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the exchequer from this somewhat curi- twenty years is the item for the year ous source. Before going, however, 1892. To assign any reason for this iuto any figures in this respect, it may great decline, or, in fact, for the decline be well to look back some years, with of the last five years, is a well-nigh the object of seeing whether the cus- impossible task. Can it be due to the tom can be traced of people adopting fact that the public conscience is less the practice of unburdeniug their con- tender now than it was, say, in the science in matters of taxation by means year 1860, or may the shrinkage in of the payment of conscience money revenue from this source be due to the into the public exchequer.

greater energy displayed by the income According to Hone, £360 was carried tax assessors of the present day? to the public account in the year 1789 Whatever the explanation is, there can in consequence of the receipt of the be little doubt that many persons in following note by the chancellor of the this country, although having no desire exchequer of that time. “SIR – You to evade the payment of income tax, will herewith receive bank-notes to the feel that by making their true income amount of £360, which is the property kuown to the authorities they are makof the nation ; and which, as an honesting it “public property ; » and this is man, you will be so just as to apply to especially the case with tradesmen, the use of the State in such a manner who fear the knowledge of their inthat the nation may not suffer by its come reaching the ears of their comhaving been detained from the public petitors in business ; hence recourse treasury. You are implored to do this way sometimes be had to the payment for the ease of conscience to an honest of conscience money.

A somewhat amusing example of the The earliest public notice of the re- power of conscience may be cited in ceipt of such revenue appears to have which the proprietors of Punch are been made in the Times in the year reported to have received threepence 1842, the form of acknowledgment dif- in conscience money from an avonyfering but little from the present form.mous correspondent, who is said to The laconic announcement runs as fol- have surreptitiously read

an entire lows : “ The chancellor of the ex- number of Punch from the various chequer acknowledges the receipt of pages displayed in the shop front in £40 from some person unknown, as Fleet Street. Such an instance of the conscience money.”

unburdening of the conscience is only It is not until the year 1855 that the equalled, perhaps, by the story told of amounts received as conscience money a fellow of Pythagoras, who, it is reappear under any separate heading in lated, had bought a pair of shoes from the public accounts ; since that time, a cobbler, for which he promised to however, the total amount received pay him on a future day. He went each year has duly appeared as a sepa- with his money on the day appointed, rate item. The following figures, from but found that the cobbler had in the which the shillings and pence are interval departed this life. Without omitted, will give some idea of the saying anything of his errand, he withamounts that have from time to time drew, secretly rejoicing at the opportubeen received : 1855, £1,895 ; 1860, nity thus unexpectedly afforded him £16,488 ; 1865, £7,184 ; 1870, £7,132 ; of gaining a pair of shoes for noth1875, £2,688 ; 1880, £5,801 ; 1881, ing. His conscience, however, says £6,202 ; 1882, £5,346 ; 1883, £6,614 ; Seneca, would not sufi to remain 1884, £3,127 ; 1885, £9,234 ; 1886, quiet under such an act of injustice; £6,565 ; 1887, £2,288 ; 1888, £950 ; so, taking up the money, he returned 1889, £635 ; 1890, £1,588 ; 1891, £1,834 ; to the cobbler's shop, and casting in 1892, £253.

the money, said : “Go thy ways; for It will thus be observed that the though he is dead to all the world, yet lowest amount recorded during the last 'he is alive to me."

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Quarterly Review,

CREEK. By Christian Burke,

By Miss Balfour. Conclusion,

National Review,
H. D. Traill,

Fortnightly Review, .

Macmillan's Magazine,
Norway. By M. S. Constable,

Fortnightly Review, .


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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bauk draft or check, or by post office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


While the word went forth in the king's A LITTLE toddling boy at play,

chamber An elder girl, alert and gay,

That we both must die.
Kind guardian of his infant way -
Small Charles, wise Mary.

Oh! so idly, straying through the plea

saunce, A youth — with longings unfulfilled —

Plucked we here and there To Poesie his life-work willed,

Fruit and bud, while in the royal presence A maid distraught - a mother killed — The king's son was casting from his hair Sad Charles, mad Mary.

Glory of the wreathen gold that crowned it,

And ungirdling all his garment fair, A brother giving up his life,

Flinging by the jewelled clasp that bound His cherished dreams, his fancies rife,

it, To soothe his sister's bitter strife

With his feet made bare.
True Charles, tried Mary.

Down the myrtled stairway of the palace, Year after year of " drudgery dry,"

Ashes on his head, With cheerful mien, with ne'er a sigh,

Came he, through the rose and citron alleys That loved one's comfort to supply

In rough sark of sackcloth habited,
Brave Charles, bless'd Mary.

And a hempen halter - oh ! we jested

Lightly, and we laughed as he was led Scant hours of rest and freedom sweet Dear friends by his own hearth to greet,

To the torture, while the bloom we breasted

Where the grapes grew red.
The sister making home complete —
Bright Charles, fond Mary.

Oh! so sweet the birds, when he was

dying, At length the treasures of his mind

Piped to her and me -
He poured forth freely for mankind
When Elia's deathless name he signed

Is no room this glad June day for sighing -
Glad Charles, proud Mary.

He is dead, and she and I go free!

When the sun shall set on all our pleasure Then summers ten of ease and rest,

We will mourn him — What, so you deWith kindly word and ready jest,

cree Though oft did anguish wring his breast We are heartless — Nay, but in what measLone Charles, crazed Mary.

Do you more than we? But when the cloud had passed away,

MAY PROBYN. Once more the gayest of the gay On every theme his wit would play

Quaint Charles, calm Mary.

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And best we love to paint them so,
Forgetting those dim years of woe -
When he was dead — ere she could go,

Dear Charles, dear Mary.
Than theirs, whose record shows more fair ?
With martyr's ordeal may compare
Those lives of “dual loneness” rare -
“Saint” Charles, his Mary !

Clifton, October, 1894. Blackwood's Magazine.

BECAUSE the world is very stern ;

Because the work is very long ;

Because the foes are very strong,
Whatever side I turn :

Because my courage ebbs away ;

Because my spirit's eyes are dim ;

Because with failures to the brim
My cup fills day by day :
Because forbidden ways invite ;

Because the smile of sin is sweet ;

Because so readily run my feet
Toward paths that close in night :

WE were playing on the green together,

My sweetheart and I-
Oh! so heedless in the gay June weather,
When the word went forth that we must

Oh! so merrily the balls of amber

And of ivory tossed we to the sky,

Because God's face I long to see ;

Because God's image stamps me yet :

Oh ! by Thy Passion, Christ, forget Me not, who fly to thee !


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From The Quarterly Review. ciergerie du Palais de Paris. It was, THE CONCIERGERIE.

in old times, a prison forming part ENGLISH visitors to the French cap- of the palace of the kings of France ; ital have often gazed with interest at and, as in the case of our own Tower, the round towers, conical spires, and palace and prison were Siamese twins. long stone façade of the oldest and Turning to the right out of the courtmost memorable prison of Paris, and yard, the guide unlocks a heavy door, felt a strong desire to visit the interior descends a few steps, and ushers the of the famous Conciergerie. In Sep- visitor into the noble old guard-room of tember, 1893 — the centenary year of the palace of the kings. Here everythe most blood-stained period in the thing is medieval in character. Colexistence of the prison - a student of umns rise from the stone floor and the Revolution obtained from the Pré- spread themselves out into vaulted, fecture de Police a card of admission groined, springing arches extending to which enabled him to gratify a long- the roof. The place stands silent and cherished wish. With some little ex- empty. It is one that appears to recitement our student stood upon the quire fulness of life ; but there is now Quai de l'Horloge, between the great no clash of arms, no glint of armor; round lowers, called la tour de César no groups of armed soldiers throng the and la tour d'Argent. Until 1864 the floor between the gracefully stalwart waters of the Seine washed the foot columns; and no voices are echoed by of the iron walls and the bases of the the shadowy, vaulted roof. Over a massive towers ; but now both walls stone wall which rises to about the and towers rise out of the pavement of height of a man's chin, the eye looks a tolerably broad quai which extends into the cuisines de Saint-Louis, so between the quiet river and the pictur- called, and into bare hearths and cold esque old prison. The visitor stops fire-places. The guard-chamber is picbefore a large iron doorway, which turesque and imposing in its stately contains a small door, furnished with architecture, and vividly suggests visun petit Judas, through which the jan- ions of the state and splendor of that itor can inspect him. He rings a heavy feudal royalty which needed ample milbell which, to the fancy, seems to itary watch and guard. Time, which sound with a hollow, sepulchral tone ; changes so many things, has given up and then the lesser door is opened, and the old palace of the kings to become a a French jailer appears. The present palace of justice. Palace and prison functionary — who bends over the or- were rebuilt by King Robert (1031der of admission — is a man of about 1060), and Saint Louis and Philippe le fifty, short, moderately stout, with iron Bel greatly enlarged the stately edifice ; grey hair, a sallow face, and little hard but, in the Conciergerie, one lingers eyes which look about suspiciously. almost impatiently over the relics of The student raises the foot and bows feudalism, eager to begin to see all that the head as he enters through the little is still left of the great prison of the door, and finds himself in a dark court- French Revolution. The connection yard. The wish of years is fulfilled at of the Conciergerie with the Revolulast, and he actually stands within that tionary Tribunal, and with its many Conciergerie which holds so grim a victims, is the dominant fact in the hisplace in history, in romance, and in tory of the prison. We are disposed to terrible human tragedy.

neglect its criminals in favor of its vicThe full title of the place is la Con- tins; and yet the two towers at the 1 1. L'Histoire des Prisons. Par P. J. R. Nou entrance contained the dungeons of garet. Paris, 1797.

Ravaillac and of Damiens. These two 2. Les Prisons de Paris sous la Révolution, criminals were tortured, as were othd'après les relations des Contemporains. Avec des Notes et une Introduction par C. A. Dauban. ers, in the tour de Bon-Bec, dite la BaParis, 1870

varde, dite aussi tour de Saint-Louis.

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Their dungeons in the two main towers Robespierre, of Madame Roland, of are now used as prison offices ; and André Chénier, of Madame du Barry, the cabinet du directeur is in the tour de and of other famous prisoners. The César.

cells of the old Conciergerie were occuThe Revolutionary Tribunal was in- pied by female prisoners ; males being stalled in the Conciergerie on the 2nd incarcerated in the part called l'enceinte of April, 1793 ; and its sittings were cellulaire, which is not now shown. held in the room which is now la pre- The Conciergerie was then the antemière chambre civite of the Palace of chamber of the Tribunal, and the storeJustice. With the creation of the house for the guillotine. It is to-day a dread tribunal began the last bloody act modern prison for vulgar crime, and of the French Revolution in the Con- visitors are not allowed to enter any ciergerie. The comparatively unaltered cell in which criminals are confined. and yet much altered ancient part of The cell of Madame Roland on the first the prison witnessed some of the most floor (she did not occupy it alone) was moving scenes, enclosed the most emi- thus closed because it was tenanted vent victims, contained some of the by two scoundrels. It resembles other greatest villains, of the catastrophe. cells on the same floor. A part of the That part which we are now about to prison which retains many of its old enter, still affords evidence for history, features is the yard, in which the founmaterial for romance, and stories of tain still exists at which so many ladies pathos. Even now, a visit to the Con- washed their linen and their dresses. ciergerie is sorrowful, painful, sombre. The women's court is very little alIt stirs feelings, wholly deep and some- tered, and needs only to be repeopled what morbid, at the thought of the hor- by the imagination. rors, sorrows, sufferings, lears, despair, The prisoners of the Revolution were which its dumb wails have witnessed. divided into two classes - les pistoliers, It forms a stage on which were dis- or those who could pay for a bed ; and played such agony, so much heroism, les pailleux, or those who, unable to that a sight of it excites both pity and pay anything, were herded in heaps admiration. It is haunted by phan- upon foul, never-changed straw, in toms of jailers, headsmen, and their cells on the ground-floor. The condihosts of victims. The shadow of dread. tion of the prison was insanitary and ful memories descends upon us as we indescribably foul. The place was so tread its stones.

crowded that no payment could secure From the Salle des Gardes the an- a cell for one occupant, and as many cient prison is entered through the rue beds as it would hold were crammed de Paris — a vast, dark corridor, which into une chambre dite de pistole. No in Revolution days was lined with rows part of the prison was worse than the of dismal cells always crowded to ex- infirmary. Prisoners, except those in

It has contained two hundred the cachots, were shut out of their dunand fifty prisoners at the same time. geons at eight or nine o'clock in the A frightful black couloir, with barred morning, and then resorted to the yard, gates, is this memorable passage ; and to the women's court, or to the vestithe cell of the queen is to the right bule for men. They were, or somewhen the "street

Near to it times were not, locked in their cells is the ancienne cour de la Conciergerie, about suuset, when jailers were often male and female prisoners being sepa- Arunk, and unable, even when sober, rated by a tall barrier of railings, whose to go through the form of calling over bars could not preclude tendres épanche- names. The stench of the griaches ments. From the high walls, of a dead, penetrated to the very greffe, and food dirty-white, the heavily barred windows was bad. In cold or heat, prisoners, of two upper stories of dungeons look especially the poor pailleux, were into the court. Here are the windows wretchedly off ; and their only comfort of the cells of Marie Antoinette, of was, that they would not have to wait



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