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father of Modaffer, we ought to observe, jects of dispute, which it would be irrele that the son and successor of Sekander vant here to discuss : but we must confine Schah, called himself Gaiath-eddin, and ourselves to declare, that the cause of Ali the name of a prince, of the name of was embraced immediately by the MusulMoudjahed, is not mentioned by any man inbabitants of Mesopotamia and of Oriental author whatever.

Arabia, and after a short period, it preThose who are acquainted with Musul. dominated in Africa, under the Fatimite man history, will not be surprised at the khalifs, who declared themselves descendpompous epithets which the kings of Ben ed from that celebrated warrior. At pregal gave to the khalifs of Egypt; such were sent, it is in Persia where the dynasty of -imam or sovereign pontif,--and magni. Ali is held in the highest perfection. The ficent khalif, titles assumed also by the opposite doctrine, which does not acknowancient khalifs of Bagdad. It will, per- ledge any preference between the four first haps, be thought more singular that the khalifs, under the permission that they names of the four first khalifs, or succes were all equally good, was professed by sors of Muhamed (Mahomet), should be

the khalifs of Bagdad, and afterwards by inscribed on the medal numbered 4.

those of Egypt. This is also the opinion Here is the reason; the assemblage of of the Turks of the present age. We can these four names is the designation of the conceive, then, that the Sultan of Dehli, religious sect to which the Musulman and the other Musulman princes of India, princes of India belonged. It is well having attached themselves to the doctrine known, that among the various sects which

of the khalifs of Egypt, would naturally divide Islamism, there are two princi- acknowledge the four first khalifs, and it pally which appear now more than ever to is that which they were desirous of recontroul the rest. The first are the ex

cording on their medals, as it is recorded, clusive partisans of the right of the house in like manner, on many of their monuof Ali, the second are those who acknow

ments, until the extinction of the Mogul ledge, as equally legitimate, all the fami. empire by the English. Sometimes the lies of the sovereigns who have governed names of these khalifs are accompanied Islamism. The division ascends to the

with honourable epithets, designating the first century of the Hejra. When Ma

fine qualities which were attributed to homet died, he left no son. The only them. person, who, by his birth, had a right to

In general, nothing is so common in the empire, was Ali, who married Fatima, the east as epithets ; even the Muhamedan the daughter of Mahomet; unfortunately, towns have theirs. On No. 4 of our the right of succession not being then es medals, the term of the toun well guarded, tablished in Arabia as it was elsewhere. is an epithet which probably applies to The fact is, that Ali did not immediately Sonarganou, which bears also the title of succeed his father-in-law, but occupied brilliant residence, Jlo jmis the word the throne after Abou-bekr, Omar, and Othman. Also, from that period, his

that signifies residence, has been employed partisans began to maintain, as they had

in all ages, with the same meaning, by previously maintained, that to him, ex

the Musulman princes of India to exalt clusively, belonged the sovereign autority, their capitals. Thus, in the drawing of and that the three princes who had preceded the ancient medals of India, collected by bim, were intruders and usurpers. Those

Colonel Gentil, we read the words--resiwho thought this, however, were by no

dence of Lahor,-residence of Dehli, means the greater number. The others

residence of Moultal ; the same word is

Nothing is more advised to leave things as they were; they also used in Africa. contested not the right of Ali to the

common for example, than to find this khalifat, from the moment that he was

word on the coins of Fez and Morocco. recognized as such by the Musulman pro

It is an error of all those who have had vinces; they only required that the other

to publish these medals, to have read three should not be rejected, consenting to unes castle for juis residence. Now, acknowledge all the four as good and it is easy to convince ourselves, by legitimate khalifs. To these discussions,

our own eyes, that they have deceived were introduced political and other sub- themselves, even by following the draw

ings which they have given of these me. thus constructed are not, perhaps, in dals; moreover, if one takes the pains to harmony with the rules of Arabic gramread the diplomatic pieces of these coun mar; neither will we absolutely undertries; for example, those which have been take to defend our manner of interpreting inserted by the Baron de Sacy in his them. We should be careful, however, Chrestomathie Arabe, they will find the not to insist too much on this sort of name of residence. The only objection that reasoning; it would be wrong to suppose can be made, is relative to the epithet of that the Arabic language was ever written Jlo brilliant, which, on our medal, ac

in India, as it was formerly at Bagdad,

and Bassora. Not to cite new authority, companies the word residence. We must

we might remark, on the medal No. 4, acknowledge, that this word thus employ.

We ed was altogether unknown to us.

the word town, without the article which

ought to have been prefixed. This gramfind, however, others, very much like

matical error is just the same as if we them; for example, in the 1st vol. p. 414, of the Chrestomathie Arabe, la ville de

sliould say, struck in the town the well Maroc est qualifié de résidence sublime, strictly and literally to the Arabic lan

guarded. We should say, by attending

guage, struck in lown the well guarded. us, that the two words

It might still be objected to حضره علية

جلال
حضرة

TURKISH LITERATURE. We have translated the following ex- and harmony; and its rules are so admiracellent article from the Courier de bly simple, that we should rather suppose Londres * of March 30.

them to have been framed by an academy

of learned men, than by a society conNouveaur Elémens de Grammaire Turke, sisting of nomade and pastoral tribes. à l'usage de l'Ecole Royale des Langues

We shall not enter into a minute analysis Orientales ; par Amédée Jaubert, Maí.

of this language; but it may not be amiss tre des Requéles, Professeur de Langue

to furnish, as an example of its general Turke près la Bibliothèque du Roi,etc.

construction, the facility with which a An erroneous opinion is generally en

verb is conjugated. By adding a single tertained in Europe respecting the lan- syllable, and sometimes by a single letter guage and literature of the Ottomans, and

to the radical of the verb, it is thus moditheir system of education. It is supposed fied. The verb sevmeq, to love, is made by many, that the language of this barba

to signify, to be loved, to love one ano1ous people is even less cultivated than their ther, to make one love, to make us love manners : such, however, is not the case.

one another, to love not, to be loved not, The decendants of Othmant possess a

to make us not love one another, &c. language, which is inferior to no ancient

We should tire our readers by following or modern tongue in softness, flexibility, up the series of modifications.

There are, however, several defects with * A French newspaper published in London which this language, or rather those who every Tuesday and Friday evening.-We eagrriy write it, may be charged. The literati of embrace this opportunity of recommending, par. ticularly to our younger readers, this useful and

the country frequently write with a degree interesting Journal, every number of which con. of obscurity it would be easy to avoid. tains a great variety of valuable information ad-. Not contented with admitting into their mirably arrang. d. We can scarcely imagine a better mode of obtaining a familiar acquaintance

pages, a multiplicity of Arabic and Per. with the French language, than the constant

sian terms, borrowed from their neighperusal of a well-con lucied newspaper in that bours, and which are not readily subjected It gives us pleasure tu add, that the

to the rules of Turkish syntax, they strive publication we allude to, is as remarkable for its moral tone, as for the general interest which the

to crowd together a number of participles, novelty and variety of its matter cannot fail of which give no determinate time, always exciting. + The barbarous appellation of Turks, by which veniently suspended, and sometimes even

keep the meaning of the sentence inconthis people is usually designated, is not acknow. ledged by themselves.

to the end of the second or third leaf of

tonglie.

causes.

the volume. When, in addition to these endeavoured to simplify the language he defects, we take into consideration, that has undertaken to teach, by laying its there are neither vowels, paragraphs, nor elements before us with method and perpunctuation, which, in fact, are seldom spicuity. He has distinguished, with to be met with in Oriental languages, we much address, a variety of trifling anomamay form a tolerable idea of the per- lies, which other grammarians had respicuity of a Turkish manuscript. garded as general rules instead of excep

The penury of Turkish literature tions. In short, this learned orientalist has is, doubtless, to be attributed to these employed the superior intelligence he has

Nevertheless the language can derived from long study and extensive exboast of poets, for instance, Rouhihi and perience to preserve to the Turkish idiom Meshiy; of romance writers, amongst the character of simplicity which justly whom the aged Tartare Barakeh may be belongs to it. mentioned; and of a considerable number The work is concluded by a collection of historians, geographers, and physicians. of proverbs, engraved in lithographic, by

But, even if the Turkish language does M. Bianchi, and which are both entertainnot present us with a variety of literary ing and instructive. These proverbs will productions worthy of attention, it ought serve as exercises for the pupil; and will, not the less to be an object of study to the at the same timc, be interesting to other philologist, for it is the only diplomatic readers, by exemplifying the wisdom and language made use of at most of the observation of a people generally supposed eastern courts. It is almost exclusively to be barbarous. spoken at the courts of the Viceroy of We repeat, the Turks are by no means Egypt, and the Shah of Persia, under the so uncivilized as report declares them. tents of the great Khans of Tartary, and Public instruction is encouraged by all in the seraglio of the Sultan, and is cer. the higher classes of society. Numbers tainly the maternal language of these of rich men, in bequeathing legacies, usuprinces. In fact, over all the northern ally devote a portion to the erection of a coasts of Africa, and from Constantino. Mudreseh, or public school. Several of ple to the western frontiers of China, there the Turkish emperors have followed the is scarcely a spot where the Turkish idiom example. It is actually the case, whatis not more or less understood. The im ever surprize the statement may occasion, portance of such a language is undoubt that, at the present moment, there exists edly great, whether regarded in a com at Constantinople, a greater number of mercial or diplomatic view.

colleges than at Paris. M. Jaubert, whose justly celebrated name In the penal laws of this people, there recalls to our recollection the various ser are certain provisions which are not to be vices he has rendered to his country, has found in our own codes,* but which would now established a new claim upon the have done honour to the wisdom of our gratitude of his fellow-citizens, as well as legislators. Unfortunately, however, these upon that of all friends to literature, by institutes are infected with the same fanatipublishing the grammar to which we are cal spirit which attaches generally to the here requesting the attention of our read- followers of Mahomet, and more espeers.

The scarcity and dearness of the cially to those Mahometans who belong small grammar published at Constanti. to the Sunnite sect. This fanaticsim nople, by the Jesuit Holderman; the ob will ever prevent the present rulers of scurity of Meninski's grammar; and the the Bosphorus from attaining to such a incorrectness of the Oriental type, in that degree of civilization, as is absolutely which was published by father Viguier, requisite to enable them to command render the new publication of M. Jaubert respect in the great family of European very acceptable to Orientalists. Instead nations. of following the example of his predecessors, by rendering his subject difficult * M. de Hammer, the learned German Orien. and complicated by a multiplicity of rules,

talist, has published a translation of these laws,

known by the title of Canons. A French version for the most part useless, this writer has of the German work is now in the press at Paris.

RETIRED HALF-PAY TO COMPANY'S OFFICERS.

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sir: I have learnt with great sa- Midnapore, &c. &c., in all about sixtisfaction, that the Hon. Court of Di- teen distinct and distant situations, rectors have increased the half-pay they would be less liable to desert, of their retired captains to seven, than when corps obtain recruits from and of lieutenants to four shillings favoured places, such as the Oude per diem, from Christmas last. This province. I well recollect, that when is as it should be; and I am confident some of our most admired Bengal all officers in the service must feel corps for discipline and appearance grateful for this liberal consideration of the men, were ordered down into of their long represented claims. Bengal, or on service to the coast,

Although upon the retired list, I they were apt to desert in a greater cannot omit expressing to you, how ratio than the more compact little se. highly pleased I am with the new for- poys, who, moreover, on long marches, mation of the Indian army; as it not proved more capable of enduring the only renders the various establish- fatigue of arduous field-service, than ments infinitely more respectable, but the Oude grenadiers : the same may each corps being formed into two regi- be also said of the battalion men in ments, they are thus rendered more the royal corps. Men of large stacompact, and all military detail for ture are not able to endure the fadistant reliefs or field service becomes tigues of long marches. To render more efficient.

all sepoy regiments more efficient, the Junior colonels, it is true, may bazar of each corps should be distinct, have to wait in succession for off- and under the controul of their comreckonings; but this is in some degree manding officer, or its paymaster; for compensated, by advanced rank and all officers must recollect how Lord pay; and a few years must, in the Cornwallis's plan of placing the station course of nature, occasion a diminu- bazar under the civil paymaster, who tion of their seniors, both at home was to supply corps ordered on march and India.

with bazars, proved abortive, the I confess I should like to see the chowdries and bazar men often deirregular horse and infantry, and each serting, and occasioning great distress sebundy corps, most efficiently officer to the corps. How far the institution ed. They should all be commanded of an active commissariat may have by a lieut.-colonel, and each troop corrected the evil, I am not able to and company should at least have one decide. European officer. These corps are In the Oriental Herald, I observe, chiefly placed on our frontiers in con that the hardship, which the writer spicuous situations; and it onght to supposes is likely to be experienced by be made a rule, that they should fur- the Bengal engineers, is set forth in a nish recruits or drafts, when required letter signed Cato; but my old friends for the line regiments; for, by thus in- in the B. E. must well recollect, that troducing recruits from various and Lieut. General Cameron was a major distant parts into the several corps, for some years before Sir Henry White the hitherto distinct system of levies (both being cadets of the same year) may be dispensed with ; and from this was made a captain. The same may ready intermixture of men into the be observed of the various artillery line, procured from such distant points promotions over those of the infantry. as Ramghur, Rungpore, Gorruckpore, It is utterly impossible to reform any Burdwan, Benares, Cawnpore, and army without partial supercession being

being felt; and, I am confident, it only has been rendered needless by the requires respectful representation to new plan; but it is the duty of every the Directors, to correct any inadver- officer to suggest any thing that is tent clause in the recent regulations for likely to be useful of his old friends. the Indian army. My late proposal for

I am, Sir, the disposition of the off-reckonings,*

Yours, faithfully,

A BENGAL RETIRED OFFICER. # Vide Asiatic Journ. for January.

NEW ISLAND IN THE SOUTHERN OCEAN.

(Discovered by Capt. Hunter of the Dona CARMELITA.) Extract from the Dond Curmelita's Log beautiful, and seemed to be well cultiBook.

vated and inhabited. The canoes were July 20.-Fine clear weather, carrying very handsome, not unlike the Ceylon caall possible sail. At 11. 30. P.m, saw the noes, and ornamented with shells. land, bearing S.W. by W., distance six At 4 P.M. the cutter returned from the miles, up courses and shortened sail to shore, having on board twelve hogs, a the top-sails and stood towards it at day. great quantity of yams, and tropical fruit light, fresh breezes, the land discovered of different kinds. The Chief Officer reproved to be an island.

lated the following particulars : At 8 A.M. close in under the lee of it, Chief Officer's Report concerning the Isle of observed a number of fishing canoes to Onaseuse, or Hunter's Island. leeward, which were plying for the shore At 1 P.M. got close in shore, the native with all possible dispatch; bore down and desired us to pull in, when we observed a intercepted one of them, and with a good great concourse of people assembled on a deal of persuasion got one of the people to bluff point of land. The surf being pretty come on board, when I presented him with high, landed opposite the people. The a hatchet and piece of white cloth, which native in the cutter pointed out the King pleased him much, as he showed it to all (Funafoouh); the King with his attenthe canoes that were about the ship, and dants came round and seated himself close after that we did not want visitors. About to the boat. The native desired me to walk this time a Chief came on board, and on towards the King. I thought it best to my making signs that we wanted refresh. go unarmed, as it would make them have ments, he sent all the canoes on shore, more confidence in us. Most of them were and staid on board himself with a few armed with war clubs, with short round others.

heads, some with spears from 24 to 40 At 11. 30. close in shore, armed and feet long, afterwards I saw some much manned the cutter, and dispatched her on longer. A great number of women, many shore in charge of the 1st officer and our of whom carried two spears, as I judged friend the chief, keeping another on board for the use of the men. I was desired to as a hostage.

sit down close to his Majesty ; after makAt | P.M. the canoes returned from ing my obedience, I made him a present shore, to the number of thirty, laden with of a white shirt, putting it on him; I hogs, yams, plaintains and other fruits, likewise gave the same to his brother ; they and traded with the greatest honesty for seemed highly pleased, and in return, made iron hoops, nails, and pieces of white a present of a hog, a basket of yams and cloth, &c.

bananahs and cocoa-nuts. After sitting They seemed to be very expert swim some time, surrounded by men and womers, as they often got their canoes over men, I made him a present of a lookingturned; but it never incommoded them in glass, which seemed to surprise them the least, for they soon put them to rights. greatly; it went from the King to the

They are about the colour of Malays, Queen, and from her all round, every one but have more of the European features, taking a look at it, and then touching the The island from the ship appeared most crown of their heads with it; that cereAsiatic Jourr.--No. 101.

Vol. XVII.

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