 male convicts. She had on board the headquarters and staff of the 3d regiment of infantry (or buffs). There had been a General Meeting at Hobart Town of the merchants, landholders, and respectable inhabitants, when an abstract of a regulation for the bank was agreed to, and a large portion of the shares subscribed for. The Chairman of the Meeting, with a deputation of twelve gentlemen, had afterwards an interview with the LieutenantGovernor, for the purpose of requesting him to obtain a charter from his Excellency the Governor-in-Chief, which his honour promised immediately to solicit.
P. S. Businnee, Esq., found guilty at the Cape of embezzling the public money, has been sentenced to transportation from the colony for seven years.
TRISTAN DE ACUNHA.
Falmouth, Feb. 14.—We have been favoured by a respectable passenger of the ship Berwick, which called off the island of Tristan de Acunha, on her voyage to this port, with the following particulars, to which we give publicity, trusting they may be useful to voyagers bound to India and New Holland :
“March 25, 1823, the ship Berwick called off the island of Tristan de Acunha, found seventeen people, ten of whom constantly reside there, who had for disposal 25 tons of potatoes, vegetables, milk and butter. They have two good whale-boats, with which they are always ready to afford assistance in watering any vessel requiring their aid. The water is easily got by rolling the casks a short distance (30 yards) from the boats; or with a long hose, in moderate weather, the casks could be filled in the boats. In payment for their assistance, or supplies of potatoes, &c. they gave preference to clothes, salt beef, pork, and rum; and their demands were not exorbitant for either potatoes, milk, or assistance.”
As we have nothing important to offer in the way of postscript, in addition to the intelligence communicated in the foregoing pages, we shall content ourselves with observing, that they contain the latest that has hitherto reached this country, from any of the three Presidencies. We have reason to believe, indeed, that our last number contained later information from Calcutta than has yet been received in any other quarter.
Feb. 11. A Court of Directors was held when the following Commanders took leave of the Court previous to departing for their respective destinations, viz.: Capt. Head, Canning, for Bengal and China; Capt. Sotheby, London, for St. Helena, Bombay, and China; Capt. Hamilton, Dunira, and Capt. Larkins, Marquis Camden, for Bombay and China.
18. A Court of Directors was held, when the following Commanders took leave of the Court, previous to departing for their respective destinations, viz. Capt. Clifford, Lady Melville, and Capt. Smith, William Fairlie, for Madras and China. The following Commanders were sworn, viz., Capt. Balderston, Asia; Capt. Fraser, Marquis of Huntly; and Capt. Williams, Princess Amelia; for China direct.
20. The despatches for Bengal and China, by the ship Sir David Scott, were closed, and delivered to the Purser of that ship.
21. The despatches were closed, and delivered to the Pursers of the following ships, viz. Canning, Capt. Head; Balcarras, Capt. Cameron, for Bengal and China; and Dunira, Capt. Hamilton, for Bombay and China.
APPOINTMIENTS. The Right Hon. Robert Viscount Melville, Sir Wm. Johnstone Hope, Sir Geo. Cockburn, Sir George Clerk, and William Robert Keith Douglas, Esq., to be his Majesty's Commissioners for executing the office of High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dominions, islands, and territories thereunto belonging. George R. Chinnery, Esq., to be Commissioner on the part of his Majesty, to reside in Spain, for the settlement of the claims of British and Spanish subjects, Daniel Molloy Hamilton, Esq., to be his Majesty's Commissioner of Arbitration, in the room of Edward FitzGerald, Esq., deceased, to the several Mixed Commissions established at Sierra Leone, for the prevention of illegal traffic in slaves. James Woods, Esq., in the room of Daniel Molloy Hamilton, Esq., to be Registrar to the Commissions aforesaid. Brevet-Col. Hon. Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby, from half-pay 22d Lt. Drags., to be Inspecting Field Officer of Militia in the Ionian Islands, vice John Thomas Fane, who exchanges. Capt. Lord Edward Hay, from half-pay,
to be Sub-Inspector of Militia in the Ionian Islands, vice Krumm, resigned. General George Lord Harris, G.C.B., to be Governor of Dumbarton Castle, vice General Dundas, deceased. William Mark, Esq., to be his Majesty's Consul for the province of Granada, to reside at Malaga. James Wallace, Esq., to be his Majesty's Consul for the state of Georgia, to reside at Savannah. The Marquis of Hastings to be Governor of Malta, vice Sir Thomas Maitland, deceased. Major-Gen. Sir Fred. Adam, K.C.B., to be Lord High Commissioner in the Ionian Islands, and to have the local rank of Lieut.-General. Brev.-Major William George Moore, 1st or Grenadier Foot Guards, to be Deputy Quartermaster-General to the Forces serving in the Windward and Leeward Islands (with the rank of Lieut.-Colonel in the Army), vice Popham, deceased.
A rule has been granted by the Court of King's Bench to shew cause why a criminal prosecution should not issue against William White, printer and publisher of a weekly newspaper, for a libel on Sir William Rumbold, to the following effect:-Sir William Rumbold was stated to have been turned out of India by Mr. Adam, during the interregnum between the departure of the Marquess of Hastings and the arrival of Lord Amherst, for a gross fraud.—“The Nizam, who is the Prince at Hydrabad, wished to borrow from the house of Palmer and Co. in which Sir W. Rumbold was a partner, fifty lacks of rupees, or £700,000 at the very moderate interest of 25 per cent. As Messrs. Palmer and Co. were not worth so much, they thought it prudent to borrow as much money as they could from the natives at 12% per cent., and by the force of English bayonets commanded by English officers, levy their interest of 25 per cent. for all the sums which they had advanced to the Nizam. This excellent speculation went on for some time; in the mean time the East-India Company had engaged to pay the Nizam's debts, under the condition that he should place his estate under the protection of the English Government, and allow the Company to administer them as trustecs, till all his debts were paid, receiving in the interim a yearly sum for him for his maintenance. When the several creditors were called upon to prove their debts, the house of Paliner and Co. produced an acknowledgment signed by His Highness for the amount of £700,000, which was the sum stipulated at first to be lent; on inquiry, however, it turned out that of this sum only £350,000 had been paid; and that the remaining £350,000 was merely a fraudulent trick to be played against the Government, who, without this inquiry instituted by Mr. Adam, would have been obliged to pay to Messrs. Palmer and Co. nothing less than £350,000 more, as a just debt contracted by the Nizam with their house.” As connected with this affair, so far at least as affects the character of the Marquess of Hastings, a discussion took place at the last General Court of Proprietors at the India House, a copious report of which will be found in a subsequent page. It would be premature to offer any observations at present, more particularly as a Court of Proprietors will be specially held on the 3d March, “for taking into consideration the services of the late Governor-General the Marquess of Hastings.”
It is reported that Prince Frederick is to be sent out by the Netherlands Government as Viceroy of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern Arebipelago.
A body of individuals have lately formed an association for promoting emigration to New Zealand. The address which they have circulated is tolerably correct in the information it communicates, but certainly holds out too sanguine prospects. We shall rejoice exceedingly to hear of an industrious and thriving colony of Europeans established in the islands of New Zealand; but we think it right to observe that the first settlers will undoubtedly have to contend with many difficulties, and to submit to numerous privations. The natives are too uncivilized at present to be always courteous and willing to assist. Moreover, any material offence given to them by a single individual may cause a general massacre of the colonists. For further information respecting these islands and their inhabitants, we beg to refer to an article in our last number.
The singular leniency of the confederates who chastized the Algerines several years ago, has emboldened that unprincipled race to recommence their piracies. Why a single battery should have been allowed to remain we never could understand. England has again declared war against these public robbers. We are bound to treat them to a certain extent according to the laws of nations; but we sincerely hope that we shall exact, on the termination of the contest, such rigid terms as may for ever after oblige them to respect the persons and the property of unoffending nations.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer has just given notice of a very important alteration in the revenue laws in regard to raw and manufactured silks. The latter are from July next to be admitted for home-consumption on a duty of 20 per cent. if plain, and 30 per cent. if figured. To obviate any sudden injury that might accrue to our silk weavers from this arrange. ment, the duty on raw silk, the produce of the British territories, is to be reduced from four shillings to threepence per pound. We expect, nevertheless, that a great outcry will be raised by the manufacturers. As the question appears to us, we highly approve of the measure. We do not expect that there will at present be any great influx of manufactured silks beyond the contraband importations which are now made. The immediate effect, therefore, will be to benefit the British manufacturer, who will obtain the raw material at a lower rate. It is probable, however, that the ultimate result will be a considerable increase of fair trade, and diminution of crime. All parties will feel their way; and we think it likely that the coarser articles will shortly be manufactured in one country, and the more costly in another. We greatly approve the general principle of abolishing such prohibitory laws, and ardently hope that East India sugars will not be much longer regarded as politic exception.
Feb. 6. Gravesend. Royal George, Ellerby, from Bombay.
12. Off Portsmouth. Skelton, Dixon, from Van Dieman's Land, 5th Sept.
14. Cowes. George Home, Young, from Batavia.
Departures. Jan. 29. Deal. Prince Regent, Lamb, for Van Dieman's Land and New South Wales. Feb. 13. Gravesend. Thames, Litson, for Ceylon. 15. Portsmouth. Alfred, Laughton, to Van Dieman's Land, and New South Wales. 18. Gravesend. William Money, Jackson, for Madras and Bengal; and Orpheus, Finlay, for Mauritius and Ceylon. 19. Ditto. Sir David Scott, Tween, for Bengal and China. — Deal. Caroline, Harris, for Batavia, Singapore, and Penang. 22 Portsmouth. Duke of Bedford, Conyngham, for Madras and Bengal. 23. Gravesend. Canning, Head, for Bengal and China. — The H.C.'s ships Dunira, Hamilton, for Bombay and China; and Earl of Balcarras, Cameron, for Bengal and China, are under dispatch. List of Passengers. Per Orpheus, for the Mauritius: Lieut. Vickers, Royal Engineers; Mrs. Vickers; Ensign Westmacott, Staff Corps; Lieut. Stalker, H. M. 82d regt. ; Dr. Mont. gomery; Mr. John Davy; Mr. Dolland, and Mr. Wilson. Per Sir David Scott, for Bengal: Messrs. Egerton, Fullow, Gibb, Daniell, and Paxton, Cadets. *r Caroline, for Batavia: Capt. Stavers, and Messrs. Lodge and Crane. Per Duke of Bedford, for Madras and Bengal: Mr. and Mrs. Walter, Miss Yates, Miss Snow, G. Pearce, M.D.; Mrs. Pearce; John Ord, Esq., Madras Civil Service; Lieut. Lang; Messrs. Hughes, Reid, Bates, Rawlinson, White, Chinnery, Campbell, Bales, Hoffman, Munsey, Rose, Wybart, Stubbs, Hopper, Bloog, two M'Kenzies, Ramsey, and M'Kay, Cadets; and Mr. Burt, returning to India. Per Dunira, for Bombay: Mr., Mrs., and two Miss Elphinstones; Mrs. Snodgras, Misses Evans and Freasure, Capt. and Mrs. Little; Mr. Phillips; Messrs.
Binny, Malcolm, and Burnett, Writers; Messrs. Ramsay, Colquhoun, Trevely, Fitzroy, Rind, Smith, Foulerton, Styles, Purvis, Ottley, and Molory, Cadets; Messrs. Arnot and Gibbs, Assist. Surgeons. Per Canning, for Bengal: Mr. and Mrs. Law and two servants; Mr. Brownrigg and one servant; Messrs. Lawrell, Begbie, Dickson, and Gibson, Cadets. Per Earl of Balcarras, for Bengal: Capt. Fitzgerald, Mrs. Belhatchett, Miss Graham, Miss E. Graham, Mr. Walker, Writer; Mr. M'Gaviston, Assistant-Surgeon; Messrs. Higgenson, Milner, Hutchinson, Stewart, Lyon, Reid, and Brown, Cadets. Vessels spoken with. Potton, Welbank, London to Bengal, 30th Aug. Providence, Remmington, London to Bengal, 11th Dec., lat. 6 20 N. long. 22 30 W. Bengal Merchant, Brown, London to Bengal, 11th Dec., lat. 4 N. long. 22 W. Lord Hungerford, Farquharson, London to Bengal, 10th Feb., lat. 48. N. long 10 2 W. . Miscellaneous. Bordeaur, Jan. 27.—“The Neptune, Cormeer, is wrecked on Cochin China; a small part of the cargo that was on board saved.” Cape of Good Hope, Nov. 27.-‘The Brailsford, Spring, arrived here yesterday from Bombay, bound to London, in a leaky state, having experienced bad weather off Algoa Bay. The leak continues at the rate of thirteen inches per hour, and it is apprehended it will be necessary to discharge part of the cargo.” Batavia, Oct. 13.—“ The Woodman, Ford, arrived here 10th inst. from Port Jackson, leaky ; has been surveyed, and must proceed to Sourabaya, to be hove down and repaired. The Jamima, Watt, from London, has arrived at Batavia. The H. C.’s Ship Bridgewater, from Bombay, had arrived at Singapore, and was to sail for China the 20th Sept.