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The following Table gives the Population of the Provinces of Tenasserim, according to the latest Census, completed Dec. 31, 1834, and recently forwarded by Mr. Simons, of Ava station.








OCT. 2, 1835.

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this province, and of course much itinerant labor will be necessary. To do much good, the people must be visited requently. What can one do among so many thousands? If any thing effective is to be done for Arracan, it I have not had so many visiters since seems to ine, that more missionaries the rains commenced, as before, proba- must be sent here. I am now separatbly for two reasons,-my near neigh-ed about five hundred miles from all bors have gratified their curiosity, and the other brethren. I shall try, howon account of the weather not many ever, to do all the good I can. strangers have come to the village. Ipect in a very few weeks to go out to have, however, frequently been called the villages with the word of life. on to leave my heathen books, and tell the story of Christ, to those who are perishing in ignorance of the way of life. When I first came here I was obliged to confine myself to the tracts, EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF MR. more extensive acquaintance with the language and with the people, enables me now to vary my instructions according to the circumstances of those I address. I am happy to say that I have not been obliged to say as much about astronomy and geography as formerly. My instructions are confined more to Christ crucified, and I have therefore more hope that the Spirit will bless them to the good of souls. The other topics are suitable in their place, and undoubtedly have their use; but as I see, more and more, that all the efforts of the missionary are vain without the accompanying influences of the Holy Spirit, I try to use as much bible truth as possible, hoping that it may be made the power of God unto the salvation of souls. My hearers have been from all parts of the province, and a few are from Burmah. I have been occasionally, when the weather, &c. would permit, into the villages near by, talking to the people, and giving them tracts. We are yet feeling a good deal interested in reference to our teacher, but what will be the result is known only to the Omniscient. He of course has heard and read a good deal about the religion of Christ, and seems to understand its general truths quite well. He has had difficulties; but one after another has been removed, till he could only say, some time since, that he could not bear to be one alone, cast out from the friendship and society of all his countrymen, and left without any means of support. He tries to find some better excuse for himself, but does not succeed very well, and evidently is not at peace. O for the arm of the Lord to be made bare.

Help is greatly needed here. There are more than a thousand villages in

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Bankok, Aug. 30, 1835. Last Monday morning, in company with br. Jones, I visited the Pra-klang's wat. This name is given to a Siamese place of worship, including the temples for the gods, and the houses of the priests, together with other appendages connected with their mode of worship, such as a font of water, (50 or 60 feet in circumference,) a bell-house, and a few open sheds furnished with seats. The number and expense of these several buildings, vary according to the rank of the builder, or the success which has attended his worldly business. The nobles, by the by, who build most of the wats, are the principal merchants in the kingdom. The wat above alluded to, consists of three large buildings for the gods, besides an indefinite number of small ones for the priests, all built of brick, and surrounded by an iron railing, brought from Europe." The largest building in this enclosure is 80 or 100 feet in length, and about 50 in width. The pillars within which sustain the timbers overhead, are from 4 to 6 feet in diameter, and about 40 feet high. At one end stands a gilded image of nearly the height of the pillars, and its dimensions otherwise in proportion. As it was covered with mats, to shield it from injury while the building was being repaired, I inquired what it was, to which a Chinese boy, who could speak a little English, very pertly replied, "It is a made God, Sir."

The "chief priest " of this wat lives in a good house, well furnished, and ornamented with many fancy articles of foreign production. He is an old acquaintance and friend of Mr. Jones, and is one among the few, and an honorable exception to the ignorance and incivility of the Siamese priesthood. We

were invited to a seat with him on his matted floor, and to partake of a tiffin of cocoa-nut water and rice-cake. While he and Mr. Jones were engaged in conversation, I amused myself with examining his extensive library, composed chiefly of the Siamese sacred books written on palm-leaf, with gilt edges. As we left the room we saw at the door an extensive assortment of fruits arranged in tasteful order, not intended to be eaten, but as a mark of respect. Without the enclosure was a kiln in which they were burning lime of shells. The kiln was made of brick; forty feet in length and twenty in breadth and perhaps eight feet in depth, four feet above, and four below the surface of the carth. The fire was blown by a bellows, connected with a wheel, turned by slaves.

From this we went to visit Prince Chau-fah. His palace is furnished in English style, and every thing about the establishment shows that he possesses an ingenuous mind, and a desire for improvement. On his premises were eight or ten houses, (the only ones I have seen in Bankok,) two black bears, (which are also a curiosity here,) and a large cassiowary, besides several other birds uncommon in this country. He is learning the English language and English customs rapidly, considering his advantages, and is as familiar with us as an old American friend would be; though if the natives have any thing to do with him, they appear in his presence only on their hands and knees.

On Sabbath day we had at Chinese worship, thirty-four, a greater number than we have had on any former occasion. After the meeting was opened by prayer in English, as usual, Bun-ti read and explained several passages of Scripture, and closed by prayer in Chinese, after singing a psalm. At the close, I requested the attention of the assembly, and endeavored for the first time to address them in their own language.

Sept. 6. Sabbath. We have, to-day, had some new attendants at Chinese worship, though the number was abont the same as last Sabbath. I tried to preach them another short sermon, but short as it was, and communicated in a broken manner, I took as much delight in it as I ever did in preaching in my native language, and God is able to make it just as useful.

7. I have to day been much interested with a visit from five Hainan men, who came for medicine and

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books. One was brought upon the shoulders of others, being disabled for walking, by a large ulcer on one foot. I have given him a place to sleep in, at my house, and his friends have furnished a man to prepare his rice, being much more humane than those who brought a man to me on Saturday, who was unable to help himself, and left him, without provision, entirely to our benevolence. The Hainan people are the most interesting class of Chinese that I have seen, being more intelligent, and more retiring and becoming in their manners. I should think, from the little opportunity I have enjoyed for judging, that their language less resembles the Tay-chew dialect than any other.

This evening, observed the monthly concert of prayer with our missionary friends in this place.

9. This morning a Chinaman, who had been healed of a bad ulcer by our medicine, came with a valuable present of fruits, as an expression of his gratitude, which afforded us a good opportunity of directing him to the great Physician above.

20. Sabbath. Our assembly at Chinese worship has increased to more than forty. Two were present to-day who came eight or ten miles, and listened to the truth with attention. In connection with Bun-ti's exercises, I made some remarks to them from the 115th Ps., and endeavored to show them the folly of worshipping idols, and the propriety and some of the benefits of worshipping the God who made them, and who furnished them with the necessaries of life, and a Savior for the rescue of their souls from an endless hell. From the appearances to-day I am encouraged to hope, that, while some of the members of the little church are apparently sinking to the grave from disease, or old age, with a weak and wavering faith in God, others will be raised up from the more youthful and promising part of the assembly who will more than supply their places. We are careful to set before them the trials and persecutions they may expect if they embrace the new religion, that they may not be influencet by unworthy motives to adopt it. I am daily more persuaded that we have need of much faith and prayer, before the heathen will be converted; and I hope our friends in America, who know the prevalency of prayer, will unite with us in behalf of these perishing souls. Surely, nothing but an

almighty energy can save them, and this is to be given in answer to prayer. Prayer, after all, is our sheet anchor. 27. Our assembly at Chinese worship to-day, has been much as last Sabbath, except that a few of the old attendants were absent and their places supplied by new ones. The subject of our exercises for the last two Sabbaths, has been the duty of forgiving our enemies, and praying for our persecutors. This is a new doctrine to the heathen. The language of their religion, is the language of human nature unsanctified, Love your friends, and hate your enemies." Oct. 11. We have to-day had fifty at Chinese worship. The subject of discourse was the love of God, in the gift of his Son for the salvation of a sinful world. The hearers were solemn, but not affected as they should be, under the exhibition of this moving subject.

18. Sabbath. At our Chinese service to-day we had about the same number, though not the same persons, that were present last Sabbath. There was a fixed attention to the word, on the part of most of the assembly. There are some who subject themselves to real inconvenience for the sake of being present at these exercises. The day on the whole has been one of interest and profit.

20. The last few days have been spent by the Siamese as holy-days, while the King has been visiting several parts of the city, though, in consequence of the recent heavy rains, he has dispensed with his accustomed annual visitation to the wats. He goes out in his boat, 70 or 80 feet in length, and gilded and ornamented in a gaudy manner, and is accompanied by fifty or sixty other boats, conveying his ministers of state.

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characters have also sought for them in a very serious mood. None of us have been out of the house to distribute any, but nearly one half of all I brought from Singapore are gone; and to-day, during my absence, Mrs. J. distributed 145 copies of the different tracts, about 70 of which were the gospel of Matthew. Most of those who come now, are aware of the character of the books, and inquire for Matthew, as "the Sacred Book," the "Book of Jesus Christ," and, as frequently as any other designation, the "Book which tells of the one God.'" The Catechism is called the "Creation," because it commences by representing God as the Creator and Preserver of all things. The Sermon on the Mount, is called the "Preaching of Jesus." These publications have found their way into most of the temples and residences of the great-whether into the king's palace or not, I do not know. How far pure curiosity operates in bringing many from a considerable distance for books, and how much of sincere desire to know the truth, I cannot tell: many profess the latter. The prospect now is, that long before this reaches you, all our tracts will be gone, and how we are to carry on our operations without them, I know not; much of my time must necessarily be devoted to the perfecting of my knowledge of Siamese. Another tract, designed to give a general view of Christianity, seems much needed: as also an abstract of the Old Testament, together with many others for the use of schools.

25. To-day I made one of the most laborious I ever spent in Siam. I distributed, in my verandah, 180 tracts, among which were 80 copies of Matthew. With most of the recipients I have held considerable conversation, besides attending, with br. Dean, to about 50 patients. I might easily have distributed 50 or 100 more, but before night, I was too much exhausted for the further prosecution of the work. It is necessary to remark that I only give one book to a person, except that in a few instances I have given the Catechism with Matthew, as tending to assist in understanding it. It is also worthy of remark, that I have only had one female applicant.

Demand for Siamese Tracts. In regard to books, at first, as no efforts were made to circulate them, it was not known that we had them. 29. Yesterday and to-day, I have When a few had been distributed, the distributed fewer books, but have had applicants for them became numerous some hundred applications which I could and urgent; many, indeed, not knowing not supply. This week, however, more the weighty subject of which they treat, than 1,000 copies of our Christian pubhave urged their request in no respect-lications have been distributed, and ful terms, but many most respectable nearly all pure scripture.

The following incidents are inserted as illustrative of the character of the Siamese government and the power of the priesthood.

Mission to the Shans.


Oct. 14. A short time since the captain of an English vessel now here, went out to shoot some birds near one of Before we left Maulmein we found the wats. Having shot one which fell two Shans, one from Zenmè in Laos, into the grounds of the wat, the priests the other from above Ava, with whom ran and seized it, upon which a scuffle I studied the language for about two ensued—the captain was thrown down, months previous to our leaving Maulstamped upon, beaten with oars and mein, and made out a vocabulary of severely bruised. Mr. Hunter, to whom the vessel was consigned, ap-it varies little from the language of the two or three thousand words. I find plied to the king for redress, and was Shans where we are going. informed that the priests were not under his control and it was beyond his power to punish them. Thus, by the king's own acknowledgment, the priests Finding that the Shans have no constitute an empire by themselves, regular alphabet, except the very imsubject to no civil authority whatever. perfect one which they have borrowed The cause was referred to the head from the Burmese, and that even this priest, or Siamese pope, and his decision is written very differently in different was, that though the priests had offend-districts; we have concluded to introed, yet as the captain had also offended by shooting near the wat, their offence must be set off against his.

Application of the Roman Character to the Shan Language.

duce the Roman character, as far as practicable, among all the north-eastern tribes, and especially amongst those I have mentioned that Messrs. Rob- who have no written character at all, as inson and Johnson had procured a the Singphos, &c. The expense of location in another part of the place. books printed in the native character, It seems that the person who rented it considering their greater bulk, cost of to them, did not inform certain superior type, and extra amount of labor, will officers that he had rented his ground be at least four times as great as that to foreigners; and they, at length having of books printed in Roman. We must found it out, when our brethren had not, however, dispense with the printgot their buildings all prepared at aning and circulation of tracts and scripexpense of near 1,000 ticals, issued tures in the native character where it orders requiring them to move in five days.

Siamese Literature.

I am procuring the copying of some native books, to assist me in forming correct sentiments in regard to the Siamese religion, laws, and history, as they themselves represent them. The usual amount of matter in one volume of the Siamese books, is about equal to 12 pp. 8vo. of English (in English letter). There are about 20 vols. of the Siamese History, extending back about 500 years, and 6 or 8 vols. of their laws, which I am getting transcribed on durable paper, in a portable form. The History, I believe, has never before fallen into the hands of any foreigner. It is in the form of annals, specifying the particular date, sometimes even to hours and minutes, of every transaction recorded in it. As much of our Scriptures are historical, this work, I hope, will furnish me with such language as may greatly assist me in translating them.

can be read; and we expect to find a great field for tract distribution throughout the vast territory between Sadiya and Ava. As soon as we have ascertained what particular modification of the Burmese character can be read by the greatest number of Shans, we shall need to have a fount cast in that character, though the expense will probably be considerable. We shall take a small fount of Burmese with us, and a few additional Shan marks; but the forms of many letters vary so much from the Burman, that we have some doubt whether we shall be able to print, so that our tracts can be read, without having an entirely new fount.

You will learn the method of our applying the Roman character to the Shan from the Nov. No. of the Calcutta Christian Observer, which will be forwarded to you. There appears to be nothing at present which is doing so much towards breaking up the old heathen literature of these eastern

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