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the language of birds, which Suliman pagla, and have made several attempts to alone could interpret; and others advised master the English language, with frequent me to wait till I was dead, when I might interruptions, and indifferent success. perhaps know. The works of Sheab-addin I have, however, read some astronomical Soherwerdi, and the Mabahese Meshra- and mathematical works, which have kiya were equally unprofitable. At length confirmed my conviction of the justice of I satisfied myself with these conclusions : the Pythagorean philosophy; and I de- The soul is subject to increase and di- rive daily progressive pleasure from my minution, and to various modifications of acquaintance with the writers of Europe. condition, from one period to another. I passed a year at Dacca about five The notion of its separate existence is al- years ago; before and since which period, together irrational ; and man differs in no I have continued to amuse myself with respect from other animals. I held the composition in Persian and Arabic. Andoctrines of the Sherakians, or fire-wor- terior to that date, my writings were conshippers, for true, as I discovered what fined to ordinary subjects; but subselight they meant, and what fire they quently, I have addressed them to the adored.

praise of light, and the glorification of * I have since been settled at Rasa- the Sun."

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE GOANDS. The Goands, who differ widely from quence, they are than the males, and what the Mahrattas in many respects, are a most heavy burdens they can carry. Their chief singular race, and they must strike the employment is in bringing down from the most casual observer as being unlike in jungles, the seeds of the Mowah tree for appearance to any cast of people in Hin- making shural, and selling them to the doostan. They are semibarbarous, of distillers ; bringing down also wood, grass, low caste as Hindoos, and speak a lan: and bamboos, which resting on the crown guage unintelligible to the inhabitants of of the head, rubs off the hair, causing a the plains. A few of them get domesti. premature baldness. They are Hindoos, cated in the villages as servants; but but bury their dead; and in caste, are as chiefly they are to be found in the hills, low or lower than Chumars, extremely where they reside in secluded parts, appa- carnivorous, eating the sacred cow herself, rently accessible only to themselves. and feasting on fowls. I have even seen

The women carry burdens, more like them cutting up and carrying off large beasts that human creatures; and in “ fat pieces of cows and bullocks that die near and feature," might well pass for Hot the villages, which in most parts of India tentots; they are not overloaded with become as carrion, the portion and midcloathes, one piece, or “dhotee," answer night meals of wolves, hyænas, jackals, ing their purpose; their bodies are tat &c. &c. tooed all over, and they wear the usual, The Goands, however, are deservedly but very heavy, brass ornaments : unlike famed for almost invariably speaking the most women, they neglect the hair, which truth, and thus differ as widely from is generally cut short. The women seem the Mahrattas, as in altitude the hills to do the work, which in other parts is they inbabit, rise above the plains of the the province of the men, and it is quite latter. astonishing how much stronger, in conse

ACCOUNT OF CHEEN OR CHINA. (Translated from a letter from a Persian Moonshee, dated Nepaul, Oct. 20, 1823. In the month of June 1822, the Rajah turned in the following year, on the 18th of Nepaul dispatched Dilbunjun Pandee of October 1823, to Nepaul, and reported and Divee Bhughut, and others, on as follows: mission to China, from whence they re It took them eight months to reach the

a

capital of China (Pekin), during which and general officers assemble at the impejourney they passed over ninety-three large rial durbar. mountains.

All the females of China are purda They remained at the capital fifty-five nusheen, or veiled. days, by permission of the Emperor, who · Every shop is obliged to sell a particu. gave them a habitation to reside in. lar article, and nothing more.

They state that the buildings in the In summer the heat is excessive, and in capital of China resemble those at Nypaul. winter the rivers of China are ice-bound,

The circumference of the capital of and the ice of such a thickness that Ele. China they state to be three cosses and a phants cross over the rivers. half, and its breadth half a coss. The On the departure of the before-menprincipal gate of the city is very small. tioned agents, they were invested, by order

The Emperor is thirty-eight years old; of the Emperor, with thillats, or dresses but as yet he has no mustachios.

of honour. Four Cazies, or Viziers, have the ad The Emperor sent to the Rajah of Neministration of affairs ; and every morn- paul three Tanghan horses, with a variety ing about fifteen hundred of the nobility of rich presents of all kinds.

CENTRAL ARABIA.

A WORK has recently been published are able to bear arms.

There are in Paris, by M. Jomard, illustrative of many towns, the principal of which is the geography of Nedjd, or Central El-Derreyeh, which seems to have Arabia, a most extensive tract of surpassed El-Yemameh in importance. country wholly unexplored by Euro- El-Derreyeh is the capital of the Wapeans. D'Anville was almost entirely habees, an Arab tribe which has dependent upon Arabian authorities in already been the dread of the Ottocompiling his map and geographical man empire, and may again resume notices of this country. M. Jomard its energy. has derived intelligence from more M. Jomard, after a most careful recent sources. Ibrahim Pasha, the collation of his more recent informason of the present Pasha of Egypt, tion with earlier authorities, has arrived has lately carried on hostilities in at the conclusion, that the producCentral Arabia, and has furnished M. tions of the learned geographers of Jomard with all the information he Europe are exceedingly inaccurate ; had thus an opportunity of collect- and that the positions of even the ing. It appears that the interior of celebrated cities of Mecca and Medina the peninsula of Arabia, in common are very incorrectly given in their best with all other countries (New Hol- maps. land excepted), gradually becomes The liberal and even enlightened more elevated as its distance from the character of the present Pasha of sea increases. It is generally sup- Egypt, holds out to the learned and posed that this country is for the scientific world the fairest prospects most part desert, but this is by no of interesting research in countries means the case; for it abounds in which have been hitherto closed small oases which afford subsistence against modern discovery, though histo a tolerable population, of which it tory will render them for ever me is estimated that 60,000 men at least morable.

ORIENTAL COINS.

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sie: The occasional insertion in and two other dynasties called the your Journal of something regarding Fatimite and Abbassy Khalifs in Egypt, the literature or antiquities of India in all of whom, at various periods, were the Oriental character, although per- acknowledged as their superior by haps not interesting to a number of several princes, your readers, is very gratifying to a The accompaning specimens, taken portion of them; I was therefore well from Mr. Marsden's work, will better pleased to peruse in your Journal for illustrate this subject than pages of this month the inscriptions on some writing. medals recently discovered in Bengal ;

What I wish to impress on your not that they are particularly interest- readers is, that a great proportion of ing or novel, as they have been already Mohammedan coins contain not only noticed by Mr. Wilkins, in his“ Views the titles of the reigning princes, but of the Ruins of Gour,” published in also that of the Khalif. These titles 1817, and every information regarding are generally on different sides of the the Princes by whom they were struck coin, but are sometimes so intermixed may be found in “ Stewart's History as to render the deciphering of them of Bengal,” published in 1813.

very difficult ; thus the words phel But I will embrace this opportunity of making a few observations on Mo- pbill in No. 5 of the Journal belongs hammedan coins, which will enable

to the reverse side of the coin. See your Oriental readers more easily to

also No. 3 of the Specimens. decipher those which accident may

On several coins a temporal prince throw into their hands.

It is not, is acknowledged to be the Lord Parahowever, my intention to enter into a

mount;

thus in 181 of the Numismata, prolix discussion on this subject, but the Atabeg of Irak has admitted refer your readers to Mr. Marsden's Mangû Kâan, the Moghul prince, to admirable work, the “ Numismata be his superior. Mr. Marsden's second Orientalia Illustrata,” where they will volume will probably contain a numfind every information they can re ber of such coins, as it frequently conquire.

stituted one of the articles of peace Few of your subscribers are igno- between two potentates, an example rant that a number of Musselman of which may be seen in page 58 of states have risen on the ruin of the the “History of Bengal.” Khalifat, but they are probably not The translation of the inscriptions on aware that many of the princes who the coins which has given rise to this founded these empires still retained a

discussion is literal, but from want of nominal respect for the successors of attention to these circumstances, the Mohammed, and continued to impress author has ascribed to the prince, the their coins with the name and titles of titles which belonged to the Khalif of the Khalif.

The first race of Khalifs commenced Egypt, whose name was in the eleventh year of the Hejira, cor- Dow, in his History of Hindostan, responding with A.D. 632, and termi. page 311, has by mistake called the nated in the year 656, A.D. 1228; the Khalif of Mecca. cities of their residence, generally The legend on the reverse of No. 1 speaking, were Wâsit and Bagdad. of your Journal should be: The pillar

There was a second dynasty of Kha- (or strength) of the Khalifat, Nasir, lifs who resided in Spain or Africa, commander of the faithful. Asiatic Journ.-No. 102.

Vol. XVII. 4 N

whom ناصر

يمين

بسم

berhan برهان امیر المومنین sion of

In Nos. 3, 4, 5 of the Journal, the markable, and I confess that in my word an oath, corresponds with first transcription of the legend (many

"in the word pnö (No. 100 of the Numis- years since) I had written it mata, and 1st of the Specimens. See nomine,” misled by the familiar reMr. Marsden's note), and the legend three characters of the former are,

currence of the latter word. The may therefore be translated : Attested

however, perfectly plain, and as the of, or by, the Khalif of God, &c. &c.

The circumstance of Mohammed, phrase of all pandi kesemi billah is King of Delhi, having sent an ambas, translated by Meninski, “ Deum tessador to Egypt about A.H.743-4, and obtaining a firman and investiture tem appellare,” so may pero paans from thence

, is confirmed by the waitgall kesemi amir al-múnenin be historians of both India and Egypt.

considered as adjuring the head of the SPECIMENS OF VARIOUS COINS TO ILLUS- musulman religion to attest the vali

TRATE THE ABOVE REMARKS: dity of his (the sultan's) title. On a 1st. A coin of the Seljukian princes, dirhem of the same date, but without being No. 100 of the Numismata, the the equestrian figure, T. Ch. Tychsen inscription on which nearly corres

finds the still more peculiar expresponds with those of the Journal. geneity w celles en centro de los amir al-münenín “præfectus principis

fidelium." Rukn-ed-dîn Kilij Arslân Ben Kai

N.B. The Khalif here mentioned, Khosru,

was the last of the Khalifs of Bagdad. Thirteenth sultan. I AREA. Figura principis equo ipsi

Second Specimen. dentis, arcam tendentis. In parte A coin of the Turkoman Ortokites, inferiore stella.

being 115 of the Numismata :
.

Husâm-ed-dîn Yûluk Arslán.
I. AREA. Figura feminæ, ut apparet,

sedentis, cum tribus figuris adstanSultanus maximus Rukn-ed-duniya wa tibus. Kilij

. teste (adjurato) imperatore Fidelium. .

lium.

. Imam Al- Mostàsem-billah imperator Fidelium.

de , ,

Husam-ed-din rex Diarbekr Yüluk Ar. Cuditur hæc drachma in Siwas, anno

slân ben Il-Gházi ben Ortok, anno 656 (1258). (1 dw. 154 gr.)

587 (1191). The introduction of the unaccustom

N.B. The Khalif here mentioned,

was the thirty-fourth of the Khalifs of ed phrase beginning with pani teste

Bagdad, and was the supposed ancestor (adjurato) imperatore fidelium” is re of those of Egypt.

السلطان الاعظم ركن الدنيا .MARGIN حسام الدین یولق ارسلان

وا الدین قلج ارسلان بن کیخسرو

قسم امیر المومنین الامام الناصر الدین امیر .cd

-
din Kilis Arslan ben Kai Khosra
,
II
.
AREA
المومنین

Imam AlNaser cd din imperator Fide الامام المستعصم بالله .II

. AREA

امیر المومنین حسام الدين ملكك دیاربکر .MARGIN يولق ارسلان بن ایل غازي بن

ضرب هذا الدرهم بسيواس .MARGIN ارتق مننه سبع و ثمنين و خما

سنه ست وخمسین و ستمایه

Third Specimen.

tanus fidei et fidelium, Abu alA coin of the Atabegs of Irak, on ( (Fadhil). which the inscription is intermixed, Margin. as in No.5 of the Journal, being No. 180 of the Numismata :

.

First symbol. Sequel unintelligible. II. AREA. .

لا اله الا الله وحده

و المويه

... له

الدين لولو .Bedr

ed din Lali بدر الامام لااله الا الله وحده .AREA

.1 ونکو قاان اعظم حلو

.II

.
AREA

لا شريك له المستعصم بالله امیر خنار ) بل عالم پاد شاه روي زمین (تتر) معظم

المومنین

Imam Al-Mostàsem-billah imperator

Fidelium. .

Mangú s. Mankú kaan maximus....

mundi, imperator orbis terræ, Tatar? magnificus.

بالموصل سنه ست .MARGIN بسم الله ضرب هذ

.INNER CIRCLE ...

.....ل سنه خمسین و و خمسین

ست مایه

rius in

In nomine Dei cuditur hic (de

Mosul) anno 650 (1252). MARGIN.

الأمر من بعد ..... الله الأمر

يفرح المنون (المومنون)

(Cuditur) in Mosul, anno (6) 56

(1958).

Fifth Specimen. A coin of the celebrated Timour or Tamerlane, on which he acknowledges Sultan Mahmud, of the race of Zagatay, as his superior; being No. 286 :

بنصر الله

Deo est imperium antehac et in futu

امیر تیمور گورگان

rum, &c.

لولو محمد رسول الله صلل .II

. AREA الدنيا و الدين اتابكك

Amîr Tîmur Gârgân. .
I. AREA.

. Third symbol. .

الله عليه بدر

سلطان محمود خان .II

.
AREA

Lúli. Muhammed est legatus Dei,

cui sit pax Dei. Bedr-ed-duniya wa cd-din Atabeg.

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امیر تیمور گورگان

الملك الناصر يوسف .SIDES

Al-Malek Al-Naser Yusuf.
N.B. The Khalif is the same as of
No. 1.

Fourth Specimen. .
A coin of the same prince, on

Amir Timur Gürgân.

(3 dw. 19 gr.)

Sixth Specimen. Specimen of the coins of the Mamluks of Egypt, No. 260 of the Numis

mata:

الملك الظاهر ركن الدين ابو الفتح which Manga Kian

,
grandson of the
بیبرس

celebrated Jengiz Khan, is acknowledged to be the lord paramount, Al-Malek ed-Dhâher Rukn-ed-dîn being No. 181 of the Numismata :

Abu'l fat-ha Bibars,
.
Fourth Mamlúk - Bahrite sultan of

Egypt.
I. AREA. Infrà, Leo currens.

.Bedr

ed din Lali بدر الدين لولو لولو الملك الرحيم بدر .AREA ,1

الدنيا و الدین سلطان الاسلام و الغالي السلطان الملك الظاهر ركن

المسلمین ابو ال (فضیل) الدنيا و الدين .. برس قسيم امير .Lal

.
Malek r
-
rakian
(
rex miseri

cors) Bedr-ed-duniya wa cd-din, sul

المومنین

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