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forwarded to our friends in Asám, the Kásia same stock as the Siamese *, and it will hills, Manipur, Kachár, Arákán, Tenásserim, probably be found nearly identical with Province Wellesley, Malacca and Bankok, that spoken by the various Shán tribes inin the earnest hope that they will add to it habiting the territories east and north of Ava. synonymes of the single words, and trans The system adopted in this table, for exlations of the sentences, in all the languages pressing the Tai, or Shán, and Barmese and dialects spoken in the peninsula with sounds, is the one which is now which they are acquainted, together with a extensively and successfully used in specification of the limits within which Romanizing the languages of India, and they are spoken. There are at least two is identical with the plan proposed by the radical languages in extensive use there (the Honorable John Pickering, (Memoirs of Barmese and Shán), and as Mr. Brown has Amer. Acad. vol. IV.) for writing the himself furnished specimens of these, we languages of all the Indian tribes of North will only trouble our friends to supply any America in a uniform character, and now peculiar dialects of them which prevail in extensively adopted by the missionaries ibeir neighborhood, and to add any alto- among those tribes. It is also the same gether different language (if there be any) system as that introduced by the missionwhich they happen to know. The system aries at the Sandwich and Society Islands. of orthography which Mr. Brown has adopt. The vowels are used in accordance with ed is explained in the accompanying paper, their classical pronunciation on the conand as no accurate comparison can be made tinent of Europe. It has been found when different modes of spelling are used, necessary to introduce a number of diawe beg that it may be strictly followed as critical marks, in order to meet the wants far as it is applicable, and that any addition of the complex vowel systems of the Barwhich it may be found necessary to make
mese and Shans. The fundamental vowel to it in consequence of the existence of pe- sounds are as follows: culiar sounds in any language not provided a, sounded as in America, agreeable, or for in it, may be separately explained. Mr. short u in but. Brown's orthography agrees in principle
á, as in far. with that used by the Asiatic Society of e, as in men. Calcutta, by the Missionary bodies in the é, as in they, or a in name. Sandwich and South Sea islands and North i, as in pin. America, and by the gentlemen who have í, as in pique, police. lately extensively applied the Roman let 0, as in not, nor, or aw in law. ters to the languages of India.
ó, as in note.
u, as in put, pul). Plan of the Vocabulary.
ú, as in rule, or oo in moon. At the request of various friends to Na Additional Sounds.--The Barmese and tive Education a table has been prepared, Shans have a broad sound of the short e, containing about 500 of the most common resembling that of e in there, or ay in English words, with the corresponding mayor, for which we may use terms in two of the Indo-Chinese languages,
è, with the grave accent. and blank columns to be filled up with
ì, is used to denote a peculiar sound of other dialects. The object is to obtain a
the i in Barmese, not differing essentially comparative vocabulary of all the languages from the sound of e in me. spoken between India and China, for the ò, denotes the broad sound of short o, purpose of tracing their origin and affinities. as in groat, or a in ball. It is necessary The first column in the table contains the to use this character only in those languages English words; the second the correspond which contain two modifications of this ing terms in Barmese; the third those in the sound ; as the English, which has short o in language of the Syáms, Syáns, Sháns, or as not, and broad ò in nought. they call themselves, Tai * The Shán ü, denotes the French u, or the Gerwords are given according to the dialect man ü. spoken in the neighborhood of Zenmè, the
ű, is the same sound, but longer. capital of Northern Láos. This language is
Diphthongs.-In the expression of diphsupposed to be originally derived from the thongs, it is necessary to combine the
vowels in such a manner that they shall * An ancient Shán manuscript has recently express the same sounds when united, as been discovered by Captain Pemberton, late they do when separate. commissioner at Manipúr, containing a his. ai, is the long English i in pine ; a comtory of the ancient kingdom of Tai, from the bination of the short u with ihe sound of i 80th year of the Christian era, to the time of in pin. its final subjugation and dismemberment by the Barmese, during the reign of Alaung-phurá (or Alompra), A. D. 1752. The capital Grammar of the Tai, or Siamese language,
* From an examination of Captain Low's of this kingdom was Mógaung, situated on a it appears that more than half the words conbranch of the Erawadi, several hundred miles tained in his vocabulary are precisely the north of Ava.
same as are used among the Shans.
ái, as heard in the word ay.
modifications, where the sound is drawn out au, a combination of short u with the u in such a manner, that the volume of voice in put ; forming the English ou or ow, as gradually decreases from the commencein loud, cow.
ment to the close. To distinguish this áu, a in far, and u in pat; producing a peculiarity, it is proposed to place a dot flat sound of the ou, such as is sometimes under the final vowel or consonant, after heard in the vulgar pronunciation of round, the manner of the Barmese aukmyit. The sound, &c.
Sháns apply the abrupt termination to oi, short o and short i, as in oil, boil. words both of the rising and falling inflec
eu, is used to denote a peculiar sound of tion, thus making four varieties to every the Sháns, resembling the French eu in syllable ; while the Barmese have only peur, douleur.
three, the natural or rising, the falling, and The combinations ia, iau, iu, eau, óa, or the abrupt. úa, ue, ui, and üi, need no further explana The low monotone forms the only retion, as each of the vowels is used io ex. maining peculiarity of the Shán dialects. press its own in variable sound.
For the expression of this, a straight line is Intonations. The grand peculiarity of drawn underneath the intermediate or final all languages connected with the Chinese vowel. family, appears to be the complexity and Consonants.—B, ch, d, f, g hard, h, niceness of their system of intonation. j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z, are The first diversity of tone which strikes us, used as in English. H, used after another is the use of the rising and falling in- consonant, shows that it is aspirated; thus flections, or the upward and downward kh is sounded as in pack-horse ; th, as in slide of the voice in pronouncing a syllable. pot-house, not as in think ; ph, as in upIn English, we use infections, not for the hill, not as in philosophy; sh, as in glasspurpose of changing the significations of house, not as in ship. To express the words, but to give them a more striking sounds of sh in ship, and th in think, the emphasis, or often perhaps merely for the letters are united by a line drawn through sake of ornament and variety.
them. Ng is sounded as in singing. Did you go?
Change of Consonants. It is to be Where did you go?
noted, that in all Barmese verbal, numeral, The word go, in the first sentence, has and noun affixes, reduplications of monothe rising tone; in the second, the falling. syllabic roots, and generally, in the added But in the Indo-Chinese languages, this syllables of compound words, commencing modification of tone produces distinct with either of the sharp consonants k, t, p, words, of an entirely different sense. To or s, these letters are changed, in pronunexpress this modification, in the Roman ciation, to the corresponding flat or soft character, it is proposed to draw a straight consonants, g, d, b, and z; unless when line under the initial letter of every preceded by a sharp final consonant, in syllable which has the downward tone; which case the original sound is preserved. leaving the rising tone in its natural state, It is particularly requested, that in filling without any mark. The Barmese represent up the blank columns of this list with other the falling tone by writing their shepauk dialects, the spelling may agree, as far as at the end of the syllable ; wbile in the practicable, with the plan' here laid down. Láos and Siamese systems, this distinction
new varieties of intonation is denoted in writing by a difference in the occur in any language, it is very desirable initial consonant. The latter mode is that they should be denoted by marks preferred ; for although a diacritical mark, under the letters, and not over them. attached to a final letter, might be quite There will then be room above the line practicable in Romanizing the Barmese, for diacritical marks, to express all possible it could not well be adopted in the Shán varieties of vowel sound, in every lanand Siamese, on account of its interference guage ; while the intonations will be with other important tones. We may uniformly denoted by appropriate marks illustrate the proposed plan of asing the underneath. In introducing native terms line underneath, by the words no and not, into English writing and printing, all as heard in the following sentences ; in marks below tho line, as they would the two former of which we have the rising convey no idea to an English reader, may tone ; in the two latter, the falling. be disregarded, and only the accents above Did you say no?
the vowels be preserved. Will you not?
be little doubt that the I said uo.
Roman character may be applied with the I will not.
greatest ease and advantage to the language The second peculiarity of intonation, is of China, and it is quite certain that their the abrupt termination of a sound, as if it present complex hieroglyphical mode of were broken off in the midst of its enuncia- writing must, sooner or later, give way to tion. In this case, the volume of voice is some regular alphabetic system. The full at the end; contrary to the other number of the Chinese intonations being,
according to Dr. Marshman, not more than | They have been directed, by the General four or five, will be even less difficult of Convention, to employ every properly expression than those of the Sháns ; and it is confidently believed, that several, if not qualified missionary, who may offer his sermost, of their intonations will prove to be vices. The Board cannot retreat, and they identical with those which have already are confident, that their brethren wish and been found common to both the Barmese expect them to prosecute their work with and Shán.
increased vigor. They deem it their duty, therefore, to inform the churches, that not
less than eighty thousand dollars ought The Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to be expended this year, for general miswish to call the attention of their brethren, sionary purposes, and that twenty thousand throughout the country, to the wants of the dollars more will be needed for translating, treasury. In obedience to the voice of the printing and distributing the Bible, in forchurches, as expressed in the General Con- eign languages. vention, and in other modes, as well as in The Board must call earnestly on the compliance with their own sense of duty to denomination for help. Let each individthe Savior, the Board have multiplied their ual feel, that there must be an increase of missionary stations, have sent out successive his former contributions; and let those who bands of laborers, have erected presses, have hitherto withheld their aid, now share and have established schools, till they find in the blessed work. Let them not wait themselves charged with the care of a very for agents of the Board. Such agents will extensive system of operations, and re be employed, so far as it may be possible sponsible for a heavy annual expenditure. to obtain them; but the churches ought not They now have, under their direction, to need any extraneous agency. A church twenty-three missions, thirty-four mission is, by its very constitution, a society for ary stations, one hundred and thirty-two the advancement of the Savior's kingdom; missionaries, besides about thirty native and each pastor is, by his office, an agent, assistants in the printing department; within his own sphere, for the promotion twenty-one churches; twenty-eight schools, of every enterprize which claims the supand five presses.
The missionaries are port of the church. Let, then, all the mistoiling faithfully to promote the spread of sionary societies, churches, pastors, and the gospel, relying with confidence on their individual Christians, remember the claims brethren in America for support. They of a world lying in wickedness; and their have devoted their lives to the service of responsibility to their brethren who have Christ among the heathen, and they ask gone forth, on behalf of the churches, to only, that the churches at home will aid labor for the heathen. Above all, let them them by their prayers, and will furnish often reflect on the example and the coma moderate provision for their subsistence. mands of the Savior. Let them act, conThe Board have assumed the responsibility stantly, in the spirit of that prayer which of sustaining them; but they find their ex- he has taught them,—“Thy kingdom come, penses far outrunning their income. There thy will be done in earth, as it is done in was a deficiency, the last year, of more
beaven.' than twenty thousand dollars, and unless On behalf, and by direction of the Board, there shall be a large augmentation of the
L. BOLLES, Cor. Sec'y. fands, during the current year, the treasury Missionary Rooms, July 15, 1836. must soon be burdened with a heavy debt. The Board feel, that it would be wrong
Recent Intelligence. to diminish their efforts; to discontinue a
SHANS.–Our latest advices from this mig. single station; to recall one missionary; or
sion are contained in the following extract of to stop a single press. They must, on the a letter from Mr. Brown, dated contrary, go forward. They have already Below Gowahati, Jan. 18, 1836. received, and intend to send forth, without I hasten to drop you a line from this delay, several additional missionaries. I place to inform you that we are all in
the enjoyment of health, and have thus ! The Louvre, which sailed for Calcutta the far had a comfortable journey up the 22d of Sept. last, arrived at the mouth of the river. We are now four hundred miles Hoogly, Feb. 2, and at Kedgeree, 40 miles or more from Calcutta, and should have up the river, the day following, whence she been up much farther, had it not been was to sail shortly for Amherst and Singafor shallow water in passing from the
The missionaries destined to Orissa Húgli to the Ganges, which caused us a and the Telingas, left the Louvre at Kedgedetention of a week or more. We have
ree, and were at Calcutta at our last date, Feb. procured a Shyan teacher, and are en
8. gaged in studying the Shyan language,
All the missionaries were in good which we find to be entirely different
health. from the Burman.
Donations from June 15 to July 15, 1836. Richmond, Va., Fem. Miss. Soc. Ist Bap. ch.,
50, 20 Bap. ch.,
43, " Youth's Miss. Soc. 2d Bap. ch.,
103,50 other sources,
933,50 per Rev. S. Cornelius, Agent, “A friend," bal. for Mag., per J. Putnain,
,50 Canonsburg, Pa., Presb. s. 8., 6,28-Fem. pr. meeting, ,67, for Bur. Miss., per W. H. Mc Carer, Sec.,
6,95 West Topsham, V1., mon. con.,
4, Plainfield, E. Perry,
per J. Putnam,
1, 5, Newburyport,-col. for meeting house ai Bassa Cove, West Africa, per Rev. N. W. Williams,
11,06 Central Union Asso., Pa.,-Holmesburg, 15,-Roxborough Bible Soc.,
10,50, for Bur. Bible--Holmesburg S. S., 2,65--Camden ch., 5,25–
105,15 Cincinnati, O., Bur. Fem. Ed. So. 6th St. Bap. ch., Mrs. John Smith, Treas., to ed. Bur. females,
160,40 Collected by N. S. Johnson, Esq., 136, and by Rev. A. Bennett, 1200, 1336, per John Smith, Esq.,
1496,40 Pembroke, Me., a friend, for Bur. Bible, per A. Hayden, Esq.,
5, Conway, Ms., J. Whitney, Esq., per T. A. Arms, Esq., for Bur. Bible,
5, Salem Bible Trans. and For. Miss. Soc., per S W. Shepard, Esq., Tr.,
900, East Jersey Miss. Soc., N. J., for For. Miss., of which, Newark Fem. Miss. Soc., 50, per Jonathan Osborn, Jr., Esq. Treas.,
200, Smithfield, R. I., Lime Rock, Bap. ch. mon con., per Rev. R. Morey,
10, Columbia, S. C.-S. C. Columbia, for Bur. Bible,
50, Dauville, Vt., Bap. ch. mon. con., per A. W. Perkins, Esq.,
1,50 East Avon, N. Y., S. Allyn, for Bur. Bib., ,50--Volney, J. Smith, 4,87, Adrian, M. T., Bap. ch., for Bur. Miss., 47,--Lauren Hotchkiss, for do.,
10,-Deceased son of A. Knapp, 1,-per Rev. G. D. Simmons, Franklin Bap. Asso., per Rev. J. Smitzer, 123,48 Cayuga Bap. For. Miss. 8cc., per Dea. P. Crossman, Tr., ten dolls. of
which are from sisters in Sennett, N. Y., for Mrs. Kincaid's school, 150,-Utica, a friend of Bur. Miss. 3,00. Utica, Broad St. S. S. Miss. Soc., per. Mr. D. Bennett, Tr. (one half for Bur. Miss., the remainder for the Mission among the Shans), 65, per Messrs. Bennett & Bright,
404,86 Athol, Ms., “ A friend of Missions,” per Rev. Joseph Glazier,
5, Hudson River Baptist Association, N. Y., viz., Hudson Bap. ch., 32,55;
Troy, 1st Bip. ch., 60,00; West Troy, Bap. ch., 15,00; New York,
4525.96 Norwich, Ct., Ladies of Bap. ch. and cong., a box of clothing for Chummerah station, valued at $37,71.
H LINCOLN, Treasurer.
Churches in Liberia. The Baptist churches in Liberia, as is generally known, have been greatly prospered in a spiritual respect the past year, and have built or are desirous of building, severally, houses of public worship. Most of the coloniels, however, who are members of the churches, are poor; some of ihem, recaptured Africans. They need, and urgently solicit the aid of their Christian friends in America. Letters to this effect have been lately received from Dr. Skinner, and Messrs. Crocker and Mylne. It is ardently hoped, that their application will be favorably regarded, and that contributions in aid of the object, will be early forwarded to the Treasurer of the Board. The number of meeting. houses to be provided is five, at a cost of from 300 to 500 dollars each.
JOURNAL OF MR. KINCAID.
among them was a palace officer, whom I did not know. He, on learning that we were religious teachers, entered
into an animated conversation ; but he Sept. 6, 1835. Lord's-day. Had a appeared more anxious to try the edge small assembly in the morning, and of his logical sword, than to gain inforso:ne visiters during the day.
mation. 7. At ten o'clock this morning, we Burmese Idolatry-Encouraging Appear. had the pleasure of bidding Mr. and ance of Moung Bong- Visilers from the Mrs. Simons a most cordial welcome.
borders of Kathay. They have been forty days in getting 23. It being a Burman worship-day, up the river.
we had an unusual number of visiters, 11. I have introduced br. Simons to to most of whom we gave tracts. Just some of the Government people, that at evening I went to a celebrated temthey night perceive that we were ple; it was lighted up with candles neither afraid nor ashamed to let our made of bees-wax, and around a huge selves or character be known. Those black idol a crowd of all ages, from we have seen appear friendly.
ten to ninety years old, were prostrated, 12. Received a written order to-day and all uttering with the greatest rapid. from the Woongees, directing us to ap. ity a distich of Pali. An idol ten tiines pear before them to-morrow morning. as large as life, seated upon his throne, Ilere follows an account of the reception down upon his worshippers ; then the
and with glaring eyeballs looking of Mr. Simons, as given at page 188, of our last number. The journal then proceeds,- ness of the night rendered more gloomy
antiquity of this vast pile, and the darkI believe in the special providence by the faint light emitted from the of God. He who notices the falling Aickering tapers ; and then the thought sparrow, and hears the ravens cry, is that an ocean of inmortal beings had a present help in every time of need.- here drunk deep from the fountains of His language now is, as of old, “ Fear sin, and had ripened for destruction, not, for I am with thee; be not dismay- all this before the eyes, and in the ed, for I am thy God."
mind, and who could remain unmoved ? 19. More or less visiters daily, but Is there no balm in Gilead? Is there no individual cases particularly inter- no physician there? Is the Lord's arm esting. Some days we have one hun- shortened, that he cannot save ? No; dred or more, but commonly not more there is a balm, there is a physician, than twenty-five or thirty.
and the arm of the Lord is mighty to 21. In company with Mr. Simons, save. With these feelings I began made an excursion into the eastern speaking, and it was not long before I part of the city; called on a Musselman had the ears of the crowd. They listinerchant, who was in company with br. ened till I was tired and walked away. Simons coming up the river. He was October 1. For eight or ten days very friendly, gave us the best place in past, we have had about twenty-five his house, said if he could be of any visiters daily, though, among them all, service to us, he should be exceedingly I do not recollect a single case particuglad. Several Burmans came in, and Ilarly interesting.