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GERMAN ORIENTAL LITERATURE,
mote both the science and practice of Sanserit books must turn upon the gephysic.” (Signed by the Secretary.) nuineness and correctness of the text, (Oriental Mag. Mar. 1823. which generally may be obtained, without
having recourse to conjectural criticism,
by the comparison of as great a number of Professor Schlegel's Prospectus. manuscripts as he may have access to, and Having, for a considerable number of particularly such as were written in diffeyears, made the Sanscrit language my rent parts of India ; likewise by the aid of particular study, I propose to publish a commentaries, where any such exist. series of editions of some works, selected In the next place, it is the duty of an from the most distinguished productions of editor to clear up every thing that is ohthe ancient and original literature of the scure, either with respect to the language Brahmins.
or to the matter. In a study so new, I have just given to the public an edition regard must even be had to readers who of the Bhagavad-Gita, a philosophical may not yet be sufficiently masters of the poem, known all over India, and almost language. Now the most concise species revered as a sacred book. This perform- of commentary is a literal translation, ance has been submitted to the opinion of written, however, in a pure style, and incompetent judges, both in England and telligible of itself, wherein only a few France; and the learned are thence ena words occasionally, when it is requisite, bled to judge of the plan which I en might be added in parenthesis, by way of deavoured to pursue, of my capacity to paraphrase or explanation, in the manner execute such an undertaking, and of my adopted by Sir William Jones, in his exexactness in fulfilling the duties of an cellent translation of the Laws of Manou ; editor, who has both criticism and inter or, to use an example more familiar to pretation for his objects.
English readers, in the manner in wbich That first attempt is to be followed by a additional words, absolutely necessary, are complete edition of the epic poem entitled inserted in the English version of the Old Râmâyana, or, The Exploits of Ramas. Testament. Conformably to these views,
I think it essential for the advancement I shall accompany the Ramayana with a of the study of the Sanscrit, most strictly translation, a general introduction, and a to apply to it the principles which, in mythological and geographical dictionary : Europe, have brought the knowledge of the whole in Latin, as being the language the classic authors to the highest degree of of universal communication among the perfection. The history of what has been learned, and, for the reasons adduced in done with regard to the Greek authors, the preface of the Bhagavad-Gita, more seems particularly calculated to illustrate suited than any other for translations from my intention.
The literature of ancient the Sanscrit. I shall then subjoin critical Greece was still in existence at Constan notes, in which I shall give an account of tinople, when, in the 15th century, some the variations in the text, and of my reaGreek fugitives taught their language in sons for preferring such and such a reading. western Europe. These Greeks were un It would be useless to repeat what bas doubtedly very learned ; but they laboured been set forth in so eloquent and luminous under certain prejudices, and were grown a manner, by several learned writers of old in certain habits; and if the task of great celebrity, English, French, and editing the classic authors had been left to German, touching the importance of the them alone, we should never have had any study of the Sauscrit, and the classical text so correct, nor any comments so satis literature of the ancient Brahmins. The factory, as those of which we are now in admirable structure of that language, its possession.
surprising affinity with the Persian, the As modern Greece has transmitted to Greek, the Latin, and the Teutonic lanus the great works of ancient Greece, in guages, make it a leading object of a the same manner does India, in the pre- science, which may be called quite new, sent time, offer to us the written monu viz. comparatire grammar, a science which, inents of remote, and almost impenetrable being upheld by facts, will advance with a antiquity. The Sanscrit is a living lan- progressive and sure step; while conjectural guage for the learned Brahmins, it being etymology, treated as it has been comthe sacred repository wbich contains their monly, has led to nothing but chimerical knowledge and wisdom : they possess all systems. Moreover, the ancient religion, the treasures of Indian literature, includ. the mythology, and the legislation of the ing even the commentaries, and other sub Brahmins, conduct us back as it were to ordinate productions. Nevertheless, the the cradle of civilization, and throw the editions which learned Indians have pub- greatest light on similar objects among lished, or may in future publish, will never several distinguished nations of the ancient entirely satisfy the wants of a European world, and especially among the Egypreader, of which wants those learned men tians. The written monuments of a litemust necessarily be ignorant.
rature, considered still as sacred by the The first consideration of an editor of Hindus of the present day, make us ac
quainted with the source of their manners ciples of grammar, they may go on without and customs, of their notions and pre- the assistance of a teacher, and become famijudices, and finally of thåt stationary liar, almost without trouble, with the genius civilization, to which the guardianship of of the language, and its peculiar idioms. an hereditary priesthood (one of the prin The Ramayana is not absolutely an uncipal features of the primitive world) edited work. Messrs. Carey and Marsh. could bring the education of nations. In man engaged in an edition, of which three one word, it may be affirmed that a volumes, containing the two first books, thorough knowledge of ancient India, appeared at Serampore in the years such as the companions of Alexander the 1806-1810: this edition was to have Great found it, is the only key to the state
formed ten quarto volumes; but the unof modern India.
dertaking seems to have been long since As to the Ramayana, in particular, it abandoned, and of the three volumes occupies, together with the Maha-Bharata, printed, the second is no longer to be had, the first rank among the mythological among the booksellers. poems which the Indians call Pourānas, In my edition, the text of the poem and that is to say, ancient traditions. The the version will make seven large 8vo. fictions which it contains are spread not volumes; an eighth volume, which is to only over the whole exteut of India, pro
contain the introduction and general illusperly so called, but they have also pene- trations, will appear at the conclusion, trated into the peninsula beyond the though intended to be placed at the head Ganges, into the islands of the Indian of the work. The whole will be pubArchipelago, and to several countries of lished in portions of two volumes each, central Asia ; and never, perhaps, had a and the price of such a portion, delivered deified hero a wider theatre of his glory in London, will be £4. than Ramas.
The text will be printed in the DevagaThe subject of the poem is the banish- nari character, of which the types were ment of Ramas, a prince sprung from the
cut and cast at Paris, under my direction, dynasty of the kings of Ayodhya (now by order of the Prussian Government. Oude); his wanderings through the pe
The size and quality of the paper will be ninsula ; the carrying off bis wife by a the same as in my edition of the Bhagiant, the king of Ceylon; the miraculous gavad-Gita, with this difference only, that conquest of that island; and the re-estab still more pains will be bestowed upon the lishment of Ramas on the throne of his typographical execution, in order to produce forefathers. The unity of action, a colour a book, which in this respect also may deof thought, feeling, and manners, at once serve a place in the libraries of collectors. heroic and patriarchal; the abundance and I cannot yet determine the extent to variety of marvellous fictions ; picturesque which the notes, which are to be printed descriptions of rivers, mountains, and separately, will be carried. As they will forests, and the whole of vegetable and partly be of a nature to interest those only animal nature in India; powerful and who closely and minutely study the Sansaffecting situations; a great elevation and crit, it will be at the option of the sub. delicacy in the sentiments of the heroes, scribers, whether they will take them or and principal personages, diffuse an un not. In the former case, they will be rivalled charm over this poem in the eye furnished on the same terms as the text, of those readers who know how to trans that is to say, at £2 per volume. port themselves, in idea, into a moral, in The price will be raised to non-subtellectual, and physical sphere, entirely scribers, in the proportion of one-third different from their own.
above the price of subscription. A few Several of the Pouránas are too volu. copies only will be taken off on superior minous to admit of being published paper, besides those ordered by the subotherwise than by extracts. The Ramayana scribers. is not of so excessive a length, being esti. The printing will not be begun until mated at 24,000 distichs, contained in
the materials for the whole work are colseven books, of which every one is sub- lected, at least most of them. The first divided into an unequal number of chap. delivery, therefore, will be subject to a ters or rhapsodies.
considerable delay. I hope, however, to Epic and traditional poetry is, without be able to publish it in the beginning of comparison, that part of Indian literature the year 1825. After this, the printing which is most easy to understand, its will proceed rapidly, and I fatter myself, style approaching very near to the flowing that I shall be able to complete the whole and native simplicity of the songs of in the space of four years. Homer. For the promotion of the study
A. W. DE SCHLEGEL, of the Sanscrit, nothing appears to me
Professor in rhe University of Bonn ; Member of
the Royal Academy of Berlin; (orrespund. more useful than to put into the hands of ing Member of the Royal Society of Got. the students, a mass of easy and attractive tingen, and of the Royal Academy of
Bavaria; Honorary Member of the Asiatic reading, in which, after having made
tic Srcieties of Calcutta, Paris and London. themselves masters of the general prin London, Nov. 1895.
East-Jndia College, at Haileybury.
EXAMINATION, December 4, 1823. On Thursday, the 4th December, a H. Pidcock, prize i r so liticorory Deputation of the Court of Directors pro- Bengaly, and highly distinguished in other ceeded to the East-India College, for the departments. purpose of receiving the Report of the T. J. W. Thomas, prize in Sanscrit, and result of the general Examination of the highly distinguished in other departments. Students at the close of the Term.
D. Pringle, prize in law, and highly The Deputation, on their arrival at the distinguished in other departments. College, proceeded to the Principal's C. G. Udny, prize in classics, and with Lodge, where they were received by him great credit in other departments. and the Professors and the Oriental Visitor. W. A. Edmonstone, prize in Persian, Soon afterwards they proceeded to the and with great credit in other departHall,--the Students being previously assembled—where the following proceedings
Students in their Second Term. took place.
G. F. Thompson, prizes in history, law, The list of the Students who had obtain and Persian. ed prizes and other honourable distinc C. Edison, prize in mathematics, in tions was read; also a list of the best Hindustani, and highly distinguished in Persian writers.
other departments. Mr. F. H. Robinson read an English A. Reid, prize in Bengaly, and highly Essay: “ Foreign Possessions, to be ad- distinguished in other departments. vantageous to a nation, must be governed G. T. Lushington, prize in classics, upon principles beneficial to the subject and with great credit in other departpeople.”
The Students read and translated in the A. Heyland, prize in Sanscrit. several Oriental Languages.
F. J. Halliday, prize in Arabic, and Prizes were then delivered by the Chair. highly distinguished in other departments. man to the Students, according to the
Students in their First Term. following list :
R. T. Porter, prizes in mathematics List of Students who obtained Medals, Prises and English composition; and with great
of Books, and other honourable Distinctions, credit in other departments. at the Public Eramination, December A. E. Hamilton, prizes in Sanscrit and 1823.
Persian writing; and with great credit
in other departments. Students in their Fourth Term.
J. R. Colvin, prize in classics, and G. A. Malcolm, medal in classics, prize with great credit in other departments. in Hindustani, and highly distinguished J. P. Gubbins, prize in Persian, and in other departments.
with great credit in other departments. A. J. Cherry, medal in Sanscrit, and G. Blunt, prize in Bengaly. highly distinguished in other departments.
A. Malet, prize in drawing. R. Walker, medal in mathematics, me. dal in political economy, and highly dis
The following Students were highly tinguished in other departments.
distinguished : F. H. Robinson, prize in Bengaly,
Mr. W. Ogilvy, prize for the best English essay, and
S. Crawford, highly distinguished in other depart
Gardner, J. W. Alexander, medal in Persian,
Grant, prize in Arabic, and with great credit in
Gordon, other departments.
G. Alexander, R. Hall, medal in law, and highly
Maitland, distinguished in other departments.
S. F. Campbell, C. W. Truscott, prize in drawing, and
Armstrong highly distinguished in other departments. H. F. Dumergue, prize in drawing, credit:
And the following passed with great and highly distinguished in other depart
Mr. E. L. Campbell, ments.
Taylor, Hindustani, Arabic, and highly distin
Conolly, guished in other departments.
any Student delay so to proceed, he would Lawrell,
only take rank among the Students classed W. Crawford,
at the Examination previous to his deparR. Anderson, J. N. Walker,
ture for India, and would be placed at Hornby,
the end of that Class in which rank was Fawcett,
originally assigned to him. F. Hall,
Notice was then given, that the next F. Anderson,
Term would commence on Monday the Wilmot,
19th January 1824; and that the Students Mills, Reeves.
were required to return to the College
within the first four days of that period, Best Persian Writers.
unless a statutable reason, satisfactory to 1. Mr. Hamilton, 2. Messrs. Malet and Seton.
the College Council, could be assigned S. Mr. Douglas,
for the delay; otherwise the Term would 4. Astell.
be forfeited. The rank of the Students finally leav The Chairman then addressed the Stuing the College was then read, being as dents, assuring them, in the name of the follows.
Deputation of the Court of Directors then
present, of the pleasure it afforded them Rank of Students leaving College, as setlled upon receiving so highly creditable a Report by the College Council, according to which
from the College Council as had been that they will take precedence in the Hon. day presented to them, on the discipline Company's Service in India.
and literature of the Term. It would be
ever pleasing to their Patrons to witness Ist Class.-1. Mr. R. Walker,
similar results; and he felt satisfied that 2. R. Hall.
the example of the past Term would have 2d Class.-3. Robinson,
its due effect, and that the next VisitaW. Ogilvie,
tion would receive an equally favourable 5. Beale, 6. Tyler,
Report as the present. He anticipated 7. E. L. Campbell.
that the East-India Company, as well as 3d Class.-8. Taylor,
the British Empire at large, would derive 9. Torrens,
the greatest advantage from those talents, 10. Becher,
which hitherto had been so successfully Kennaway.
To those who were about to take upon 1st Class,-1. Mr. Cherry. 2d Class.--2.
themselves the important functions of their Dumergue, 3. Truscott,
appointments, he could not do better than 4. S. Crawford,
refer them to the precepts so well laid 5. Gardner,
down in the excellent essay which had 6. J. Alexander.
been that morning delivered by one of
their number. He assured them of the 1st Class.-1. Mr. Malcolm,
interest which the Court of Directors 3d Class.--2. Burnett,
would always take in their happiness and S. Binny.
prosperity; and wishing them a safe reIt was then announced to the Students, turn to the bosom of their country, he that the certificates of the College Council bade them affectionately farewell. were granted, not only with reference to
The business of the day here conindustry and proficiency, but also to con cluded. duct; and that this last consideration had always a decided effect in determining the order of rank. It was also announced,
Wednesday the 7th, and Wednesday the that such rank would only take effect in
14th instant, are the days appointed for the event of the Students proceeding to
receiving petitions from Candidates for adIndia within six months from the date of mission to the College next Term, which their being so ranked; and that, should commences on Monday the 19th Januarya
Debate at the Gast-Jndia House.
East-India House, December 17th. inform him, in that spirit of courtesy A Quarterly General Court of Pro. which he was sure he might expect, wheprietors of East-India Stock was this day ther it was intended to lay before the Proheld at the Company's House in Leaden- prietors any of the proceedings which had hall-street.
taken place with respect to the College? The Chairman (W. Wigram, Esq.) in He asked for this information, in order formed the Court, that, agreeably to the that he might know what course he should 5th sec. cap. v. of the By-laws, an account
pursue hereafter. of the Company's stock, per computation, The Chairman.-"I have a perfect recolfor the year ending the 30th of April 1822 lection of the question referred to having with respect to India, and for the year been asked by an Hon. Proprietor. ending the 30th of April 1823 with re then stated that the College Committee, spect to England, was now laid before in consequence of what had fallen from them.
my predecessor, had taken the subject up, DIVIDEND.
and had made a report; but that I was not The Chairman.-“ It is appointed at this instructed to lay it before the Proprietors. Court to consider of a dividend on the capi. I also said, that I had the pleasure to tal stock of the Company for the half-year state, and I now repeat that statement, commencing on the 5th of July last, and that the College was going on in a most ending on the 5th of January. The Court satisfactory way." of Directors have come to a resolution The Hon. D. Kinnaird.--" Then, Sir, I thereon, which shall now be read:"
shall now read the motion, which it is my “ At a Court of Directors, held on intention to submit, on an early day, to the “ Tuesday the 16th Dec. 1823,
Court of Proprietors, specially summoned « Resolved unanimously, That in pur- for that purpose.” The Hon. Proprietor suance of the act of the 53d of Geo. III. then read the intended motion, as follows:
cap. 155, it be recommended to the “ That application be made to Parlia. « General Court to declare a dividend of ment, in the ensuing session, for the repeal “ 54 per. cent. upon the capital stock of of the 46th clause of the act of the 33d of " this Company, for the half-year com Geo. III. cap. 155, by which the Court “ mencing the 5th of July last, and end of Directors is prohibited from sending * ing the 5th of January next.
to India, in the capacity of a writer, any On the motion of the Chairman, second
person who shall not have resided during ed by the Deputy Chairman (W. Astell, four terms at the Haileybury College; and Esq.), a dividend of 54 was agreed to. for introducing into the said act a clause HAILEYBURY COLLEGE.
appointing a public examination, at such The Chairman was about to signify to times, and under such regulations, as the the Proprietors, the purpose for which the Court of Directors, with the approbation Court was made special-when
of the Board of Controul, may direct; to The Hon. D. Kinnaird rose. He said, which examination all persons shall subthat, at the most convenient moment, before mit their acquirements and qualifications they proceeded to the business for which for approval, previous to their being perthat Court was made special, he would mitted to proceed in the capacity of writake the opportunity of asking a question ters, to either of the Presidencies of Fortfrom the chair. At the last General William, Fort St. George, or Bombay." Court, at which he was not present, an “ The Court (continued Mr.Kinnaird) will honourable friend (Mr. Hume), who was perceive that my object is not to overthen near bim, inquired whether a report turn or destroy the institution, but to was to be made by the Court of Directors have general examinations, for the apto the Proprietors at large, on the subject proval of individuals, though not educated of Haileybury College; and he under at the College. I understand, if I place stood that the Hon. Chairman informed this requisition, calling for a Special Court, the Proprietors, that the matter had been in your hands now, it would be necessary, under the investigation of the College to give it effect, that every person by whom Committee, who had made a report there. it is signed should be present in Court. on : but that he had received no directions I shall therefore, take the alternative, and to lay it before the Proprietors. He should send it to you.” now take the liberty, after what had pas. The Chairman." It is not necessary sed on a former occasion, between the that the subscribers should be present, unthen Chairman and himself (when he less when a ballot is demanded.” expressed his intention not to move any The requisition was then handed in. thing on the subject until it had received The Chairman.-“ Perhaps it would be he consideration of the Court of Direc better if it were sent to the Court of Di.
to beg that the Chairman would rectors, as it is addressed to them. I per