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the debt swelled out to an alarming amount; and the deacons and the people, as they generally do in such emergencies, looked chiefly to the poor pastor to help them out of their difficulties, by chapel collections and all the usual expedients of pauper solicitations. Mr. King raised for the chapel about £800; but at last, disgusted with his position, and deeply wounded by some acts of unkindness and ingratitude, he resigned his charge to labour in a humbler sphere, unembarrassed by eleemosynary degradation and diaconal cabals.
His resignation, which took place in the year 1813, had been preceded by an endeavour to introduce a more searching test of discipleship, and to persuade the Church to break bread every first day of the week; but in these attempts he was thwarted by those who prefer sectarian traditions to the practice of the disciples and the testimony of the word in the apostolical era.
Mr. King now preached the Gospel in his own house, and his ministry was attended by many of those who had been his hearers in Hall Gate Chapel. After a while, however, his friends built him a small chapel in Spring Gardens, which was opened in the year 1816. building, which affords accommodation for about two hundred persons, he continued to preach till his last illness, two or three months before his death.
A life so noiseless, and marked with so few events, is scarcely a subject for even the humblest biography; but it is not for the sake of biography that I would burthen even one of your pages with this lowly record. My desire is to rescue
from entire oblivion the name of an humble saint, who, having a sincere desire to obey his heavenly Master, did in his walk bear testimony to those truths into the discovery of which he had been led by a diligent examination of the word of God. His distinguishing sentiments may be very briefly stated. He rejected all the sectarian notions of an ordained, learned, and salaried ministry: he saw with clearness the workings of the spirit of the world amongst professing Christians, and more particularly in that portion of it which he had had the best opportunities of contemplating. The Church of God he looked on as the witness for Jesus in the midst of a world lying in the wicked one; and that testimony to be expressed by believers manifesting in their whole conduct that they could not, and would
not, serve two masters. The internal beauty of the Church he saw chiefly in the good and pleasant unity of the brethren; and if this love of the redeemed people were wanting, all seemed to him wanting. He much desired to have mutual exhortation and teaching established amongst the brethren; but this manifestation of an order submitted to the government of the Spirit, he never saw realised, though he once assured me that no greater boon could have been granted him, than that he should have been allowed to see a Church gathered together on the principle of visible union, separation from the world, and liberty of ministry. "I had once," said he, "indulged a hope that I might be instrumental in bringing about something of this sort in this place; but that prayer (for an object of prayer it has been with me) has been withheld; and in my pilgrimage I shall see nothing of this sort. "" *
The practice of war, and the theory by which the practice of war, either offensive or defensive, is upheld by some professing Christians, he entirely reprobated.
Mr. King had a family of nine children. His stipend whilst he was the minister of Hall Gate Chapel, was £50 per annum; but on his resignation of that charge, he gave up all ideas of a salaried ministry, and supported his family by keeping a school. This was the hard part of his life; but he passed through it with patience, and bore the long trial of scanty means with perfect cheerfulness; and in exerting the labours of his hands, he could in a clear conscience testify that he was "happy, and that it was well with him" (Psa. cxxviii. 2).
In the last years of his life, when circumstances no longer demanded this drudgery, he would look back on his labours as an humble schoolmaster with entire satisfaction. Once, when discoursing on this subject, and on the proper position of Christian ministers in the Church, he pointed out to me Acts xx.
* A small company was gathered under Mr. King's ministry after his resignation of the pastorate of Hall Gate Chapel; but with the exception of breaking bread on the first day of the week, circumstances scarcely allowed the developement of those other points of order which are plainly laid down in the Scriptures
32-35, as affording a safe and sound rule, which the lapse of time, and change of circumstances, would, in his opinion, never materially alter, if the Churches were obedient to that order which is very plainly laid down in the New Tes
It is needless to say, that with these views and practices, he was completely discarded by the Dissenting clergy. To use his own expression, "he had quite lost his religious character amongst them;" and he was forgotten by them all as a dead man out of mind.
He looked for the coming of the Lord, and the restitution of all things in the personal reign of Jehovah Zidkenu; and the remedy of the evil that is upon the earth he had no idea would be effected till that greatest of all events took place.
Most diligently did this good man search the Word. He studied the Old and New Testaments in the original tongues every day; and being blessed also with an accurate memory, his knowledge of the Word, and his power of explaining it in conversation, have not often been surpassed by any biblical students. Commentators and expositors of the Scriptures he little regarded; but amongst Christian writers he gave a high place to Dr. Owen, and to Ebenezer Erskine, of Stirling.
I have often heard Mr. King preach, and generally with much profit. On texts from Isaiah relating to Christ, and indeed on many other portions of Scripture, his sermons were truly excellent. Some of his discourses on the 3rd of Romans have made a deep impression on my memory; and, generally speaking, in my judgment, his ministry was of a superior order, and always exhibiting a surprising knowledge of the Scriptures.
On the subject of faith he was supposed to entertain views analogous to those propounded by Sandeman; but on this subject I never was able fully to comprehend the difference of his sentiments from those usually held by the orthodox. I have often discoursed with him at length on the subject, but never so as fully to comprehend the difference. He referred me to a well-known discourse of Erskine's on the assurance of faith, as containing sentiments with which his own pretty nearly accorded.
A Christian thus circumstanced, could not but feel the darkness and solitude of his situation: and this solitude im
pressed a melancholy character on Mr. King's thoughts and deportment. But who, indeed, could avert the access of melancholy, when viewing the aspect of professing Christianity as it is exhibited in these days, more especially when the survey was taken in the peculiar circumstances here detailed? Mr. King little supposed that multitudes of believers had lately arisen, professing sentiments and entertaining views akin to his own: and I doubt not that there are many persons similarly situated, who, unknown to others, and not suspecting that their own private sentiments are shared by any one else, have come to such conclusions relating to the Church of God, as render any further union with sectarian arrangements indescribably painful to their feelings, and irksome to their consciences.
Mr. King's last illnesss was attended with much bodily suffering, but he died rejoicing in the Lord, having repeatedly testified, the last few days of his life, that the precious truths he had so long held forth were his only support in the prospect of dissolution. "Happy, happy, happy!" were words which he was enabled to utter almost with his dying breath.
Many documents are before me shewIng the high esteem in which Mr. King was held by the Dissenting ministers before he resigned the pastoral office of Hall-Gate Chapel. A letter from Dr. Williams, of Rotherham College, requests him (Mr. King) to send his opinion at length on his "Essay," of which he was about to publish a second edition, and which he desires to make as unexceptionable as may be. He professes to set a high value on Mr. King's judgment. The date of this letter is 1810.
A printed circular, the object of which is to raise money for the Hall-Gate Chapel, bears attestations from many of the Dissenting ministers. Dr. Pye
Smith's attestation is as follows: "Having been personally acquainted with the religious interest at Doncaster, and the exertions which have so laudably and successfully been made in that truly important sphere of usefulness, I cordially unite in attesting the merits of the case, and expressing high regard for my esteemed brother, the Rev. Wm. King."
Attestations, varying in expression, are signed by Mr. Parsons, of Leeds; Dr. Boothroyd; Mr. Lambert, of Hull; Mr.
Some interesting letters are from one of the most eminent of the Dissenting ministers now in London. They are expressed in affectionate and respectful terms, every letter beginning with this address, "Reverend and honoured father in the Lord Jesus Christ." They bear date 1815-16. An extract from a letter written by the father of this minister is as follows:-" My son, and your son also in the faith; for as Paul says, if ye have ten thousand instructors, ye have not many fathers, for I have begotten you in the bonds of the Gospel. As a father, I hope you will descend to the weakness of this child, this babe in grace, who, in his natural life, has not yet attained his eighteenth year.
"About this time three years, God was pleased in sovereign mercy to convince him of his dreadful state by nature under your ministry at the Tabernacle; and this time last year, the last Lord's day you preached at Tottenham-court, the Lord was pleased, in the riches of his grace, to deliver his captive soul from guilt and slavish fear, under which he had laboured for two years, by a manifestation of his mercy through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.
of death, and remorse of eonscience for many a deed of injustice and blood urging him to deeds of atonement; the hungry priests surrounding his couch, and the vast sums lavished upon them, and upon the most renowned shrines in India, by way of viaticum, the imagination is irresistibly carried back to former days and to similar scenes, though on a smaller scale in our own land, to which many a religious house owed its rich patrimony."-A Friend of India.]
"THE death of Runjeet Sing, in itself an occurrence of no ordinary political importance, has been accompanied with circumstances of so peculiar a nature, as to demand special notice. It appears that, notwithstanding his life had been one continued violation of all the rules of Hindoo orthodoxy, he was determined to smooth his passage to the tomb, and to die, if possible, in the odour of sanctity, by expiatory gifts. Finding his end rapidly approaching, like another Indian conqueror, Mahomed of Ghizni, he ordered his treasures to be brought forward that he might feast his eyes with them for the last time. Then commenced a series of gifts to brahmins and shrines, the like of which has not been since the Golden Age. Estates of large value were lavished on the priesthood; a hundred cows, with gilded horns; a hundred caparisoned horses, equipped in gold and jewelled saddles; four elephants, with gold and silver seats; a golden chair and bedstead; plate; strings of pearls; swords; shields and other articles of incalculable value, were ordered to be sent to the shrines throughout India, to proclaim the piety of the Rajah. Then the Surpeish and the string of pearls which the Governor-General had given him were made over to Mudoosoodun Pundit, because they were so very precious.' And at last the dying penitent called for the mountain of light, the Kohi-noor, the unrivalled jewel which he had filched from Shah Soojah, and ordered it to be sent to Juggunnath; but here his son, his minister, and his attendants interposed, and represented to him how invaluable was the diamond, worth all the revenues of all India, and how diffiIcult it would be for the brahmins to obtain a purchaser for it; and it appears that his consent was given to its being retained in the royal treasury. It must have been a scene worthy of the first pencil
in Europe, this closing scene of Runjeet the Lion of the North, lying on his bed in the agonies of death; the physicians momentarily feeling his pulse, while he lavished away lands, gold, jewels, and gifts, estimated at the most moderate computation, at a million sterling. The mind is involuntarily carried back to the dying scenes in some castle of some daring, but penitent baron, in our native land, before the statute or mortmain was passed.
"Yet if this scene was painfully interesting, that which followed the death of the Rajah, was still more to be lamented. As soon as his departure was known, the Ranees raised cries and lamentations, tearing their hair, casting earth on their heads, throwing themselves on the ground, and striking their heads against bricks and stones. The bier of sandal wood was prepared and embroidered with gold flowers, and Rajah Dheean Singh declared his resolution to follow his master. The officers of state threw themselves at his feet, and entreated him to alter his resolution, as without him the affairs of the country would be entirely deranged. His determination was, at length, changed. Then came four of the Ranees to the bier weeping, and resolved to burn themselves with it. Kurruck Sing, the successor of Runjeet, did all in his power to dissuade them, but in vain. And, accordingly, four of his queens, and seven of his concubines, were consumed to ashes on the funeral pile. This is a circumstance most deeply to be lamented; but the resolution on the part of the women appears to have been so unexpected, as to have precluded all previous precautionary measures. Neither does
individual appear to have been preany sent at his obsequies, to represent the Governor-General. We are certain that his lordship would have left no stone unturned to have averted so dreadful a catastrophe."
am not afraid of any of the consequences that are involved in a full acknowledgment that I THINK IT IS. I think it is plainly and undoubtedly the duty of such a government, to establish, and to endow whatever they believe to be the truth of God."-Rev. H. M'Neile's Speech. See Inquirer, p. 559.]
Interview with the King-Departure for Rangoon.
"Now he [the king] stood erect, and with a keen eye, full of meaning, he looked towards the princes, noblemen, officers, and attendants, who were all bowed down before him, and said, with a full voice, 'Little teachers, you must not give away any more of Jesus Christ's books. Formerly I could see such things done, and take no notice of them; but now I am the defender of the faith, and protect my religion.' To this we made no reply, but bowed to him, to let him know that we listened to him. We then informed him, that when we returned, we designed to bring with us a printing-press, and to print books on science. 'Yes,' said he, with a strong and firm tone, 'come, and print, and give away as many books on science as you please!' Our business with him being now finished, we respectfully took leave of him and returned home."-Journal of Mr. Simons' Miss. at Ava, May 20, 1837.--Amer. Baptist Missionary Mag.
HINDOO COMPARISON BETWEEN DUELLING AND THE SUTTEE.
"THE Englishman of the 26th July, stated that a duel had been fought between Capt. M'Naghten and Mr. Hollings. This account we copied into the Chundrika, and we think it our duty to make some remarks upon that circumstance.
"The English suppose themselves to be a brave, wise, ingenious, strong, and virtuous people; and they, therefore, look upon the inhabitants of this country, particularly the Hindoos, as a weak and useless body of men; but they are blind to the faults of their own conduct. Two persons are, perhaps, offended with each other; the one party challenges the other, and they fight a duel: sometimes the lives of both are lost; sometimes one of them is killed, or perhaps both are wounded:- is this civilisation or courage? It is truly surprising, that a person who has been well educated from his childhood, and who has risen to a
post of honour, and who has a family, should be so piqued at an insult offered by another, either by letter, or by word of mouth, or in some other way, and so overcome by anger as to risk his own life. Perhaps it may be said, that an insulter deserves to be punished with death; yet, in this case, not only is his life exposed to danger, but in endeavouring to destroy another, his own life may be lost, and his wife and children may be left destitute; so that he punishes them also. We Hindoos term this suicide; and there is no forgiveness for suicide, because no sin can be greater than this. For this reason, our Shasters again and again deprecate suicide, and direct the ruler to prevent it; but it is a most astonishing thing that the English, who are rulers, should take no steps to prevent it. If it be said, that when a duel is fought, it is not with the orders of the ruler, but is done in secret by those who are the slaves of passion; we reply, that we have heard that when a duel is fought, each of the individuals has two friends present as seconds. This, therefore, is not done in secret; and government might easily prevent it: otherwise it becomes liable to censure and disgrace. Ever since the English have governed this country, they have sought to prevent the evil Hindoo practice of Suttees. Had they not done this, they would have been despised by all other nations; and this they considered an act of benevolence. But this act of the Hindoos is in accordance with their Shasters. By this the woman and her husband are cleansed from all sin, and received into heaven; and thus the relatives of the woman are rendered happy: and this becomes a ground of boasting amongst her connexions, because the woman by this act has delivered three generations from misery. Such is the Shaster. Again, it is reasonable that the woman should thus die, because the husband is the wife's gooroo; and when once a widow, she is deprived of the pleasures of life: so that it is better for a Hindoo widow to die than to live. The rulers of this country looked upon this as an abominaable act, and issued a law for the abolition of the Suttee. They thus shewed the superiority of the Christian religion, because it proved that as Christians
they would not endure such cruelty. But is duelling permitted by the Christian's Bible? What cause for sorrow! Of these two gentlemen, he that lived in Calcutta was a learned man, and what he wrote was for the good of others; but the other, taking another view of it, and under the influence of passion, according to the custom of his country, on coming to town two or three years afterwards, enkindled the extinguished flame, and compelled him to fight a duel. If he had not done so, he would have been slighted by his countrymen: but where is he to leave his family? They have no refuge. Yet, to exonerate himself from the abuse of his own countrymen, he takes leave of a beautiful wife, and dismissing all affection for his children, makes his will. Did he not then disregard the laws of his native land? The grief we felt on hearing of this circumstance is indescribable. Who will not coincide in our opinion that duelling is a very cruel act ? that it is a great crime, and that it ought to be prevented? The English have abolished many customs in their own land; and they are in the habit of abrogating many laws which they think are not good: thus, about fifteen years ago forgery used to be punished with death; but this punishment has since been abolished. them now unitedly endeavour to abolish duelling altogether; otherwise, what the natives of this country say of Englishmen will be found to be true."-Chundrika.
"THE subject discussed at the last missionary conference was, 'What is the spirit that may be expected to pervade the mind of the Church previously to the conversion of the nations; and have we reason to believe that that spirit is now possessed by the Church ?'
"After a very lengthened and profitable discussion, it appeared that such a state as that which may be expected to precede the Millennium, was not possessed in such a measure by the Church, as to warrant the hope, on human probability, that the Millennium glory is at hand."--Calcutta Christian Advocate,June,