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Brown), who objects to the Professors' a number of students being present, wheacting in the capacity of accusers and ther at lectures, hall, chapel, or elsewhere, judges, I profess myself but little dis- the offenders cannot be detected, a selecposed to uphold what he seems to consider tion shall be made of those most likely to as the rights of boys. I would, for in- be concerned.'-Of those most likely to be stance, not only confirm to the Professors concerned ! (Shocking! from several the power of 'ruslication, but I would Proprietors.) Now it goes on in these encourage them to exercise it in cases of terms : of those most likely to be conbreaches of subordination, and if neces- cerned, who, on their inability to clear sary, in all cases of systematic idleness themselves, and'-only observe what foland undue attention to their studies. If the lows,— and declining to give up the Professors were more in the habit of send- delinquent, shall be subject to punishment ing young men from the College tempora. according to the nature of the offence." rily, whose habits were marked by insub- - Declining to give up the delinquent! ordination and idleness, his parents could there is the odious part of the statute. I take him home, and, placed for a time in say it is most disgraceful and most the bosom of his family, being the object mischievous in its principle, because it of their assiduous care, he would surely renders a boy instrumental in the punishbe in a situation where he would be most ment of his associate, in whatever com. likely to come to a sense of his miscon- mon act of imprudence may have been duct-where he would be taught the value the subject of inquiry. I say, Sir, that of that destiny which he was foolishly put- no college can stand the test of er: ting to hazard, and perceive how much he perience which entertains a law founded was trencbing on the comforts and happi on so odious a principle. (Hear!) I ness of those whom he holds most dear. have to offer now a few words on the subAfter this experiment, let the young man ject of the disturbances which produced return to the College: and if his conduct the expulsions so frequently alluded to. shall not appear to have undergone any I regret that event on account of the improvement, let the Professors rusticate young men themselves, and on aecount of him again, and let them repeat the punish their connexions, because I think that ment as often as they shall see occasion for an appeal to that extreme punishment it; if then, at the end of the time pre- which irrevocably closes the prospects of scribed by Act of Parliament for his ad- the students, might have been prevented, mission to the service, it shall appear that by the seasonable application of the meahe is not qualified for his appointment, by sure of rustication. I say now, upon the having kept the necessary number of terms, authority of information as unexceptionand by having conformed himself to the able as any that has been relied on in the regulations of the College, the consequences course of this discussion, that notwithwould be, that he himself would be the standing all the odious character assigned known instrument of his own degradation to this row, there was not a young man and loss of appointment, and the odium engaged in it who would not have readily attending an act of painful severity would held up his hand and prevented the be removed from the Professors. I do slightest insult from being offered to any not mean to offer this as the sole arrange. one of the Professors: for there is amongst ment that I should wish, upon delibera. the boys that regard for the Professors tion, to see adopted; but I am of opinion which would restrain them, even in their that this and other alterations might be wildest moments of excess, from any permade by the Directors, with the concur sonal disrespect towards those gentlemen. rence of the Board of Controul, to the Now, Sir, how much better would it have evident improvement of the institution, been, if the milder punishment of rusti(Hear !) in the course of these discus- cation had been resorted to, instead of a sions, what is called the statute of selec- punishment which produces such dreadful tion has been repeatedly referred to. I am and irrevocable effects. (Hear !) I cane sure there is not a gentleman in this room, not concur in the proposition of the Hon. who holds in more perfect detestation than Proprietor (Mr. Kinnaird); but I am I do this odious statute of selection. I convinced of the necessity of many altera remember very well the period when it tions being made in the system of disci. was proposed, and it is with a feeling of pline pursued at the College. If these satisfaction I now state, that I then did changes were effected, I am persuaded all in my power to prevent it from passing. that the College would by degrees be reThose gentlemen, whether amongst the dered a most useful institution." (Hear!) body of Directors or the Proprietors, who The Hon. D. Kinnaird rose to reply. would still stand up for this statute, ap. After a discussion of such unusual length, pear to me not to have well considered its he hoped it would not be considered disa effects. I will, with the leave of the respectful to those gentlemen who opposed Court, read the words of the first section his motion if he passed by several objec. of the statute ; they are as follows : 'in tious which had been urged against it cases of improper behaviour, where, from And he confessed, that he did not feel it
any part of his duty to answer those ob suffer, when the united opinions of all jections; because, as soon as he directed established, that the regulations, which were the attention of the Court to the real ques intended to maintain that discipline, had tion in this case, they would see, that al been so far abused as to be made the most uniformly the reasoning that had instruments of great and unnecessary opbeen resorted to bore no allusion to the ar pression. He entirely concurred with the guments he had made use of, and had little Hon. Baronet in opinion that the punishif any reference to the specific proposition ment of expulsion should be reserved exwhich he had moved. Indeed, he should clusively for acts of moral turpitude ; but rather have said, that out of the speeches of the Court would see, that if they adopted the different gentlemen who were adverse the proposition now submitted to them, to the motion, he could have collected they might still continue the power of arguments in greater number, and of expelling in the hands of the Professors, greater force, in favour of his views, than to be exercised according to the present were furnished by those who addressed the usage, or under new modifications, as they Court on the same side with himself: and might think fit. Speaking upon a general if any illustration could more powerfully view, he need not remind the Court, that than another convince the Court of the expulsion was never intended as a punishimpossibility of the College going on in ment of itself. A young man at school the present system of the impossi- might be told,“ you cannot be here, it is bility of those wishes which had been improper that you should remain in this expressed for the termination of all fur- school,” and, if expelled, it was not meant ther discussions on the subject being rea that the measure of expulsion itself lized—if any decided proof were wanted should be considered as a punishment of the certainty that the subject would drawn upon him by his misconduct ; no, continue to be agitated, that illustration public opinion inflicted the punishment. and that proof would be found in the The public would ask the grounds on speech of the Hon. Baronet who had just which the expulsion was resorted to; and, sat down. For although he (Mr. Kin. upon a knowledge of the measure, would naird) had most diligently abstained from determine whether it should be the source offering any opinion as to the policy of of disgrace or not. Thus, the intent of preserving the College itself, or as to the an expulsion, as to the measure itself, was details of its economy, and still less as simply to remove a person from the school, to the conduct of the Professors, the Hon. whom, for whatever cause (it might be a Baronet, unmindful of this example, and good or bad one), the directors of the turning away from the real question before establishment deemed to be an unfit ashim, wandered into a discussion on the sociate for the rest of the students. Hence, internal regulations of the College, and then, it was a mistake to suppose that the with a severity which was most honoura mere circumstance of expulsion attached ble to his feelings, and most justly applied disgrace to a young man ; but, least of all to the occasion, condemned the statute of was it meant as a punishment for ever. selection, as being most odious—nay, went He was surprised to hear it maintained so far as to characterize the recent expul- that expulsion should disqualify a man sions as most improper, and even im- from entering into the service at all; bepugned the discretion of the Professors cause it surely did not follow that a which had led to that fatal measure. young man who was expelled was a dis(Hear!) Now, what was the proposition honourable person. An opinion had been submitted by him to the consideration of expressed by an Hon. Proprietor near him, the Court? Was it not, that the Professors which called for some explanation on his should not be competent to do that which part: he had never said that the instituthe Hon. Baronet so bitterly lamented : tion was granted by the Directors as a namely, consign to ruin a young man boon, in the unqualified sense in which it for an act of indiscretion, to which such a was understood, he had said this : that it punishment was wholly disproportionate ? being, in the first instance, laid down as This was the import of the motion now a principle, that the young men who sought before them. The Professors were now appointments in their civil service should upon their trial, and the Hon. Baronet be possessed of a certain extent of acquirewould, for one, convict them of an im ments, the Company did open an institu. proper exercise of discretion. As long as. tion where these necessary qualifications that dreadful penalty, expulsion, with its might be obtained ; and, in that respect, ruinous consequences, existed, so long, he the granting of such a facility might be trusted, would there be found in that considered as a boon. But he did also Court men to express their opinions of contend, that by making it obligatory in its cruelty and 'impolicy. The Court the candidates for appointments to spend would see that it was not of the statutes of a certain interval of time there, subject to the College that he complained, but of the all the bazards which the peculiar discipline law of the land. It naturally followed of the College opened upon them, they that the discipline of the College must did, in fact, convert this boon into a peAsiatic Journ.-No, 101.
VOL. XVII. 4 A
nalty ; because all the merit of an uni now so notorious, that no one would think form virtuous life would be set aside by of sending out a young man imperfectly one single bad action. Several Hon. prepared for the duties he undertook. Directors and Proprietors, and especially All, then, they would have to ask Parliaan Hon. Gentleman, on the other side ment, was no longer to continue a restric(Mr. Grant), had endeavoured to inspire tive clause, which law and public opinion the Court with an apprehension for al would, when once it was got rid of, never most the safety of their existence, in case agitate again ; whether or no it was they once called upon Parliament for its better to send their civil servants to India interposition. Now, he begged to know a little earlier or a little later, according from those gentlemen, what was there so to their degree of qualifications, was a vicious in the principle on which their different question from saying that they charter was granted, which led them to would allow no other mode of education fear that any inquiry by Parliament must in the Company's service, than that which be followed by a deprivation of their was established at Haileybury. Were rights. He, for one, disclaimed holding there no means of ascertaining a young the share which he enjoyed of the interest man's competency, unless he went through of the Company as matter of sufferance. a certain number of terms at Haileybury? He did not sit there by the toleration of They had heard, indeed, that his acquireany power, but in virtue of an acknow ments, but not his morals, could be ascerledged right, the safety of which he saw tained. How did they take tutors for no reason to suppose would be disturbed. their children? upon general character ; But an Hon. Proprietor had followed up and would they not have the same opporthis announcement of alarm, by ask- tunity of ascertaining the qualifications of ing, « If Parliament does meet your those who were fit for their civil service in wishes so far as to repeal this (in your India, if the compulsory education at opinion) obnoxious clause, are you pre- Haileybury were thrown open? All they pared to say that it will accord with you bad a right to ask of these young men of in adopting the next step, and enact that nineteen years of age, was he upright in which you propose to substitute ?" But, his conduct
, and well-grounded in his in point of fact, there was no second pro- attainments; the presumption was, that position of the sort, there was nothing to the young man was upright who came be substituted ; there was nothing asked before them untainted, and his attainments of Parliament further than the simple could be quite as well ascertained by a repeal of one impolitic clause.
proper test, as it could be by the prosent, the College Council had the power, bationary residence at Haileybury. It with the concurrence of the Board of was idle to talk of the jealousy that would Controul, of making regulations for the be excited by the opposing examinations, government of the College. The only for when they were conducted viva voce thing that they had not the power of doing, and publicly, when all were subject to the was to admit a young man to an exa same difficulties, there could be no undue mination who not educated at advantage ; indeed, they could have no Haileybury College. That power being better way of examining than by comadded to the rest that they enjoyed, left paring one with the other; there could them still at liberty to make what regula- be no difficulty in obtaining a fair exations they pleased for the College. For mination. Let the Professors of Hailey. this purpose, he proposed that they should bury College be the examiners, let the go before Parliament, after having first examination be public, with a fair addiscussed it in public, and taken the opi- mission to the tutors of the pupils who nion of the public upon it. When gentle were educated elsewhere, he would pledge men talked about the hazards of the inter. his life upon it that the Professors, acting ference of Parliament, did they remember upon their own responsibility, and under that it was competent to any member of the controul of public opinion, would do either house to agitate the subject if he what was right, and obviate all fair cause pleased ? He begged the Court to re- of complaint. The chances were great, member the circumstances under which this that under a new system the College at clause was enacted; all that they origi- Haileybury would flourish. The Profes. nally did was to call upon Parliament to sors could have no interest but one, and create some useful restraint, in order to that was to make their system of education obviate the too great facility there then at Haileybury the best, and to challenge was of sending young men out to India. fair comparison, when this new stimulus They went before the Legislature with a was given to their exertions. The Hon. self-denying ordinance in their hands, and and Learned Proprietor (Mr. Grant)
, asked them to impose it: he, for one, when he talked of his twenty-six tests, as would not hesitate to say, that the Com: a convincing proof of the improved state pany derived great advantage from the of education at Haileybury, overlooked measure, but it had now worked its in- the very material fact, that he was cotatended effect. The necessity of an ex. paring young men who did not go out to tended education to their civil servants was India until they were nineteen years of
age, with those who had preceded them at which one boy was made to teach another seventeen years of age, a most essential was mechanical, and astonishing in its difference, which was in itself sufficiently practical effect. It was gratifying to him explanatory of the greater proficiency of to find, that those who opposed his motion, the one in comparison with the other. all concurred in one opinion against the Did he deny the excellence of Haileybury College statutes. He would not say which College ? No; it was his interest to shew rule was bad or which was good, let that the College was good, and ought to public opinion decide that. A gentleman be better : in his conscience, he thought had talked of an insurance office to be it had great facilities for education, and established, if the new plan were adopted, would soon, upon the plan which he pro- by which parents, on the payment of a posed, rise in general estimation ; he premium, could insure the success of their wanted to have for it the lasting proof of children; he knew not how far such a public opinion, after being put to a fair fanciful theory would be realized, but he and 'unequivocal test. Did those who thought it would be difficult to insure over opposed him mean to say that the Col. the dangerous shoals of their present syslege was as well conducted as it could be ? (A laugh.) He did not mean to Certainly not; for their observation must deny that the Court of Directors, with convince them that every day brought the concurrence of the Board of Controul, forth a remarkable improvement in the had the power of making great improvepublic system of education.
ments in the way of regulation ; but they not the case in the same degree some had not the authority to rescind the comyears ago; there were very few persons to pulsory attendance for four terms at Haibe found capable of teaching the Oriental leybury, which was rendered imperative languages, and they established an effective by the Legislature. The Professors ought system for imparting that instruction : but to have the power of sending away a rea great change had since taken place. fractory boy, and telling his parents they Students might acquire a competent know must try a year's superintendance of him ledge of the eastern languages, without somewhere else, and then bring him back, going to Haileybury. Oriental teachers and see what could be made of him. were rising in various part of the country; (Hear!) The Professors would like the they were to be found in Edinburgh, and exercise of such a power, for it would various other places, in spite of their ex take an unpleasant responsibility from clusive system.
There was no use, then, their shoulders, and enable them the better in encouraging the old monopoly, when to maintain discipline, without finally af. they had the opportunity and the power fecting the ultimate prospects of the indi. of selecting, from the daily encreasing vidual. In taking the part which he had number. There was a most excellent argu- done, he was not actuated by any unment used by an Hon. Proprietor (Mr. friendly feeling towards the College, but Grant), that the Company were unable, at quite the reverse. In his view, they present, to send out the supply of writers would have the Professors daily on their required for the civil service in India. When trial by the improved system, in the way a sudden supply was called for, they had most agreeable to the principles and feel them not at Haileybury; so that there was ings of all honest men the certainty of no alternative, but that either the service obtaining and deserving public approval. must wait, or unfit persons must be pre
He would substitute this safer, more maturely sent out. (Hear!) The Pro- powerful, searching, mild, lenient confessors, he had no doubt, would prefer troul, instead of the bad, useless, painful, to encounter competition; he certainly and inefficient one which gave rise to should, if he were one of them. As to these discussions. He hoped that this the evening lectures which were alluded discussion would be the last, and, in the to, he took it for granted that the Pro name of the Professors, he particularly fessors were right ; if his proposition were asked for the change. With regard to the adopted they would stand on high ground, danger of going before Parliament, he for then they could triumphantly appeal to looked upon it as purely chimerical, as the result, and say, “ see how we flourish, almost childish; he had no reason to what can you have more?” If public admire, with particular attachment, the opinion were once brought to bear in the House of Commons as at present constimanner he wished upon this institution, tuted; but to insinuate that they had then the Professors would have a direct something to fear, some ground of appreand manifest interest in the passing of hension and alarm, from taking such a their pupils, and their parents would feel remedial application as this into Parliaan affectionate gratitude towards them; ment, was most absurd ; such fears were all would have an equal interest in the idle, and unworthy of them. He felt a successful issue of the trial. They must, great responsibility when he earnestly in fact, relax their present system, and let pressed them to take the course which he in the improvements which had crept into recommended, for he had a good deal at other schools
. All education was, in fact, stake, and knew, that if the Legislature mechanical ; that great improvement by did not sanction their application, he should
have then brought down upon himself a the service : but they had been told, this great deal of blame. He was prepared to monopoly of education created a durable meet this responsibility, and to rely, in this fellowship, that when fresh supplies went instance, that the wisdom of the Legis- out to India, they saw and were hailed by lature would correct what was found wrong. their old colleagues. Really, when gentle He begged all through to be understood men boasted of this ready access to society, as speaking merely against the inherent they seemed to forget that, in India, hosevils of their present system. The Hon. pitality was so notorious as to be a uniProprietor in the spectacles (Mr. Z. Ma- versal virtue. One would think, from caulay) had said, he heard no charge made the value set upon this intercourse of soagainst the conduct of the College. He ciety, that these young men were going (Mr. Kinnaird) had certainly made none, forth to a desert, instead of to a comfor his argument was founded upon the munity where they were received with existence of an inherent evil, which no open arms, and immediately indulged management could remove, and which with every luxury. The Honourable and could only be corrected by an appeal to Learned Proprietor (Mr. Grant) had said, the Legislature. Were these expulsions, that the real question for discussion was, from year to year, no fault? were these had the College answered, in any fair deadmitted discussions and reports amongst gree, the intention for which it was inthe Court of Directors, and the non-ap- stituted ? He (Mr. Kinnaird) must deny plication of a remedy, no proofs of evil ? that to be the question. The College had The Directors knew they were, they could done great good; there was some education not contradict him ; they also knew that now, there had been none before. What the Legislature, at their suggestion, pass he asked was, had it answered the high ed this compulsory clause, and passed it anticipations which ought to be formed of through inadvertency, never thinking at a great institution ? Was it not capable of the moment of the injury it was calculated being made more efficient? Then the Hon. to inflict. He would ask them, who could and Learned Gentleman asked, was it propause for a moment with this experience bable the proposed change would effect an before their eyes? Would they have it improvement? All he meant to say was, stated, that in the ycar 1824 they were that it would certainly do one thing, it so bigotted to the name of “four terms,” would remove an inherent evil. (Hear !) that they could not carry on a system of The Professors would then, when they education without it. Why, the young sent a boy home, be putting themselves men at Portsmouth were sometimes put a and their system upon trial; and they year in advance, after passing' a certain would naturally feel the greatest anxiety examination with éclat. If one boy could to explain and justify (as he had no doubt do in one term that which cost another they would) their act. The first inference two, why was he to be kept to idle through always drawn against a school, from which the additional time? It was obvious, that boys in great numbers are expelled, is, that in all general tests they must establish a the system is bad, not the boys. (Hear!) comparatively low criterion, and say, that The private letters of young men who had none shall go out without having a certain been educated at Haileybury had been qualification. Could they place a young produced in the course of this discussion ; man of quick conception in a worse posi- he objected to such evidence, for all knew tion, than by binding him down to skim the almost filial attachment and fond parover liglat duties, and deny him the ad. tiality which young men carried with them vance to which his greater intellect entitled for the places of their education. The him ? He recollected many instances of Hon. and Learned Gentleman had apwildness, associated with the greatest fa- pealed to the verification of his prediction cility of acquirements; the latter came of the advantages which he had anticipated with the utmost rapidity, then followed, seven years ago from this College; it was a in abundance, the spare time, and with it very safe prediction, when the Hon. and the desire of distinction in all kinds of Learned Gentleman knew that they had scrapes. (A laugh.) Again and again made no arrangements for the adequate he must urge, that nothing could remove education of their civil servants before. the inherent evil of which he complained Then he went on to say, that he had but an application to Parliament. All ascertained, that the prize students at these results were foreseen by Lord Gren- Haileybury were afterwards the most emiville, at the time he made his celebrated nent among their civil servants in India. speech in the discussion for the renewal of Why to be sure they must: the best must their charter. That Noble Lord then gave be always the best ; when they tolerated his able and eloquent reasons why, if he had only one system of education, the best a son destined for their service, he should there must be the best any where else.. prefer educating him elsewhere than at But after all their provident care, it apHaileybury. Lord Grenville altogether peared that some sad fellows found their disapproved of the compulsory period way out to India. (A laugh.) Now, he (two years) of education ; it was produc- might as well impute their misconduct to tive of no good, and it obviously retarded the College, as ascribe the improvement