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Sacred Poetry.

We have reason to believe, that the first of the following hymns is from the pen of the Right Rev. Reginald Heber, Lord Bishop of Calcutta ; the second is known to have been written by him on the occasion of his preaching a sermon at Shrewsbury, in aid of Christian Missions.

HYMNS FOR THE EPIPHANY.

BRIGHTEST and best of the sons of the morning,

Dawn on our darkness and lend us thine aid !
Star of the East the horizon adorning,

Guide where our infant Redeemer is laid.

Cold on his cradle the dew-drops are shining,

Low lies his bed with the beasts of the stall;
Angels adore him in slumber reclining,

Maker, and Monarch, and Saviour of all !

Say, shall we yield him, in costly devotion,

Odours of Edom, and offerings divine;
Gems of the mountain, and pearls of the ocean,

Myrrh from the forest, and gold from the mine?
Vainly we offer each ample oblation :

Vainly with gifts would his favour secure ·
Richer by far is the heart's adoration,

Dearer to God are the prayers of the poor!
Brightest and best of the sons of the morning,

Dawn on our darkness and lend us thine aid !
Star of the East the horizon adorning,

Guide where our infant Redeemer is laid!

MISSIONARY HYMN.

From Greenland's icy mountains,

From India's coral strand,
Where Afric's sunny fountains

Roll down their golden sand :

From many an ancient river,

From many a balmy plain,
They call us to deliver

Their land from error's chain.

What, though the spicy breezes

Blow soft on Ceylon's isle,
Though every prospect pleases,

And only man is vile;

In vain with lavish kindness,

The gifts of God are strewn,
The heathen, in his blindness,

Bows down to wood and stone.

Shall we, whose souls are lighted

With wisdom from on high ;
Shall we to man benighted,

The lamp of life deny ?
Salvation ! oh, salvation !

The joyful sound proclaim,
Till each remotest nation

Has learnt Messiah's name.

Waft, waft, ye winds, his story,

And you, ye waters, roll,
Till like a sea of glory,

It spreads from pole to pole :
Till o'er our ransomed nature,

The Lamb for sinners slain,
Redeemer, King, Creator,

In bliss return to reign.

Review of Books.

Critical Researches in Philology and. The two great objects of the writer

Geography, Glasgow, 1824. of this article are these :-- to demon.

This work consists of three articles: strate the comparative accuracy of the 1. A Review of Professor Lee's edis statements given by the Thibetian tion of Sir Wm. Jones's Grammar of Lamas of the courses of the streams, the Persian language; 2d. “ An Exa- and situations of the various places mination of the various opinions that in the vicinity of the vast range of in modern times have been held re- elevated land which separate Northspecting the sources of the Ganges, 'ern and Southern Asia; and to vindiand the correctness of the Lamas' cate the claims of our countrymen to Map of Thibet ;" 3d. A Review of the honour of those discoveries which Noble's Arabic Vocabulary, and Index have been made and are still making for Richardson's Arabic Grammar.

in those regions, and which the French Of the first article, there is no literati, actuated by a mean and unoccasion for us to take much notice, worthy jealousy, are labouring to assince the subject of it has already sign to German Jesuits and French been discussed in our Journal of antiquaries. As we do not feel it inthe third article, we shall merely cumbent upon us to retrace the steps observe that it evinces a considerable we made whilst examining Mr. Frazer's portion of learning; but that the style Tour among the Himalaya mountains, is rather careless, and even incorrect especially since a solution of most of in its structure; and that the author the difficulties hitherto met with will betrays too great a proneness to be be afforded by Mr. Moocroft, we shall severe and caustic. The second arti- merely lay before our readers, an outcle is certainly the best, and cannot be line of this article. read without interest, although we The injustice with which the Lamas' hope that the perplexities attending map has been treated by geographers, the geography of Central Asia, are is certainly apparent from the details likely soon to be more effectually re- given by the writer. Although it is moved, than by the ingenious hypo- admitted that the whole of the infortheses of European scholars.

mation obtained by the Lamas was

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not the result of personal examination at 29 deg. N. lat. (within about a deand actual survey (the western limit of gree of the truth), in 334, or one detheir route terminating at the north- gree and a quarter higher than D'Anwestern foot of the angle formed by ville. He shortened, indeed, the course the junction of the Caillas and Hima- of the Ganges, but still made it run laya ridges, which embosom the cele a course of more than 800 British brated lake Manasarowar); yet their miles through western Thibet, until it authorities were less vague and un- debouched upon the plains of Hincertain than those which have tempt- doostan, at Haridwar. ed our geographers to disregard them, The expedition of Capt. Webb to who have deviated, it now appears, in Gangoutri and Buddreenath, in 1808, several instances, into error.

undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. The first operator upon this cele- Colebrooke, who sagaciously conjecbrated map, was D'Anville. Some of tured that the streams which composed his alterations were obviously neces the Ganges originated on the southern sary, as where he shortened the im- side of the Great Himalaya, commense course of the Ganges (1150 municated the first authentic correcmiles) through western Thibet. "In tion of these geographical errors; and other respects, he made the mat a subsequent journey performed by ter worse, by removing the sources Messrs. Moorcroft and Hearsay, in of the supposed Ganges two degrees 181%, corroborated that discovery. But more to the north, and by making the while these travellers completely disGanges to run through three lakes, prove the Lamas' statement, which deinstead of two, as in the Lamas' map, rived the streams from the Mapang or adding the small lake of Conghe to Manasarowar lake on the northern the number, without any just autho- side of the Himalaya, they confirmrity for doing so; and also by making ed their authority in other respects, the northern branch of the supposed namely, river run to the north-west, as far

That there are really two such lakes as as 34 N. lat.”

those mentioned laid down in their mapAnquetil Duperron adopted D'An- that a river actually flows through them ville's errors, and also sophisticated very far to the W., and which

actually

enters Hindoostan-that these lakes are the Lamas' map with materials ob- placed with tolerable accuracy relatively tained from the German Jesuit, Tiefen to each other, that in respect both of thaler, the traveller who is thrust for longitude and latitude, they were placed far ward by the French Asiatic Society, ville, Tiefenthaler, Anquetil Duperron,

more correctly than in the maps of D'An. as possessing a prior claim to the dis- Rennel and Arrowsmith-and, finally, coveries of Messrs. Webb, Moorcroft, that the other stream which they made and Hodgson. Anquetil Duperron, ally rises to the N. of these lakes, and to

the northern branch of the Ganges, actuwith the Jesuit's assistance, among the N.W. of the stream which enters the other bļunders, described two rivers Mansaroar lake. as flowing from the lake Manasarowar,

The comparative accuracy of the in opposite directions, which, on ac different accounts is seen from the count of the peculiar situation of the following table: lake, is a physical impossibility.

Tiefenthaler and Duperron 36 N.L. Major Rennel, deceived by D'An- Rennel

33.15 N.L. ville, Duperron, and Tiefenthaler, and D'Anville.......

32 N.L. in possession of no information that

Lamas' map, South point...... 29.97 N.L.
Moorcroft, ditto

30.45 N.L. could guide him in the difficulties Webb, s. w. ditto

30.23 N.L. which they threw in the way of his

80 E. L. &

Fraser's map, South side, { inquiries, was obliged to trust to his

31.53 N.L. own conjecture, and placed the source Some subsequent inquiries of Mr. of the Ganges, which the Lamas fixed Webb have contributed to establish the Asiatic Journ.-No. 101.

Vol. XVII. 3 X

accuracy of the Lamas, in opposition table of discrepancies in the accounts to several theories and statements. which different authorities furnish as

In Moorcroft's map, no streams are re to the position of Ludak: presented as entering the Mansaroar lake

Lamas' map ...... 30.52 N.L 74.47 E.L. from the east, or north, or west, but three

D'Anville's do.. 83 do. 77.17 de streams are delineated as running into it

Renvel's do. 34.30 do. 77.20 do porth from the Heemalleh. In his opinion

Arrowsmith's do. 35 do. 78.10 do. it had no outlet, as he had carefully exa. mined it round from the Lama monastery

Elphinstone's do. 37 do. 78.10 do. on the N.W. to the Krishna on the S., and

Fraser's do.......... 32 do. 76.39 do. found no outlet. All the maps, on the - The writer has deemed it necessary faith of that of the Lamas', had represent- to enter upon a serious refutation of ed a stream issuing from its western extremity into the Lanken, or Rawanhrad, the story of the Cow's mouth (Gatand the Pundit who accompanied Moor. muchi), or subterraneous aperture, croft and Hearsay, strenuously asserted through which the Ganges was supthe same, which was also corroborated by posed to rush out of the Himalaya a Lataki traveller, then upon the spot. A writer in the Quarterly Review, in his This is certainly a work of supereroexamination of Moorcroft's travels, in order gation: no fact is now better es to reconcile these jarring accounts, ima- tablished than that this story is a mer gines that the outlei of the Mansaroar lake invention; though attempted to be was on the east, and that Moorcroft had inverted the position of these lakes; that, bolstered up by the testimony of a in his opinion, the Rawanhrad is the learned Pundit who accompanied : eastern, and the Mansaroar the western modern traveller. The fact, however, lake, and that in this way Tiefenthaler would be right in making the western river is that the Lamas' map contains no the Setledge, and that consequently the authority for this story: they " left Gogra would be the eastern river, or that the river to find its way, in the usual which is seen east from the Rawanhrad. manner, by a pass, or gap, and never If this were really the case, the land between these two lakes would be the con.

troubled themselves about subternecting ridge between the Heemalleh and raneous perforation;" which Major the Caillas, or Kentaisse ranges, and the Rennel supposed to have been effectdividing crest, or elevated ground, send. ing off the Setledge to the N.w., and ed by the river through the granite base the Gogra and Sanpoo to the S. E.; and of the mountains ! would, moreover, also in this particular, Another point incidentally touched flatly contradict the Lamas' nap, which upon in this article, is the etymon of not only connects the lakes together, by the appellation Thibet, applied in Hinmaking the eastern send off its surplus waters into the western lake, by the Lank

doostan to this part of the country. Tchu, but also derives a number of tribu. No new light is, however, diffused tary streams from the converging slope of upon this subject, and perhaps never the two chains on the S. E., into the same lake. But, as facts are superior in value

will be. to all hypothetical reasoning, both Moor Entering upon the last division, the croft, and his reviewer and commentator, author quotes an extract from a report have since been found wrong, and the Lamas' map perfectly correct, respecting

made to the Asiatic Society of Paris, the communication of the two lakes.

by Messrs. Saint Martin and Klaproth, Mr. Webb, who has since that time so which appeared in the Journal Asiaassiduously and meritoriously prosecuted tique for March 1823; wherein it is his geographical inquiries and geodesic labours, amidst the stupendous ridges of the

stated that the source of the Sutluj, in Heemalleh, had an interview with the lake Manasarowar, was marked in the Chief of Takklacote, who informed him chart of Anquetil Duperron, and was that the Mansaroar, or Mapang lake, had a western outlet (frequently dry however),

consequently known long before Mr. into the Rawanhrad, or Lanken, and that

Moorcroft's visit ; and that the source upwards of 100 streams fall into it from of the Ganges in Gangoutri appeared the converging ranges to the S.E. in Tiefenthaler's chart, whilst all the

The importance of Mr. Moorcroft's English geographers, till 1819, adopted discoveries in these parts, can be ap the error of D'Anville, making the preciated by observing the following Ganges arise out of lake Lanka, in

western Thibet. It is therefore con- the mere publisher of Tiefenthaler's tended, that the honour of making materials? It is pretty evident that these facts known, “belongs to the the machinery is put in motion on his Germans and French, not to the account, and that Messrs. Saint MarEnglish, who appropriate to them- tin and Klaproth would have suffered selves, at present, the whole merit of the Jesuit's discoveries to sink quietly the discovery.”

into oblivion, but that there was some The author bestows, and we think prospect, if they could force Tiefenjustly, some severe remarks upon the thaler into notice with Duperron illiberal spirit which seems to possess fastened to his skirts, that their own the continental literati ; and in oppo- country might find a pretext (which sition to the claim of Tiefenthaler, would be quite enough), to dispute observes, 1st. That Gangoutri is not the title of those indefatigable British the true source of the Ganges, which travellers, who have ascended heights Fraser and Hodgson (whose account more elevated than Saussure and Hum. must have been known by the French boldt, and whose services to georeporters, though not referred to by graphical science are too generally them), traced higher. ed. That the acknowledged to fear the effects of Jesuit has placed Gangoutri more foreign jealousy. than 140 English miles to the north of We shall close our review of this arits true parallel, and about 100 miles to ticle with the following extract, wherein the west of its true longitude. 3d. That the writer puts home the question to Tiefenthaler, contrary to the inference the reporters themselves. obviously intended to be furnished by the reporters, never visited Gangoutri French Government, in India, to have

Let us reverse the case, and suppose the at all! for which we have the express enjoyed the same ample means for the exauthority of his editor, Anquetil Du tension of geograpbical science in that experron : D'autant qu'il n'a pas été tensive region, and to have used them lui-même à la source du Gange, que have published a compte rendu of these

liberally for that very purpose, and to présente sa carte!! The Jesuit, discoveries ; and suppose, further, that an himself, in describing the source of Asiatic Society had existed in London, the Ganges, uses the expression,

and to have appointed two of their most cording to the relation of judicious respectable members to draw up a report

concerning the truth and value of these persons," which clearly implies that discoveries, and that these reporters had his account was not verified by actual declared that they were of no value, and observation. It is true he discredits

that they had been anticipated by some the story of the Cow's mouth ; but terials had been brought up into the form of

such person as Tiefenthaler, whose mathe Lamas' map is equally free from a memoir by some Englishwan. We now that adulteration : on the other hand, ask, what would have been the feelings of the Jesuit's description comprehends Would not every Journal, Review, and

the French and Continental Literati ? what certainly does not exist; namely, Bibliothèque have been put in requisition, a cataract, and a rocky cleft.

and enlisted in the service to refute the If, however, the Jesuit was the charge, vindicate their claim, assert their discoverer of the source of the Gan. right, to the honour of prior discovery?

Would they not have exclaimed cum goutri branch (which it is plain enough

una et consentiente voce against the inhe was not), this stream is not the justice, the partiality, and the prejudice of

the British? Would they not have said, source of the Ganges, which cannot

that, as the British had already monopobe said to be discovered until the

lized the commerce of the world, they also higher branch, called the Jhannevie, be by such conduct plainly showed their traced. All accounts agree that this ardent and selfish wish to monopolize its

literature and science? If such would is not only the largest, but the most

have been their feelings, can they blame distant stream. But what shall we

the expression of similar feelings in us, say to the claim of Anquetil Duperron, when they have declared, as from the

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