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A

LETTER

FROM

MR.

strong party, and commence the war as they do here, I should infer that himself. In this he will undoubtedly there must be near 200,000 people colfind himself mistaken, since the Karens lected in and near Ayutiya ; and if we in all the region where he lives, have had free access to them, there is nobody detected the deception, and have taken to send there. back their implements of war, which they had furnished him in great abun- Prevalent Vices in Siam-Obstacles to

the Introduction of Christianily-Fa. dance, and entirely deserted him.

vorable Indications, In two days more, we expect to be off into the jungle again, to be

gone

The revenues of this country are three or four weeks; we' then return farmed out to the highest bidder. I and start on an excursion of from one have not the means of stating with to four months. If there is a prospect accuracy, the amount accruing from all of getting up a permanent interest in the various sources, but am informed the region where we go, (it is the very

on indubitable authority, that one man centre of the Karen world,) we shall pays the king for the gambling in and remain through the season; if not, we

about Bankok alone sixty-four thousand expect to return and make a land ex ticals per annum. No man is allowed cursion, and visit the Siamese Karens. to gamble without his permission and

it is for his interest to get as many to

gamble as he can. On the losses susSiam.

tained by gambling he gets nothing, but of all the gains he receives 1-8th.

To pay his revenue, there must be anJONES, DATED BANKOK, Dec. 31, 1835. nuaily won, (and consequently lost by

somebody,) the enormous sum of five Baplism of three Chinese-Chantibun— hundred and twelve thousand ticals; and Ayutiya.

this would only cover his quola to the Last Sabbath I was permitted to as- king. But he has large expenses to sist in administering baptism, and the incur, an immense number of emissaLord's supper to three inore Chinamen. ries to employ, and he will not incur Br. Dean, under whose care they are such a responsibility for nothing. To placed, will doubtless communicate to satisfy all these dermands, the above you the particulars of the case. Dr. / amount must be doubled, making Bradley has returned from Chantibun, 1,024,000 ticals. Most of this gambling a place which lies two or three days' is also among the poor, and in small sail southeast of us, and is supposed to sumns. The waste of time, (if we may contain about 10,000 inhabitants, a very so speak of what is never regarded as great proportion of whorn are Chinese possessing any value in this country, and Cochin Chinese. The latter are is beyond calculation, and the amount mostly Catholics. There are a number of wretchedness and induration of heart of circumjacent villages and scattering amazing; The wretched Joser fresettlements, which are regarded as quently becomes the slave of the winembracing about twice as many inliab- ner, or, more frequently still, sells his itants, as Chantibun itself. The cli- wife and children as slaves, to get the mate is salubrious, but the means of means of carrying on his career of inliving are scanty and precarious. Mr. famy. And when the habit of gambling Johnson and his wife still remain there. is once formed, the person will not be

I have heretofore sent you some persuaded to gain a inuch better livelispeculations regarding the number of hood by honest industry ; but when his priests in this country. I recently means are exhausted, turns thief or learned from a source that seems well robber, until he gets into prison, or entitled to credit, that the King, in his chains, and there ends his earthly caannual distribution of favors to the reer. Such persons are inaccessible to priests, being unable to visit Ayutiya, the power of expostulation. the old capital, determined to send a The revenue arising from the sale of tical to purchase a cloth for each of the ardent spirits, is managed in the same priests in that city and its environs. way. There is no opium farm, and the He accordingly sent 8,000 ticals, which article is regarded as contraband by proved inadequate, and he was obliged the laws of the country, and vessels to send an additional sum. The infer- bringing it are liable to seizure and ence is, there is proved to be there more confiscation. Yet it is brought in imthan 8,000 priests. Supposing that they mense quantities every year. A box bear the same ratio to the population of it is presented to the principal officer

of government, whose business it should | year, I might resuine with vigor, and be to apprehend the importer; and his without molestation, my work of transeyes and mouth being thus shut, no-lation. I have yet inade nu changes body ventures to do anything more in regard to any location ; for though the about it. The results are, if possible, place I occupy is not favorable for much more shocking than those occasioned direct labor among the Siamese, it is by ardent spirits. To these effects of better than most others for health and gambling, liquor, and opium, add the study, and would be as good as any power of a supremely selfish priesthood, other for a printing establishment. equal in number tó 1-5th of all the have made an arrangement by which adult population, and a rapacious and only twelve ticals per month, are paid despotic government, and you may form by our mission. From this place I cansome conjecture in regard to the obsta- not be driven by the chicanery of govcles which must oppose the progress of ernment officers; whereas, if I should light, and truc Christianity-and what remove to any other part of the town, I also must be the vigor of that Chris- might be obliged to change again as tianity, which can triumph over these soon as I was settled. obstacles. In view of these things, our I have adjusted the Lithographic expectations of the immediate and as- apparatus, and, had we a proper person tounding moral results of our efforts, to superintend it, we might now proare not very sanguine. Still we are ceed to issue something on a sinall far from despondency. We know that scale for distribution. it is not by human "might," nor human I have not enjoyed good health for "power," but by the “ Spirit” of God, some weeks, bemg under the influence that the change we are desirous of of successive harassing colds. My effecting, must ultimately be accom: eyes also are still sufiering from an aiplished; and when that is " poured tack of the ophthalmia I had two or from on high,” these obstacles will dis- three months ago. I think, however, appear as mists before the rising sun. that I feel an increasing anxiety to ful

There are also some circumstances fil the duties to which I am called, and, of a more encouraging nature ; which that I may discharge them successfully, serve to cast some rays of light over | I beg your most fervent prayers. the shaded picture. The prejudices against foreigners, of some of the most

Chinese. important characters in the kingdom, are evidently melting away.

are beginning to be trampled upon. The natives are beginning to construct vessels on European models, Motives of some in their attendance on and the king has signified his pleasure public worship-Jealousy of Government

more junks (vessels on the Officers-Exploring tour. awkward Chinese model,) be built for Bankok, Nov. 22, 1835. Since our him. It is now rumored that he is religious service this morning, I have about to give his favorite daughter in conversed with some, who have been inarriage to Chau-fah, his half brother, constant attendants on our Sabbath exwhich would in fact be nominating hini ercises, on the subject of coming out to the succession. Chau-fah is very publicly, and confessing Christ before much attached to Europeans and Amer- the world. I made this proposition for icans-speaks their language with con the sake of ascertaining, if possible, siderable accuracy, and adopts as many the principle on which they attend our of their customs as his situation will religious worship. I found froin their allow. Well.constructed vessels will own confession, that their motives were naturally lead them to navigation, and purely selfish. One was not backward a more familiar acquaintance with civi- to say that he “thought it good 10 lized life. These things will probably worship the God of heaven, because somewhat smooth a missionary's path; those who came to us diseased, and but they will not at all lessen the ne- had been in the habit of attending our cessity for the most vigorous efforts, worship, were getting well: but that or render less imperative the call for it was not good to be baptized, because divine influence.

those who were members of the church Near the close of the year, I have were sickly and poor.” The Chinese been endeavoring so to increase my have no good opinion of a system of knowledge, and arrange my affairs, that, religion which does not, in their estiwith the commencement of the new mation, advance their worldly prosperity.

Old cus

toms

EXTRACIS FROM THE JOURNAL OF MR.

DEAN.

that no

room.

Sabbath evening. During our Chi- | broad pavement passing the palace ennese service this morning, a petty closures and extending a mile or more officer of government, (by birth a southward. This walk is about twenty Chino-Siamese,) came and stood by feet wide, being the only one I have seen onr door for half an hour, declining a in Bankok, over which a horse carriage seat which was offered him within the of any description could be drawn.

At length, not desiring longer Crossing this we entered another, which to listen to sentiments which in his might be called Elephant street, since estimation were heterodox, he took two there is nothing on one side of it, for a other men, who were also standing in long distance, but the stalls in which the verandah, and departed, without in- are kept the white and brown elephants. terrupting our exercises. We are some were much larger than any I had charged by this class of officers with ever before seen. Their houses are the design of forming a company of better than those occupied by the comChinese, who are, ere long, to rise and mon people of Siam, and their food actake the kingdom ; of course we are cordingly. They are neither objects of regarded with a suspicious eye. Still, religious veneration, nor officers of we take an open and friendly course civil government, as has been representwith them, giving them books and ed. From Elephant st. we entered the medicine, which they sometimes ask outer yard of th palace, which was for, while their desire and design is, mostly filled with guns and war boats. undoubtedly, to spy out our liberties. From this we entered the inner encloWe have no fear of them, only as they sure by an iron gate, which was guardmay intimidate some from visiting us or ed on each side by a granite lion, as reading our books, and prevent others large as life. Here I left my associate from coming out decidedly against idol to ask admission, while I stepped in and worship. Some, not withstanding, who commenced viewing the golden spire do not afford us evidence of true piety, which stood in front of the gate. This are willing to have the world know that arose from a four-sided pedestal, but .at they do not worship idols. I am sure the height of three or four feet assumed that nothing but the almighty power of an octagonal form. At the right was a God, can make one of these heathen large building, partly covered with gold, renounce their love of self, desire of surrounded by a verandah, which was gain, and attachment to custom, while sustained by sixty gilded pillars, from they incur the frown of civil authority, ten to twenty feet in length. On the by professing Christianity. Still, “ all left was another house, apparently of things are possible with God," and he granite, ornamented with pearls. In has promised his Son the heathen for the rear were several gilded pagodas, his inheritance.

supported by granite “ Yaks," a fabled 24. To-day I have made a little ex- being of giant strength and cannibal ploring tour through the city. Before customs. Behind one of the large entering the walls, called at a place on buildings was a monument with an inthe banks of a canal, where the bodies scription in Portuguese. Overhanging of the dead are burned. It was fitted this was a leafless tree, on the limbs of up by raising an arch, of twenty feet in which were men of several nations diameter, upon four pillars twenty-five hanging in effigy. The whole encloor thirty feet high, at the centre of an was paved with brick, covered enclosure containing half an acre of with a cement finely polished, and orground. The remains of distinguished namented with images of animals, fowls, persons are burned under the arch, and fishes, while the pots of shrubbery others are burned without. In this gol- and flowers were arranged in the most gotha several smoking heaps of human tasteful order, and flourish with perenbones were seen, while the high brick nial verdure. The entire area walls surrounding the enclosure, were surrounded by a kind of gallery ornalined with vultures and other accipitrine mented with paintings of an almost unbirds, waiting for their portion of the numbered variety. The whole exhibitnext subject, which they snatch from ed more refinement of taste and skill the devouring element. Leaving this of architecture than I had supposed place, we entered the city, by a narrow the Siamese nation to possess. The canal, passing under its walls, which audience hall is not within this enclotook us within twenty yards of the pal- sure.

Here we left our boat, and com 26. This morning, after walking menced our walk through the royal about a mile through Chinese gardens bazar, and soon found ourselves on the of fruits and vegetables, came to a

sure

was

ace.

а

paddy field, which was nearly half a country. In it were about twenty permile in width, and extending in length sons saying mass. There are two or as far as the eye could reach. The three more Catholic chapels in Bankok, seed was just putting forth from the but the Romish church has not a very green husk, and the whole presented strong hold here, and the prospects in one unbroken level, except that the its favor are not very flattering. planter's cottage here and there arose Dec. 2. To-day called on a Siama little above the luxuriant growth. ese gentleman, whose son, about five

27. This morning walked through or six years of age, soon came into the several lanes leading from Main street room with a cigar over each ear, and down to the river. One of these pass- took his seat in his father's lap, who ed a Tannery, the vats of which are sat, according to Siamese custom, crossmade by excavating the earth in any legged on the foor. He listened awhile form but that of regularity, and walling to the conversation, then cried out to up the banks with brick. Most of a servant, “Fi ma-ne,” (Bring some these were filled with Buffalo bides, in fire,) and, taking a cigar from his ear, a solution of lime. The tannin com- began to whiff as stoutly as his father, monly used here, consists of the bark of who had already well nigh filled the

tree indigenous to the country. room with his tobacco fumes. The Hides are exported from this country. youngster, who, by the way, was in perNext came to a Chinese temple, a neat fect nudity, except some gold rings brick building, rather tastefully orna- about his hands and feet, after regaling mented with paintings, and Chinese himself with the narcotic, at no small sheet-tracts written on colored paper. expense on the part of some of the The building has a wing on each side, company, threw aside his cigar, and with a brick pavement in front extend- took'a little of his native aliment from ing to the banks of the river, (eight or his mother's breast. ten yards.) On entering the teinple, 3. This morning the English brig the first thing discoverable is a large “Spartan," while passing up the river bass drum, used for waking the gods, came to anchor near our house, by runwho have their station in small niches ning her jib-boom into a tree-top. This in the rear wall. Before these are is the third English vessel I have seen placed burning candles, and smoking in Bankok, besides three Arab ships incense. The spacious room which which sail under the English flag. embraced the main part of a building, 6. Sabbath. There were but thirty at 30 by 50 feet, was furnished with bam- our Chinese service this morning, but boo chairs, and couches made of the it was a precious season. I feit that same material. After examining the the “Good Shepherd” was with us, premises, the keeper of the house ask- and though there were no other signs ed if it was good? I replied, Yes, but of interest on the part of the little asthat it was devoted to a bad purpose.. sembly but a fixed attention to the

29. Sabbath. A less number at- word, which was faithfully exhibited by tended Chinese service to-day than my teacher, I could not but hope to usual. Among other passages of scrip- unite with many of them in the songs ture which were read and explained, of heaven. I felt a pleasure in secondsome remarks were made by way of ing and trying to enforce his remarks, enforcing the words, “ He that soweth which took from them their hopes of to the flesh, shall of the flesh reap cor- heaven, cherished on the principle of ruption; but he that soweth to the their habitual attendance on religious Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life ever- worsbip. The language of our Savior, lasting.” This subject adinits of fa- “ Not every one that saith unto me miliar illustrations drawn from their own Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingoccupation, many of them being gar- dom of heaven," was fully explained deners. We had at worship to-day and faithfully applied to them, and I three strangers, recently from Hainan. hope it may liave a good result. I conOne appeared intelligent and inquisi- sider it timely and appropriate, inastive.

much as many are already beginning to 30. In my morning ramble entered be quite self-righteous because they a lane leading from the little bazar to meet every Sabbath day, to worship the river, near to which stands an old the God of heaven. My heart's des Catholic chapel. This is fifteen feet sire and prayer to God for this people, wide, and thirty long, built partly of is, that they may be saved." I feel boards, and partly of bamboo, standing troubled in spirit, while reflecting upon on posts like most of the houses in the the heathen around me, and especially

when I consider that the want of con- 1 gambling three fourths of the remaining versions from sin unto righteousness is time. And there are not a few in Banto be attributed to my want of fidelity kok concerning whom this remark will and heavenly mindedness. Though in hold true. And when it is recollected, my present circumstances I can do but in connection with this, that the Siamese little, I feel that I do but little com government receive an annual revenue pared with what I might.

of more than a hundred and twenty Monthly Concert-Prevalence of Vice-thousand ticals from the people for the

Applications for Baptism-Bazar. privilege of gambling, and as much

7. Observed the Concert with the more for the privilege of drinking arlittle Chinese church, by reading a dent spirits, no one will question the portion of scripture containing encour- prevalence of vice in this city, or the agements to ask the Lord for what is need of the gospel to fit the heathen needful, and joining with each in pray- for heaven. And will not all who read er. The native brethren seemed to in their Bibles that "there shall in no enter into the meaning of the text, “The wise enter into the holy city any thing harvest, truly, is great, but the laborers that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh are few : pray ye therefore the Lord of abomination or maketh a lie,” but that the harvest that he would send forth the abominable, and murderers and laborers into his harvest." At the whoremongers, and idolaters, and all close I had some conversation with liars, shall have their part in the lake them individually concerning their own which burneth with fire and brimstone, religious enjoyments, and inquired how which is the second death,” raise their their minds were affected in view of prayers and lend a helping hand in givthe moral condition of their countrymen. ing to this people a knowledge of that I have seldoin enjoyed a happier season name, by whom alone they can be at the Monthly Concert.--The evening saved ? has been spent in prayer with the mis 13. To-day three Chinamen-Chek sionary brethren. I hope the inhabit Ete, Chek Pay-chun, and Chek Haw, ants of this place have not been for- came to me for baptism. The first is a gotten in the prayers of our American tradesman, sixty years of age, the secbrethren on this occasion. If they ond is a gardener of seventy years, could see the condition of this people and the third is about forty years old, as it presents itself to a daily observer, in humble circumstances in life, and I think there would be men forth-com- appears to possess that humility which ing in sufficient numbers to take pos- is acceptable before God. After asking session of the land.

them a few questions, I proposed to 11. A wealthy Chinaman living them to make it a subject of prayer durnear us has a junk just returned from ing the week, and on the next Sabbath a prosperous voyage to Batavia, &c., come together for further examination. and according to custom he has to-day They have for a long time refused to commenced a theatrical exhibition, in worship idols, and since my arrival honor of the goddess of the sea. These here have been constant attendants on operas, though more openly absurd, our Sabbath exercises. So far as I can are equally fascinating with similar learn, their lives are strictly moral. plays in America. It is therefore by From their present appearance I feel no means surprising that a floating encouraged to hope that God has given theatre, exhibiting itself successfully to them repentance unto life. O! that crowded assemblies in different parts this might be but a prelude to a glorious of the city, should stir up the sediments rain of grace. of immorality among a heathen people, 14. With my teacher, called at two to say nothing of the numerous other or three Siamese wats, some Chinese sources of moral pollution. A knowl- temples, {be-aw, and visited some edge of the character and customs of parts of the Chinese bazar that I the heathen is enough to render purity had not before seen. The whole and holiness lovely to any person of bazar appears more like a trading decency, though destitute of religion. town than a mere market-place. It

Ask this people to attend to the in-includes dry-goods shops, hard-ware terests of their souls, and the ready re- shops, block-tin shops, tailors', barbers', ply is, they have no lime-not even to black smiths', carpenters', and coopers' keep the Sabbath, without impoverish- shops, gambling shops, groceries, and ing their families. Still, they have no houses of ill-fame, fruit stalls, vegetawant of leisure to attend a "tsaw-he” ble stalls, fish, fowl, and pork stalls, (play) five days out of seven, besides I druggists'stores, and dramshops; and all

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