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crossed over the third one, and boys he came out twice once with the bearing ornaments of silver and a large bread, once with the wine – on which silver cross. The cathedral was a very occasions all the people knelt down. handsome domed building, with four In about a quarter of an hour le ormolu and glass lustres hanging from came out, ascended the pulpit, and the ceiling, and small glass lamps, in preached a short sermon; he then shape like an inverted bell, painted gave a short address, in which he rewith flowers, round the sides. Oppo-called all his ministry in the town, and site the door was a magnificently carved took leave of the people. He was conscreen of oak, behind which the priests stantly interrupted by the sobs of his performed what they call the mysteries hearers, and I was pointed out our at the communion service. This screen friend wlio had treated us so iphospiwas covered with sacred pictures, and tably, and could perceive that his rein the middle was a door covered with morse for his past sins took the shape a veil or curtain, answering to those of deep grief and sobs, but was not which we had seen offered up to the followed, I suspect, by any remorse of Virgin and the commander-in-chief of a pecuniary and practical nature. heaven.

I heard on all sides that the archThe decorations were far superior to bishop's life had been most exemplary, the music, which was chanted in the that he was a highly learned man, a harshest and most discordant manner. great encourager of literature, charIn fact we all agreed afterwards that itable and benevolent, and tolerant as we did not think that human voices far as lay in his power. could compass such a pitch of discord. After the address the priest and

The archbishop was now invested choir chanted a loud and most discord. with robes of the most costly and splen- ant psalm, and the ceremony ended. did description, embroidered profusely We went by invitation to breakfast with gold. Two priests bore these ; at the archbishop's Palace, where we two more followed, one carrying on a found a large number of the princushion a Bible blazing with gems and cipal inhabitants of the town assemgold, the other an imperial crown of bled, seated round the divan, ostensibly purple velvet, also glittering with gems to breakfast, but in reality to drink and gold. The first robe was of pale coffee, smoke, and eat sweetmeats. yellow satin, stiff with gold embroidery, The archbishop, who was now again which fitted close to the figure ; then in his plain black dress, received us came a second one, only shorter ; a most courteously, seated me beside him thick gold band was then hung over on the divan, and conversed with me his shoulder, and a square piece of through an interpreter for some time. gold-colored silk hung from liis side. He said that he had been informed of The outer robe was loose, with large my rank, and that I was travelling in sleeves. Then the priest placed the the East to see things with my own crown on his head, and the other eyes, and would probably write an achanded him the Bible and a silver count of them when I returned home. sceptre ; incense was scattered in the He besought me when I did so to air from innumerable censers, and the remember under what disadvantageous archbishop walked down the church a circumstances the Greek people lacrowned and sceptred ecclesiastical bored, having been demoralized by prince, representing one of the apos-centuries of slavery, which had detles, or Council of Twelve, who direct stroyed all the best and exaggerated all the affairs of the Church along with the worst parts of the national characthe patriarch at Constantinople. As ter, so that the astute, clever, diplohe passed down the cathedral he made matic race, of whom Ulysses might be the usual salutation, holding the second taken as a type, had been changed to a finger extended, and then retired be- cunving, lying people under Turkish hind the veil into the sanctuary, whence rule. He did not conceal their bad

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qualities their drunkenness, which I noble simplicity was far from being showed so disastrously beside the sober the childlike pastor such as Newman Moslems — but he certainly made out a portrays. But where Pbilip is confesgood case in their favor, and removed sedly weak Fénelon has a great attracmany prejudices from my mind. In tion, especially for those who love all vaiu I tried to deny my imputed rank ; forms of distinction, but humane letters it was useless, and only added the above everything else. St. Philip, virtue of modesty to all my other ones. says Newman, was “but a poor priest, When I took leave of him he gave me with no distinction of family or of lethis benediction, and I left with a deep ters.” It is not the least of Fénelon's feeling of respect and admiration, in- attractions that he was at once the most spired by his benevolent face, noble finished gentleman of the court of bearing, grave, courteous manners, Louis the Fourteenth, and a member of and intelligent conversation.

that small but delightful family of litThe next day Herr P- and I erary men of which Virgil is the type ; started for Smyrna. We took leave of those choice and affectionate spirits Mitylene with far different feelings whom we admire greatly and love still from those with which we had entered more. it, and viewed for the last time its old Possibly Fénelon has owed liis great castle and mountains, its groves of reputation as much to his famous quarolives, myrtle, and arbutus, and fairy rel with Bossuet as to the authorship harbors, fading away in the amber of “Telemachus" or to his own perlight, and mingling with the deep blue sonal merits. It pleased the sceptical of the Ægean - all to live with the writers of the eighteenth century to recollections of the pleasant times we regard Fénelon as in some measure an had spent, the memory of the adven- Encyclopædist who had been born a lures we had encountered, its lovely century too soon. He was the angel Grecian girls, to last as long with me as of sweetness and patience, while in the with them probably did the halo of the same legend Bossuet was the fanatical, celebrated English prince who had overbearing ecclesiastic, who in the once visited Mitylene.

interest of the Church would have burned Fénelon and every other liberal spirit. This view was unjust both to

Fénelon and Bossuet, for the first was From Macmillan's Magazine. not the uncomplaining man this legend SOME THOUGHTS ON FENELON. makes him out to be, nor was the other For nearly two ceuturies Fénelon cruel, or unscrupulous in any unworthy has been remembered as the most sense. The “Eagle of Meaux" was winning and human of theologians; exclusively a churchman, but he was a and it was in accordance with this tra- good man, according to his own parrow dition that Landor described him as conception of righteousness. The re“the fairest apparition that Christian- gard which the eighteenth century had ity ever presented.” It is possible to for Fénelon is illustrated in a curious feel the charm of his personality with-way by a saying of Rousseau's. “If out going so far as the impetuous Lan- Fénelon were living,” said a friend dor, though it is certain that if Fénelon to him, “you would be Orthodox." had been canonized, he would have " Ah," replied Jean Jacques, “I been the most popular saint of the last would be his lackey, in the hope that I five centuries. He was a larger and might come to be his valet.” M. Brumore interesting personality than even netière would doubtless explain the Philip Neri, Francis

of Sales, or vulgarity of this saying by Rousseau's Charles Borromeo. The enchanting origin and democratic sympathies ; but picture which Newman gives us of St. we remember that Thackeray made use Philip could not indeed be made to of a similar expression respecting stand for Fénelon, who with all his Shakespeare, and even M. Brunetière

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would hardly charge Thackeray with | cated, Fénelon received his training in being a democrat in literature. Rous- theology ; and in about his twentyseau had the veneration for Fénelon fourth year he was made a priest. Like which the other Encyclopædists had ; other young men with a vein of roand he shared too their hatred of those mance, he had generous dreams, which severe ecclesiastics who, like Becket, were colored by his surroundings. He regard the Church as all in all. But wished to visit the East, and perchance the true lover of literature refuses to be win there a martyr's crowo. Martyra partisan in these matters ; he will not dom is sometimes noble and beautiful ; exalt the one too much, nor debase the but it is too often merely useless and other at all.

prosaic, and is desired chiefly by young We read that Bertrand de Salignac, persons who know nothing of life, and Marquis de Fénelon, of whom the are full of the “heavenly homesickauthor of "Telemachus " was great- | ness." There was at all times a touch grand-nephew, was French ambassador of this sickness in Fénelon, though in in London at the time of the massacre his maturity it was combined with of St. Bartholomew. Charles the singular clearness of vision. He reNinth, it is said, asked the marquis to mained in Paris, and found pleasant soothe Queen Elizabeth, who was duties there as superior of a religious known to be indignant at this slaughter house for the training of the New of the Huguenots. The story goes Catholics, who were girls recently conthat the marquis proudly answered, verted to Catholicism. This was "Let the request be made, sire, to suitable position for the man who wrote those who counselled the massacre." the treatise “ On the Education of Whether true or not, it is not difficult Girls,' a work originally composed to believe that the ancestors of the for his friends the Duke and Duchess great Archbishop of Canıbray were de Beauvillier in 1681, when Fénelon meu of high spirit. The archbishop, was thirty years of age, but not pubFrançois de Salignac de la Mothe-Féne- lished until 1687. lou, did not inherit the marquisate ; He was next sent to Saintonge and he was the son of a younger member Poitou, to fix the faith of the unhappy of the family, and was born in Périgord folk who by law were compelled to on the 6th of August, 1651. The Féne- abandon the Protestant religion and to lons were noble and distinguished, but return to the bosom of the Romish whether they belonged to the inner- Church. Much has been written upon most circle of the nobility, we are not this subject, and Fénelon's defenders able to say. Until his twelfth year the bave tried to prove that he was against boy was educated at home, under what the use of force in matters of religion, conditions we are not told, and was while others have said that he was as then sent to the University of Cahors. much in favor of such methods as any In the mean time his father had died, great churchman of the Middle Ages, and he had been adopted by his uncle, as St. Dominic, for instance. It is the Marquis de Fénelon, who hence- not given to any man to be altogether forth looked after his nephew's edu- above his age ; and Fénelon, with all cation. The marquis was a man of his graces and accomplishments, was a sincere piety, and probably influenced child of his century. If at that time the youth in his choice of an ecclesias- one man might, without a shock to tical career. Few particulars remain public opinion, be hanged for a petty of Fénelon's early life, and perhaps it theft, might not another man is best so ; for it is not when a man of sistently be burned for heresy ? Even genius is young, without sureness of the Encyclopædists, who hated the taste or solidity of character, that he is intolerance of the Inquisition, do not most interesting.

appear to have had a similar hatred for At Saint-Sulpice, where a century the cruelties of the old criminal law. aud a half later Ernest Renan was edu- ! So far as Fénelon is concerned, it

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seems that he was not opposed to theme with a great deal of shooting ; the

; use of force for the repression of air is already obscured by the smoke, heresy ; but he insisted upou the need and nothing is heard but the terrible of persuasion, and was as much in noise of the gunpowder. The spirited favor of gentleness and conciliation as horse which I ride, urged on by a noble any one could be who was not utterly earnestness, wishes to throw himself opposed to such methods.

into the water ; but my own desires We have no evidence as to his suc- are more moderate, so I get down and cess in this singular missionary enter- stand upon the earth. Here I am at prise ; but from what we know of him the gate; the consuls begiu their we may be sure le preached then, as barangue ; you will not fail to picture always, that the doctrine cannot save to yourself everything lively and pomwithout the life, nor is it likely he pous in the way of eulogy. The orator would knowingly do violence to any likened me to the sun ; shortly after one's convictions. Yct at the best, this I was the moon ; every glittering was it not a poor, almost an ignoble star had the honor of resembling me, kind of mission ? It is associated in and at the finish there was an allusion the mind of the writer with a picture, to the beginning of the world. By this “The Expulsion of Heresy," that used time the sun had gone to rest, and I to be attributed to Paul Veronese ; a went to my room and prepared to do singular kind of angel (for if we re- likewise.” member rightly she has no wings) It was not until the year 1689 that is chasing, sword in hand, several he found himself on the way towarıls wretched meu, ragged and unorthodox ; realizing one of the great desires of on the observer's right hand three or his life ; for Fénelon, however little he four ecclesiastics, self-contained and talked about it, was a man of high well-fed, are looking calmly on; one ambition ; he would certaiuly have thinks they might enjoy the work of liked to be first minister, with as much the wingless angel, if custom had not power as Richelieu. In this year le staled their appetite a little. If the was made preceptor to the Duke of missionary must be accompanied by Burgundy, son of the dauphin, and in the soldier, he should have the execu- the work of training the young prince tioner also, to be in readiness to end was associated with the Duke de Beauthe tragedy if the fifth act should begin villier. It was then a post of great to drag.

honor, as is shown by the fact that Let us, after the example of M. Bossuet in the meridian of his career Janet, set against this rather gloomy was proud to be tutor to the dauphin. picture, a pleasant and humorous pas-Time changes or modifies everything, sage from one of Fénelon's letters ; it and the preceptors of princes are not is dated May the 22nd, 1681, and was so honored in Europe to-day. Fénewritten to his cousin the Marchioness lon's task was not at first a pleasant de Laval, to describe a public reception one, for his pupil was violent and ungiven to him at Carennac, on the oc- amiable. “ The Duke of Burgundy," casion of his going to take possession says Saint-Simon, “was terrible from of a living there. “ I walk," writes his birth, and made those about him Fénelon, “accompanied by the whole tremble even in his early boyhood. body of deputies in their majesty, and Hard, given to paroxysms of auger, I behold the quay crowded with the incapable of suffering the least resistpeople. Two boats, full of the pick of ance to his will without showing such the burgesses, come up; and I notice heat of passion that everybody feared that, by a generous piece of strategy, he might injure himself fatally ; of all those soldiers of the place who have this I have often myself been witness, seen most fighting are hidden in a cor- and I have seen too how headstrong he ner of the pretty isle which you know ; was, how greedy and how fond of pleas.. they come in order of battle and greet ure." Yet there was a brighter side.

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“He had much insight and great bril-gundy, Fénelon made the acquaintance liance of mind; his repartees were of Madame Guyon, the lady who figsurprising, his answers were profound ures so prominently in the history of and just; he seemed to play with ab- Quietism. Voltaire, certainly not an struse knowledge." It was Fénelon's impartial critic, but always worth hearfirst task to exorcise the dark spirit, ing as spokesman for one side of the and in this he was successful almost genius of France, says : “ Theological beyond belief. “The marvel is," con- subtlety and want of mental balance tinues Saint-Simon, “ that through self-was at the bottom of the Quietist cou

" devotion and by grace he was utterly troversy, which would quite have vanchanged ; the terrible defects of his ished from the memories of men but character were transmuted into per- for the quarrel of two illustrious rivals. fectly opposite virtues. From this A woman without influence or real abyss arose a prince mild and cour- brilliance of mind, a woman with an teous, generous and humane, patient overheated imagination, set the two and modest, humble, and severe with greatest churchmen of the time against himself."

each other. Her name was Bouvières By what means was this singular re- de la Mothe, and her family belonged sult obtained ? Fénelon was certainly to Montargis ; she had been married to a great teacher, and, notwithstanding the son of Guyon, contractor for the his meekness, was

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rare Briare canal. Left a widow while still strength of character; he had, too, a young, possessed of ineans, pretty and power of impressing himself upon oth- with a worldly disposition, her fancy ers, like a great Englishman of our was set ou fire over what is called spirown century, of whom it was finely ituality ; her director was a monk said that you could not be in his pres- named La Combe, from Annecy, near ence for a few minutes without feeling Geneva ... The desire to become a impelled to take a moral step onwards. St. Theresa in France made her blind It has been contended that Fénelon to the difference between the French transformed the Duke of Burgundy by and the Spanislı genius, and caused her depriving him of individuality ; but as to go much farther than St. Theresa. the young prince died in his thirtieth Heart and soul she was seized with the year, before he had occupied a position ambition to gain disciples, perhaps of of real power, such a statement need all ambitions the strongest.” Voltaire not trouble us. The death of this does his best to make the poor woman prince in 1712 struck Fénelon alike in ridiculous, nor does he altogether fail ; his affections and in his ambition, for his judgment is of course provokingly thus ended his last hope of becoming a one-sided, for almost the whole provminister of state. Fénelon gave his ince of religion was closed to him, and pupil that purely literary education much of the province of poetry also. which some men of science in our time Yet he had a keen eye for anything have affected to despise. What is the strained or unreal in life, and it is true aim of culture ? Is it not to humanize of Madame Guyon that she found it an us, to give us tact, urbanity, delicacy, easier matter to rhapsodize about heavand sureness of taste ? Now so far as enly things than to talk good sense the experience of mankind has gone, about the things of earth. We are this can be done only in two ways, only concerned with her in this place

- by constant social intercourse with because Fénelon had a great regard for well-bred and refined persons, or by her, and defended her when she stood the study of the great masterpieces of much in need of it; he was at all times literature. However fine may be the a loyal friend, as a true gentleman mental discipline of science, it cannot could not fail to be. “ Like the first give us these things.

mau,” says D'Aguesseau,“ he was perIn 1688, the year before he was ap- verted by the voice of a woman ; his pointed preceptor to the Duke of Bur- talents, his fortune, even his reputa

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