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POPULATION OF THE TENASSERIM PROVINCES.
forwarded by Mr. Simons, of Ava station.
* In 1833, Manlmein, 15868
this province, and of course much itinerant" labor will be necessary. To do
much good, the people must be visited EXTRACTS OF A LETTER
requently. What can one do among COMSTOCK, DATED KYOUK PHY00, so many thousands ? If any thing OCT. 2, 1835.
effective is to be done for Arracan, it I have not had so many visiters since seems to ine, that more missionaries the rains commenced, as before, proba. must be sent here. I am now separatbly for two reasons,-my near neighed about five hundred miles from all bors have gratificd their curiosity, and the other brethren. I shall try, howon account of the weather not many ever, to do all the good I can. I exstrangers have come to the village. Ipect in a very few weeks to go out to have, however, frequently been called the villages with the word of life. on to leave my heathen books, and tell the story of Christ, to those who are
Chinese. perishing in ignorance of the way of life. When I first came here I was obliged to confine myself to the tracts, EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF af.
more extensive acquaintance with the language and with the people, Bankok, Aug. 30, 1835. Last Monenables me now to vary my instruct- day morning, in company with br. Jones, ions according to the circumstances I visited the Pra-klang's wat. This of those I address. I am happy to say name is given to a Siamese place of that I have not been obliged to say as worship, including the temples for the much about astronomy and geography gods, and the houses of the priests, toas formerly. My instructions are gether with other appendages connected confined more to Christ crucified, and with their mode of worship, such as a I have therefore more hope that the font of water, (50 or 60 feet in circuinSpirit will bless them to the good ofference,) a bell-house, and a few open souls. The other topics are suitable sheds furnished with seats. The numin their place, and undoubtedly have ber and expense of these several buildtheir use ; but as I see, more and more, ings, vary according to the rank of the that all the efforts of the missionary builder, or the success which has atare vain without the accompanying in- tended his worldly business. The fluences of the Holy Spirit, I try to nobles, by the by, who build most of the nise as much bible truth as possible, wats, are the principal merchants in the hoping that it may be made the power kingdom. The wat above alluded to, of God unto the salvation of souls. consists of three laryc buildings for the My hearers have been from all parts of gods, besides an indefinite number of the province, and a few are from Bur- small ones for the priests, all built of mah. I have been occasionally, when brick, and surrounded by an iron railing, the weather, &c. would permit, into brought from Europe.
The largest the villages near by, talking to the building in this enclosure is 80 or 100 people, and giving them tracts. We feet in length, and about 550 in width. are yet feeling a good deal interested The pillars within which sustain the in reference to our teacher, but what timbers overhead, are from 4 to 6 feet will be the result is known only to the in diameter, and about 40 feet bigh. Omniscient. He of course has heard At one end stands a gilded image of and read a good deal about the religion nearly the height of the pillars, and its of Christ, and seems to understand its dimensions otherwise in proportion. general truths quite well. He has had As it was covered with mats, to shield difficulties; but one after another has it from injury while the building was been removed, till he could only being repaired, I inquired what it was, say, some time since, that he could not to which a Chinese boy, who could bear to be one alone, cast out from speak a little Englisly, very pertly rethe friendship and society of all his plied, “It is a made God, Sir.” countrymen, and left withuut any The “chief priest” of this wat lives means of support. He tries to find in a good house, well furnished, and orsome better excuse for himself, but namented with many fancy articles of does not succeed very well, and evi- foreign production. He is an old acdently is not at peace o for the arm quaintance and friend of Mr. Jones, and of the Lord to be made bare.
is one among the few, and an honorable Help is greatly needed here. There exception to the ignorance and incivilare more than a thousand villages in ity of the Siameso priesthood. We
were invited to a seat with him on his books. One was brought upon the matted floor, and to partake of a tiffin shoulders of others, being disabled for of cocoa-nut water and rice-cake. walking, by a large ulcer on one foot. While he and Mr. Jones were engaged I have given him a place to sleep in, at in conversation, I amused myself with my house, and his friends have furnishexamining his extensive library, com ed a man to prepare his rice, being posed chiefly of the Siamese sacred much more humane than those who books written on palm-leaf, with gilt brought a man to me on Saturday, who edges. As we left the room we saw at was unable to help himself, and left the door an extensive assortment of him, without provision, entirely to our fruits arranged in tasteful order, not benevolence. The Hainan people are intended to be eaten, but as a mark of the most interesting class of Chinese respect. Without the enclosure was that I have seen, being more intelligent, a kiln in which they were burning lime and more retiring and becoining in of shells. The kiln was made of brick; their manners. I should think, from forty feet in length and twenty in the little opportunity I have enjoyed breadth and perhaps eight feet in depth, for judging, that their language less four feet above, and four below the sur- resembles the Tay-chew dialect than face of the carth. The fire was blown any other. by a bellows, connected with a wheel, Tbis evening, observed the monthly turned by slaves.
concert of prayer with our missionary From this we went to visit Prince friends in this place. Chau-fah. His palace is furnished in 9. This morning a Chinaman, who English style, and every thing about the had been healed of a bad ulcer by our establishment shows that he possesses medicine, came with a valuable present an ingenuous mind, and a desire for im. of fruits, as an expression of his gratiprovement. On his premises
were tude, which afforded us a good opporcight or ten houses, (the only ones I tunity of directing him to the great have seen in Bankok,) two black bears, Physician above. (which are also a curiosity here,) and a 20. Sabbath. Our assembly at Chilarge cassiowary, besides several other nese worship has increased to more bırds uncommon in this country. He is than forty. Two were present to-day learning the English language and who came eight or ten miles, and English customs rapidly, considering listened to the truth with attention. his advantages, and is as familiar with In connection with Bun-ti's exercises, us as an old American friend would be; I made some remarks to them from the though is the natives have any thing to 115th Ps., and endeavored to show do with him, they appear in his presence them the folly of worshipping idols, only on their hands and knees.
and the propriety and some of the On Sabbath day we had at Chinese benefits of worshipping the God who worship, thirty-four, a greater number inade them, and who furnished them than we have had on any former occa- with the necessaries of life, and a Sasion. After the meeting was opened vior for the rescue of their souls from by prayer in English, as usual, Bun-ti an endless hell. From the appearances read and explained several passages of to-day I am encouraged to hope, that, Scripture, and closed by prayer in while some of the members of the little Chinese, after singing a psalm. At church are apparently sinking to the the close, I requested the attention of grave from disease, or old age, with a the assembly, and endeavored for the weak and wavering faith in God, first time to address them in their own others will be raised up from the more language.
youthful and promising part of the asSept. 6. Sabbath. We have, to-day, sembly who will more than supply their had some new attendants at Chinese places. We are careful to set before worship, though the number was abont them the trials and persecutions they the same as last Sabbath. I tried to may expect if they embrace the new preach them another short sermon, but religion, that they may not be influencshort as it was, and communicated in a eu by unworthy motives to adopt it. broken manner, I took as much delight I am daily more persuaded that we in it as I ever did in preaching in my have need of much faith and prayer, native language, and God is able to before the heathen will be converted; make it just as useful.
and I hope our friends in America, who 7. I have to day been much in- know the prevalency of prayer, will terested with a visit from five Hainan upite with us in behalf of these perishmen, who came for medicine and ing souls. Surely, nothing but an
almighty energy can save them, and characters have also sought for them in this is to be given in answer to prayer. a very serious mood. None of us have Prayer, after
all, is our shcet anchor. been out of the house to distribute any, 27. Our assembly at Chinese wor- but nearly one half of all I brought from ship to-day, has been much as last Singapore are gone; and to-day, during Sabbath, except that a few of the old ny absence, Mrs. J. distributed 145 attendants
absent and their copies of the different tracts, about 70 places supplied by new ones. The of which were the gospel of Matthew. subject of our exercises for the last Most of those who come now, are aware two Sabbaths, has been the duty of of the character of the books, and inforgiving our enemies, and praying for quire for Matthew, as "the Sacred our persecutors. This is a new doc- Book,” the “Book of Jesus Christ,” and, trine to the heathen. The language as frequently as any other designation, of their religion, is the language of the “ Book which tells of the one God.” human nature unsanctified, Love The Catechism is called the “ Creation," your friends, and hate your enemies." because it commences by representing
Oct. 11. We have to-day had fifty God as the Creator and Preserver of all at Chinese worship. The subject of things. The Sermon on the Mount, is discourse was the love of God, in the called the “Preaching of Jesus.” These gift of his Son for the salvation of a publications have found their way into sinful world. The hearers were solemn, most of the temples and residences of but not affected as they should be, the great-whether into the king's under the exhibition of this moving palace or not, I do not know. How far subject.
pure curiosity operates in bringing 18. Sabbath. At our Chinese service many from a considerable distance for to-day we had about the same number, books, and how much of sincere desire though not the same persons, that were to know the truth, I cannot tell: many present last Sabbath. There was a profess the latter. The prospect now fixed attention to the word, on the part is, that long before this reaches you, all of most of the assembly. There are our tracts will be gone, and how we are some who subject themselves to real to carry on our operations without them, inconvenience for the sake of being I know not; much of my time must nepresent at these exercises. The day cessarily be devoted to the perfecting on the whole has been one of interest of my knowledge of Siamese. Another and profit.
tract, designed to give a general view 20. The last few days have been of Christianity, seems much needed : spent by the Siamese as holy-days, as also an abstract of the Old Testawhile the King has been visiting sever- ment, together with many others for the al parts of the city, though, in conse- use of schools. quence of the recent heavy rains, he has 25. To-day I made one of the most dispensed with his accustomed annual | laborious I ever spent in Siam. I disvisitation to the wats. He goes out tributed, in my verandah, 180 tracts, in his boat, 70 or 80 feet in length, among which were 80 copies of Matthew. and gilded and ornamented in a gaudy With most of the recipients I have held manner, and is accompanied by fifty considerable conversation, besides ator sixty other boats, conveying his tending, with br. Dean, to about 50 paministers of state.
tients. I might easily have distributed 50 or 100 more, but before night, I was
too much exhausted for the further Slam.
prosecution of the work. It is necessary to remark that I only give one book
to a person, except that in a few inJONES, DATED BANKOK, AUG. 24, 1835. stances I have given the Catechism
with Matthew, as tending to assist in Demand for Siamese Tracts. understanding it. It is also worthy of In regard to books, at first, as no remark, that I have only had one female efforts were made to circulate them, it applicant. was not known that we had them. 29. Yesterday and to-day, I have When a few had been distributed, the distributed fewer books, but have had applicants for them became numerous some hundred applications which I could and urgent; many, indeed, not knowing not supply. This week, however, more the weighty subject of which they treat, than 1,000 copies of our Christian pubhave urged their request in no respect-lications have been distributed, and ful terms, but many most respectable I nearly all pure scripture.
LETTER FROM MR.
The following incidents are inserted as
Mission to the Shans. illustrative of the character of the Siamese government and the power of the priesthood.
Oct. 14. A short time since the cap- BROWS, DATED CALCUTTA, OCT. 10, tain of an English vessel now here, went 1835. out to shoot some birds near one of
Before we left Maulmein we found the wats. Having shot one which fell
two Shans, one from Zenmè in Laos, into the grounds of the wat, the priests
the other om above Ava, with whom ran and seized it, upon which a scuffle
I studied the language for about two ensued—the captain was thrown down,
months previous to our leaving Maulstamped upon, beaten with oars and severely bruised.
mein, and made out a vocabulary of Mr. Hunter, to
two or three thousand words. I find whom the vessel was consigned, ap- it varies little from the language of the plied to the king for redress, and was Shans where we are going. informed that the priests were not under his conirol and it was beyond his Application of the Roman Character to power to punish them. Thus, by the
the Shan Language. king's own acknowledgment, the priests
Finding that the Shans have no constitute an empire by themselves, regular alphabet, except the very imsubject to no civil authority whatever, perfect one which they have borrowed The cause was referred to the head from the Burmese, and that even this priest, or Siamese pope, and his decision is written very differently in different was, that though the priests had offend, districts; we have concluded to introed, yet as the captain had also offended duce the Roman character, as far as by shooting near the wat, their offence practicable, among all the north-eastern must be set off against his. I have mentioned that Messrs. Rob- who have no written character at all, as
tribes, and especially amongst those inson and Johnson had procured a the Singphos, &c. The expense of location in another part of the place. books printed in the native character, It seems that the person who rented it considering their greater bulk, cost of to them, did not inform certain superior type, and extra amount of labor, will officers that he had rented his ground be at least four times as great as that to foreigners; and they, at length having of books printed in Roman. We must found it out, when our brethren had not, however, dispense with the printgot their buildings all prepared at an ing and circulation of tracts and scripexpense of near 1,000 ticals, issued
tures in the native character where it orders requiring them to move in five can be read; and we expect to find days.
a great field for tract distribution Siamese Literature,
throughout the vast territory between I am procuring the copying of some Sadiya and Ava. As soon as we have native books, to assist me in forming ascertained what particular modificacorrect sentiments in regard to the tion of the Burmese character can be Siamese religion, laws, and history, as read by the greatest number of Shans, they themselves represent them. The we shall need to have a fount cast in usual amount of matter in one volume that character, though the expense will of the Siamese books, is about equal to probably be considerable. We shall 12 pp. 8vo. of English (in English take a small fount of Burinese with us, lelter). There are about 20 vols. of the and a few additional Shan marks; but Siamese History, extending back about the forms of many letters vary so much 500 years, and 6 or 8 vols. of their laws, from the Burman, that we have some which I am getting transcribed on dura- doubt whether we shall be able to print, ble paper, in a portable form. The His- so that our tracts can be read, without tory, I believe, has never before fallen having an entirely new fount. into the hands of any foreigner. It is in You will learn the method of our the form of annals, specifying the par- applying the Roman character to the ticular date, sometimes even to hours Shan from the Nov. No. of the Calcutta and minutes, of every transaction re- Christian Observer, which will be forcorded in it. As much of our Scriptures warded to you. There appears to be are historical, this work, I hope, will nothing at present which is doing so furnish me with such language as may much towards breaking up the old greatly assist me in translating them. heathen literature of these eastern