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Sixth Series,
Volume VI.

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No. 2653. – May 11, 1895.

From Beginning,

Vol. COV.

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CONTENTS.
I. THE SITUATION IN ITALY. By C. B.
Roylance-Kent,

Macmillan's Magazine,
II. TWELVE HUNDRED MILES IN A WAGON.
By Miss Balfour,

National Review,
III. THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN FRANCE,
By Gabriel Monod,

Contemporary Review,
IV. * SOME MISCHIEF STILL." By Anthony
C. Deane,

Longman's Magazine,
V. MARIA EDGEWORTH,

London Quarterly Review, VI. MONEY-MAKING AT THE TOWER,

Gentleman's Mayazine, VII. TOURAINE IN AUTUMN,

All The Year Round, VIII. THE HEROIC AND

THE VULGAR

AT
FRIEDRICHSRUH,

Saturday Review,
IX. THE COMING OF SPRING. By Alfred
Austin,

Blackwood's Magazine,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

of me.

A MURMUR.

Now Spring has come, grey Winter goes ; I WROTE her name on the soft, shifting

“Good-bye, old friend," cry we. sand,

“ You will return as Spring returns, but, For Love had written it within my heart.

now your day is o'er ; Th' incoming tide with its incessant flood As grief is all forgotten we'll remember Dashed o'er the letters, leaving level sand ; you no more. But as the expended foam crept slowly My thoughts are turned from care to all back

the joy that is to be. Into the seething waves, it bore her name,

O mad maid, April, thus you make a fool And mingled it forever with the surge. The billows murmur it along the shore;

Yet some will stay with sorrow after she The wild waves echo it in every beat ;

has set them free; The tempest shrieks it ’neath the midnight Wise maiden, yours the sweetness and the sky;

mystery of tears, While jealous mermaids wonder whence it The spell that you are singing, and will came ;

sing thro' all the years, And seamews, as they sport upon the Unfolds how joy and grief must each of waves,

either hold the key. Hear it, and call their mates by that sweeto dear maid, April, do you make a fool of name ;

me ? And I forever hear within my heart

Speaker.

HELEN CHISHOLM. The murmur of her name borne from the

sea. Chambers' Journal.

J. K. L.

NOW, WHAT IS LOVE?
Now, what is love, I pray thee tell ?

It is that fountain and that well
THE FIRST OF APRIL.

Where pleasure and repentance dwell ; The clouded sun of April casts a shadow

It is perhaps the sauncing bell on the lea,

That tolls all into heaven or hell; The diamond drops of April fly a-dancing And this is love, as I hear tell. down the air,

Yet what is love, I prithee, say? And lo! bewitching April comes again our

It is a work on holiday, hearts to snare,

It is December matched with May, To madden us with smiles that mourn, and

When lusty bloods in fresh array tears lit up with glee ;

Hear ten months after of the play O wild maid, April, you will make a fool of

And this is love, as I hear say. From Winter's bonds the waters wake, and Yet what is love, good shepherd, sain ?

It is a sunshine mixed with rain, birds on every tree

It is a toothache or like pain, Sweet singing from the streamlet, and a

It is a game where none hath gain ; carol from the wood;

The lass saith no, yet would full fain; And who can silent stay with all the world

And this is love, as I hear sain. in such a mood ? My heart is filled with music and my lips | Yet, shepherd, what is love I pray ? with melody ;

It is a yes, it is a nay, I laugh, cry, sing, sigh ; April makes a fool A pretty kind of sporting fay, of me.

It is a thing will soon away.

Then, nymphs, take vantage while ye The blossoms hover round her head, and

may ; nestle at her knee,

And this is love, as I hear say. The birds are feathered all for her in festi

Yet what is love, good shepherd, show ? So would I, too, in splendor shine as radi- A thing that creeps, it cannot go, antly as they,

A prize that passeth to and fro, In flowing lines and color clad, a joy for A thing for one, a thing for moe, her to see.

And he that proves shall find it so; O gay maid, April, you have made a fool of And, shepherd, this is love, I trow.

me.

val array ;

SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

me.

From Macmillan's Magazine. and diplomatist ; Manin, the dictator THE SITUATION IN ITALY.

of Venice; D'Azeglio, the versatile With the closing days of last year novelist, painter, and political pamthere passed away in the person of phleteer; Ricasoli, the “ Iron Baron ; Francis the Second, the ex-king of Gioberti, the eloquent and erudite Naples, one of the last survivals of priest, whose book on “The Primacy the old régime of an oppressed and of Italy” sounded like a trumpet-call disunited Italy. He had outlived his to action ; Garibaldi, the prince of short and troubled reigu for over thirty guerrilla soldiers ; Ugo Bassi, the monk years, a period which, though it seems and martyr; Mamiani, Minghetti, and long, is relatively short in the history many others who with their various of nations; and his death, occurring at talents served their country well. Is a time when the fortunes of Italy had the mould then already broken, the reached a lower ebb than at any period type destroyed ? Is the race of heroes since the attainment of national inde- now extinct? It passes comprehenpendence, serves to remind us how sion that a people who but yesterday constantly human hopes are disap- brought their country back from a state pointed, and how closely intertwined of death to life should thus apparently is the present state of Italy with her degenerate. Yet the explanation, after past.

all, is simple. The roots of the evil are The contemplation of Italy to-day deep and firmly laid in anterior events awakens a feeling of surprise and dis- and in that past history which, as the appointment ; surprise that her affairs old Greeks said, the gods themselves should have been allowed to drift from cannot recall. Time has its revenges ; bad to worse, and disappointment at the past is the seed-plot of the present, the apparent inability of the Italians to and as man has sown, so shall he reap. cope with a condition of things which There is in truth hardly a single is already scandalous, and which threat- element in the present situation which, ens, if it be not quickly mended, to with an adequate knowledge of Italian land the country in a state of anarchy history and of human nature, might not and ruin. Italy has fallen indeed on have been predicted. How natural has evil days. The perilous financial situ- been the sequence of cause and effect ation with its continually recurring will be clearly seen from a brief considdeficits, the burdensome taxation, the eration of the problem with which the riotous protestations of the suffering makers of Italy had to grapple, and the people, were bad enough in them- way iv which that problem was ultiselves ; but as though the cup was not mately solved. yet full, there have been added a series Up to the days of Solferino and of bank scandals which have almost Magenta in 1859 Italy was nothing but equalled those of the Panama Canal, a group of disconnected States, a mere have spread everywhere a sense of "geographical expression," over which deep distrust, and have culminated in the weight of Austrian domination insinuations on the personal integrity hung like a pall. Everywhere were of Signor Crispi himself. That such a differences of race, language, history, spectacle should

of and tradition. In Rome and Florence pained surprise is but natural ; for it only was pure Italian spoken. In Piedmight well have been expected that mont and Savoy French was the lanmen would have been found among the guage of the educated classes ; in the Italians equal to grappling with the Chamber at Turin both French and crisis. The making of Italy, it is re- Italian were permitted to be spoken, membered, produced a band of men, and Cavour himself was much more each in their divers ways of extraordi- fluent in the former than in the latter. nary powers ; Mazzivi, the dreamy The Earl of Derby once gave great democrat and irreconcilable repub- offence by applying to the Italians a licau ; Cavour, the master statesman ' quotation from “ Macbeth :".

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Ay, in the catalogue ye go for men ; were events more glorious for Italy As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, than when after the “ Five Days of spaniels, curs,

Milan," the Austrians were driven Sloughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are almost bag and baggage out of Lomclept

bardy. But while the Italians were All by the name of dogs.

wrangling and debating, the Austrians Yet in depreciatory sneers he hardly walked in again. For the only thing exceeded the Italians themselves. on which the Italians were agreed was D'Azeglio in his memoirs tells us that in raising the cry of “Out with the in the presence of foreigners he foreiguer (fuori lo straniero).” But blushed to call himself Italiau ; Guer- what was to replace him hardly two razzi, the Tuscan novelist and dema- persons could agree. Some, like Mazgogue, likened his country to " a bundle zini, were for republics everywhere ; of rags in the shop of a second-hand others for a single State with the king dealer; while the satirist Giusti in of Sardinia for sovereign ; while some, his famous poem of “ The Boot” called like Gioberti, urged a loose confederaher a thing of shreds and patches. tion under the presidency of the pope. Except in the kingdom of Sardinia Turin was jealous of Milan ; the Rethere was no national dynasty which publicans and Monarchists hated one was deeply rooted in the affections of another only less thau Austria ; and the people. Everywhere else the chief eventually Pius the Ninth shrank back of the State was either a scion of the from the national war of indepenAustrian house of Hapsburg or under dence, and in a moment of crisis the its protection ; or, as Giusti well said, king of Naples recalled his troops from there hung over Italy a sword of which the field of operations. He was afraid, Austria formed the blade and the as indeed were many others, that vicPapacy the cross. The sword and the tory might end in the aggrandizement crozier were welded together. Only of the Sardinian State and crown. iu the Sardinian State and in Austrian There were few who saw that there Lombardy and Venice was there any was one road only to Italian indepengovernment which was not hopelessly deuce; and that was through the might

; inefficient and corrupt ; elsewhere men of the Sardinian arms. There lay the lived in a realm of darkuess, a veritable only great military force which Italy intellectual ghetto. As D'Azeglio put possessed ; there, as events subseit, the hand of Thersites wielded the quently proved, was the Italian Prusspear of Achilles. A more deplorable sia, which alone could lead the way to and apparently hopeless situation can victory. It was obvious to all whom a scarcely be imagined ; robed in despair parochial spirit did not blind ; but it Italy sat “elegiacally dreaming on her blinded most, and the chance that forruins." And to this wretched state of tune gave was lost. things it must in candor be admitted Such in brief was the state of things that the Italians themselves contrib- with which the builders of Italian unity uted not a little. Individualist, calcu- had to grapple. What then was the lating, and practical in the pursuit of way in which they met it, and the key worldly ends, passionate and suspi- of their success? In the first place it cious, they never combined to consum- must be said that victory was achieved mate any great and national object. in a very different way from that which Provincialism and municipalism were had been hoped ; it was in fact by the canker that eat the heart out of force of foreign arms.

It had been the Italian nationality. If it had not been proud boast of the Italians that they for sordid provincial jealousies and would work out their own salvation quarrels Italy might have been one and (Italia farà da se). Yet to the aid of independent long before she actually France alone can the victories which became so. The events of 1848 are a drove out Austria be ascribed. And it striking illustration of the fact. Never may certainly be doubted whether it

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would not have been better for the ary change. Self-satisfied and sleek, Italians as a nation that their indepen- they fattened on abuse, and were well dence should have been postponed for content to allow the world to continue at least a generation, if they could have as it was. If not the best possible, it only gained that independence through was a good world enough for them. their own unaided force and genius. In a word the revolution was in the As it was they had not received a suffi- main the work of the professional and cient political education. Almost at a trading classes. To those who craved single bound they advanced from a for intellectual light, for liberty of

state of slavery to freedom, and ex- thought and speech, for freedom from | cepting in the North there was no restraint, the old régime was a suffocat

period of transition, no time of prepa- ing hell. It was the rule of the priest, ration, no apprenticeship in the exer- the censor, and the police ; and there cise of the rights and duties of a was no alternative but the resignation citizen. So that when the day of of submission, or a life of underground emancipation came, the majority were revolutionary intrigue, which usually wholly unprepared to assume the grave ended on the scaffold or in exile. As responsibilities of self-government. Mazzini tells us in his memoirs, no Nor is this the limit of the evil. If government in Italy could endure a Italy had gained her independence young man who lived much alone and alone and without the aid of foreign was given to meditation. arms, she would be to-day a greater was gagged and muzzled, scientific and a freer power ; for be it right or congresses were looked upon askance, wrong, no Frenchman can forget the and railways were frequently forbiddebt, and the weight of obligation den. The course of trade was choked hangs heavy as a millstone round Ital- by a rank growth of interminable cusian necks.

toms-duties and irritating taxes, so that Secondly, it should not be forgotten there was no outlet for the capitalist, that the victory was alniost entirely due the manufacturer, or the merchant. to the efforts and self-sacrifice of the In the face of all this it cannot be a middle classes. The lower classes, matter of surprise that the middle sunk in ignorance and superstition, classes, sick with hope deferred and hardly stirred a finger, if they did not driven to despair, should at any cost sometimes show an actually hostile have wrought the revolution. But spirit to the movement. So long as when that was carried through they they were assured of the bare necessi- were left in possession of the field as ties of life, it mattered not to them the governing body in the newly emanwhether they were governed by a des- cipated State ; and this has brought pot or a parliament; and it is perfectly with it a train of most disastrous consewell known that in the war of 1848 the quences. For when the pressure was Lombards rendered supplies and valu- removed they began forth with to disable information to the Austrian troops. play in the extremest form the worst Except in Piedmont and Lombardy of the vices which are apparently inthe aristocracy almost entirely held herent to the undiluted rule of the aloof. To men like Count Cavour, the middle classes of society. That rule is Marquis D'Azeglio, Counts Confalo- not usually one which is actively bail; nieri, Arrivabene, and Baron Poerio, its vices are rather negative than posithe cause was indebted for services of tive ; but it is narrow, leaden, and the very highest kind. But for the one-sided. What it was in France in most part, as satellites that revolved the reign of Louis Philippe, the Citizen with a dim, reflected light round the King, and how it ultimately ended is various petty courts, or as allied by now generally known. De Tocqueinterests and ambitions to the Church, ville has described it well enough. they thought they had everything 10 The spirit, he said, of the middle lose and little to gain by a revolution-classes, when united with that of the

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