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in the undressed stone. At the present having his doors fitted with chains, time the walls are also painted in imi- bolts, and safety-locks. tation of cloth, or are even hung with In the abode thus arıned against the real stuffs, specially manufactured and housebreaker's attacks the first chanhaving large floral designs on them. ber seen by the visitor is the ante-room, In the very best houses the luxury of or ball, which varies in size, and is tapestry is indulged in for the staircase often badly lighted from the staircase ; walls. Ou each lauding lamps of gilded softener still it is irregular in shape. bronze shed the light of gas or elec- Numerous double doors give access tricity. In well-arranged houses a wide to the principal reception-rooms — the carpet covers the stairs ; the lights are large and small drawing-rooms, the not extinguished until after midnight, dining-room, the master's study, and, and in certain cases a lamp remains apart from the others, the boudoir of burning in the entrance - vestibule the mistress of the house. The bed. throughout the night.
rooms are reached by a corridor, which This vestibule must be sufficiently is frequently very narrow, and is enlarge to contain the footmen in attend- tered from the ball through a small
on their masters. There are door concealed by the wall-hangings or capacious divans along its walls, and in the waiuscoting. many instances the decoration of the The large drawing-room is decorated vestibule and its peristyle calls forth with plaster reliefs, which, in the all the talent and imagination of the earliest period, represented rockwork artist. Columns without base support or the convoluted wainscoting of the coffered ceilings, while the pavement is reigu of Louis the Fifteenth. Then iu mosaic, with arabesques and flower- the fashion changed, and it was considwork. Very often there are a couple ered more correct and noble to imitate of white marble steps - an instalment sculpture of Louis the Sixteenth. Ocof the staircase. The latter begins casionally the architect went back to either in front or on one side, and is at the pomps of Versailles and Saintleast one mètre in width, sometimes Cloud. The Louis-Fourteenth style two mètres. All this parade of luxury remains in favor for drawiug-room has to be paid for, and before the ten- ornamentation, except in those cases ant has entered the door of his apart- where a further step backward is made ment he already knows what it is going to Henri the Second. The last-named to cost him.
style — if style it can be called — is Let us, too, enter the apartment. very much in fashion at present, but Harmonizing with the predominant more especially for dining-rooms. For note of the staircase walls, the door is drawing-rooms, the profile and festoons painted either black or in imitation of of Louis the Fourteenth's time still some precious wood. When it is made predominate. The grounds are painted of polished oak it is considered the white, pearl-grey, or light pink, and Height of luxury, and one may deduce the reliefs are gilded. The gilding is therefron that the whole house is built dead, like the grounds. If it is a firstof the best materials. The richest floor flat and an expensive one, the color sometimes hides the lightest and gilding may be burnished, so as to thinnest of wood. All these doors have shine in artificial light. The fireplace two leaves. The lock is of very infe- is always small and elegant, and is rior quality, like nearly all Paris iron- built of Carrara marble — machinemongery. It is extremely easy for a made. The small drawing-room will burglar to gain an entrance into a be similarly decorated, but with less Parisian flat, either by force or artifice, gilding ; the painting will be darker even if it is situated in one of the say light bistre, buff, or olive. hundred houses cited as the finest tri- If the tenant is a lover of things umphs of architectural art. Conse- ancient, he may hang these walls with quently a new tenant loses no time in old tapestry, and, the greater its cost,
the more beautiful will it appear in is called the “dining-room fireplace” his sight. The painting of the ceil- for the reason that it is not customary ings will perplex bim sorely. It is to put anything like it in other rooms. scarcely possible to imitate the brilliant Over the fireplace there is usually a periods of Louis the Fourteenth, Louis mirror with bevelled edges ; but those the Fifteenth, or even Louis the Six- who desire to pass for people of taste teenth, without decorating the ceil- substitute a paiuting in place of the ings; yet, bowever great may be the mirror. liberality of the insurance companies, An innovation has been introduced the taste of landlords, and the talent of latterly in Paris dining-rooms, namely, architects, it can hardly be expected an imitation of the English bow-winthat the ceilings of houses built to be dow, only square instead of round. let out should be painted by first-rate Properly speaking, it is a balcony artists. Their brushes are only called framed in with stained glass. In this into requisition when one buys or way the room is enlarged, but the balerects a house for oneself. Therefore cony, as such, is lost. This style of the decoration of the ceilings of houses window unknown half-a-dozen built in flats is usually coù fided to stu- years ago, but to-day every new house dents or workmen. More often than is provided with it, while the old ones not it is the ordinary house-painter are being altered in order to satisfy who strews flowers and Cupids over this fresh craze. In some cases the the ceilings, even in the case of the framework is of stone, and in others finest appartements. This work being of irou. The irou frame being often paid for at so much per foot, it would badly adjusted, wind, rain, and snow be too costly to employ men of talent. enter by the joints. It has therefore In France it is only the State that is been found necessary, in almost every able to have its ceilings painted by re- instance, to have a double window, nowned artists, and very badly are they which fills the whole width of the rewarded for their labor.
To compensate the loss of light Vous leur fîtes, monseigneur, owing to the colored glass, these pro
En les volant, beaucoup d'honneur. jecting windows are made enormously These ceilings are the despair of all large. The French architect has not persons of taste, and there does not given way without a struggle to the appear to be any way out of the diffi- demand for more light. Little by litcully, unless it is by covering them, tle, lowever, the windows have been like the walls, with stuff or tapestry made larger ; they have lost their But this would reduce the height of classic proportions, and we may say the rooms, which is never too great in that it is now becoming the practice to Paris houses, where space has to be desigu them according to the needs of economized perpendicularly as well as the occupant, and not merely for exin other senses.
ternal appearance. The dining-room fares better. Here The introduction of lifts was also the painter rarely applies anything but resisted, not only by the architect, but dull tints or an imitatiou of walnut- by the builder as well. It is true that wool, which cannot compromise his when first employed in Parisian houses artistic taste.
An imitatiou of waiu- these apparatus were the cause of scoling reaches to a height of about many terrible accidents ; but they have five feet, the rest of the wall being been greatly improved, and now no covered with cloth, or with paper first-class house is built without the which is supposed to resemble Cordova necessary place being reserved for the
The cornice is ornamented lift, including a door on the landing of with reliefs, and the ceiling with cof- each floor. At the beginning the lift fers or projecting beams. The fire-was erected in the well of the staircase, place, which is high, is of colored but this is no longer done, except in a marble. It is of particular shape, and few special instances,
Another improvement has been traversed. They are generally turned made quite recently. Paris houses are over to the maids, who do not by any lofty, and the work thrown upon the means consider themselves well lodged. servants on this account is very con- It will be gathered from the foregoing siderable. Wine and fuel have to be that everything is sacrificed to appearcarried up from the cellars by way of a auces, and that, although vanity may servants' staircase, which is frequently be flattered, comfort and well-being are too small, and when the family lives on still unattained. the fifth floor this is no light labor. A certain architect, who is a man of The inconvenience is now remedied by sense and a keen observer, attempted the erection of a second lift, which to meet both of these requirements of furthermore serves for raising and refined people. Finding a large, welllowering luggage. This is not all. shaped piece of ground, and a liberal One of the greatest annoyances con- and intelligent capitalist, he resolved nected with Paris flats is the getting to divide his flats into two portions. rid of the household refuse. In some He designed a vestibule or gallery runof the newly built edifices there is a ning from the entrance to the further shoot, down which everything that can extremity of the building, and having be burnt descends to the heating appa- a width of at least thirteen feet. On ratus in the basement. Thus, this one side he placed the reception-rooms, stove, which in winter warms and ven- and on the other the private rooms of tilates the entire house, helps also to the family. He added a wing containkeep it clean.
ing some minor chamlers, and wisely Is everything, then, perfect in the banished the kitchen, bath-room, and Parisian house of to-day ? Far from water-closets to a second wing, in it. We have described the drawing order to remove the sources of bad and dining rooms; let us now proceed smells as far away as possible. The to the bedrooms. They are small, new system obtained immediate favor, badly ventilated, and ill lighted, light and to-day no first-class house is built only reaching them from narrow court- in which it is not adopted, provided yards. The walls are in ashlar-work, the shape of the ground permits. and so thin that heat and cold pene. These apartments are greatly sought trate in their turn. There is no orna- after, notwithstanding the fact that mentation whatever ; the walls, which they are dearer than the ordinary ones. are not always true, have a covering of If there is a well-appointed lift, the paper, the floor is full of cracks, the difference between one floor and anfireplaces give out no warmth, and, other becomes trifling ; nevertheless, what is more serious, the most offcn- the first floor still remains wbat the sive odors find their way in from the Italians tèrm piano nobile. The ceilkitchen and closets. This last remark ings are higher - from three mètres holds good with respect to houses of sixty centimètres to four mètres — the most magnificent outward appear while those of the floors above decrease ance, if the builder has not solved the in height at the rate of twenty centithorny problem, still pending before mètres for each floor, down to three the Municipal Council, of connecting mètres, which is the limit in the best the closets directly with the sewers. houses, although in third-rate ones it A flat with a rental of 4001. per annum falls to two mètres eighty centimètres. will bave all these drawbacks, while In every case the tenant has to pay containing, besides the reception-rooms, according to the richness of the decoonly five or six bedrooms, of which ration, the luxuriousness of the stairtwo, or at most three, will be really case, the carpet covering it, and the habitable and be situated in the main heating, which in some of the newer building, the others being in a wing houses is supplied in profusion to the and in the neighborhood of the kitchen. ante-chamber, dining-room, and drawTo reach them a long corridor must be ing-rooms of each flat. The calorifere
is placed in the cellars. The method | iognomy of which we have sketched of heating differs according to the size above. An exhaustive examination of of the house. In the smaller ones hot this subject would entail an analysis of air is used, which is more economical the laws and regulations relating to than water, and can be shut off when house-construction in France, and esnot needed.
pecially in Paris. We will merely say The lighting of those parts of the that these laws and regulations place house that are used in common by all the architect in a veritable Gehenna. the tenants is by lıydrogen gas, in con- Every effort at originality is quickly junction with the Auer burner, which suppressed. When one threads the gives a white light and does not heat thousand intricacies of these provithe atmosphere. The invasion of the sious, one is no longer astonished at electric light, however, tends to sup- the dead uniformity of our façades. plant the use of gas. In many apart- Neither is it surprising that rents ments gas is not to be found in the should have become so high, and living rooms ; it is entirely banished should have increased more than one from the salons and bedrooms, and is hundred per cent. within fifty years. tolerated only in the ante-chambers in the houses we have dealt with, and kitchens. An ingenious system of which form three categories whose boilers enables the ovens, water-bath, boundaries are somewhat hard to deand roasting apparatus to be kept con- fine, an apartment with three bedstantly heated. In some cases there is rooms, if situated on the first or second also a reservoir of hot water for the floor, generally costs 2001. a year. For bath-room, so arranged as to be ready a flat with from six to eight bedrooms, day and night. As a rule, however, three drawing-rooms, smoking-room, the bath-room is merely a little nook, etc., the rent may amount to 6001. or and the water for it is beated by gas. 8001., including stable and coach-house ; The numerous accidents caused by this and it may even exceed 1,0001. if there system ought to bring about its aboli. is a ball-room, ornamented with coltion. The kitchens are nearly all pro- umns and provided with a band-stand. vided with gas cooking-stoves, in Columns are expensive things in Paris. addition to coal-fire ranges.
They are made in polished stucco, so as In the new houses, and in many old to avoid the weight and cost of marble ; ones, the principal flats are connected but their capitals are gilded in the most with the porter's lodge by a telephone. lavish manner. Some houses also possess a telephone This monographic sketch may here cabinet for the joint use of all the ten- close, as, in order clearly to set forth ants. Thirty years ago it was the the difficulties, sometimes insurniountcustom for the concierge to announce able ones, which beset builders, aud to visitors by ringing a bell in the court- establish the cost-prices according to yard. Though retained in private the quality and nature of the materials, mansions, this practice has been alto- it would be necessary to go into quesgether abolished in apartment-houses. tions connected with the land, the In some instances it has been super- locality, the legal aspect, the materials, seded by an electric indicator, which and even to introduce the reader to nakes less noise and is more easily various industries which are closely worked. Communication from room to allied to the Paris house-building room is supplied either by electric bells trade ; finally, it would be requisite to or air-tubes.
draw a picture of the architect -- a This essay on the Parisian dwelling somewhat complex individuality, who would be incomplete were we not to is not invariably a genius, but who add a few reflections concerning its ought always to be an upright man and external architecture, the general phys- a gentleman.
ALPHONSE DE CALONNE.
From Good Words. gestion, Copernicus took holy orders, COPERNICUS.
and was presently appointed to a canBY SIR ROBERT BALL, LL.D., F.R.S.
onry in the cathedral of Frauenburg, THE quaint town of Thorn, on the near the mouth of the Vistula. Vistula, was more than two centuries To Frauenburg, accordingly, this old when Copernicus was born there man of varied gifts retired. Possesson the 19th of February, 1473. Thorn ing somewhat of the ascetic spirit, he was even, in those days, a place of resolved to devote his life to work considerable trade, lying as it does on of the most serious description. He the frontier between Prussia and Po. eschewed all ordinary society, restrictland, with a commodious water-way ing his intimacies to very grave and for traffic between the two countries. learned companions, and refusing to
Copernicus, the astronomer, whose engage in conversation of any useless discoveries make him the great prede- kind. It would seem as if his gifts for cessor of Newton and Kepler, did not painting came under the condemnation come from a noble family, as certain of frivolity ; at all events, we do not other early astronomers have done, learn that he continued to practise for, though his uncle was certainly a them. In addition to the discharge of bishop, yet his father was a tradesman. his theological duties, his life was diWe are not acquainted with any of vided partly between ministering medthose details of his childhood or youth ically to the wants of the poor, and which are often of such interest in partly with his researches in astronomy other cases where men have risen to and mathematics. His equipment in exalted fame. It would appear that the way of instruments for the study of the young Nicolaus, for such was liis the heavens seems to have been of a Christian name, received his education very meagre description. He arranged at home, until such time as he was apertures in the walls of his house at deemed sufficiently advanced to be sent Allenstein, so that he could observe in to the university at Cracow. The edu- some fashion the passage of the stars cation that he there obtained must across the meridian. That lie poshave been in those days of a very prim- sessed some talent for practical me. itive description, but Copernicus seems chanics, is proved by his construction to have availed himself of it to the of a contrivance for raising water from utmost. He devoted himself more par- a stream, for the use of the inhabitants ticularly to the study of medicine, with of Frauenburg. Relics of this machine the view of adopting its practice as the are still to be seen. profession of his life. The tendencies The intellectual slumber of the Midof the future astronomer were, how- dle Ages was destined to be awakened ever, revealed in the fact that he by Copernicus. It may be noted, that worked hard at mathematics, and, like the time at which he appeareil coinone of his illustrious successors, Gali- cided with a remarkable epoch in the leo, the practice of the art of painting world's history. The great astronohad for him very great interest, and in mer had just reached manhood, at it he obtained some measure of suc- the time when Columbus discovered cess.
America. By the time he was twenty-seven Before the publication of the reyears old, it would seem that Coper- searches of Copernicus, the orthodox nicus had given up the notion of scientific belief averred that the earth becoming a medical practitioner, and was stationary, and that the apparent had resolved to devote himself to sci- movements of the heavenly bodies He was engaged in teaching were indeed real movements.
Ptolmathematics, and appears to have won emy had laid down this doctrine fourconsiderable reputation. His growing teen hundred years before. In his fame attracted the notice of his uncle theory this huge error was associated the bishop, and, apparently at his sug-I with so much important truth, aud