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not the whole Conciergerie itself -- since it was mostly surrounded by a was vast enough to afford space for the noisy crowd, whose filthy language disghosts of the multitudinous victims of turbed the ear by day and night. M. Robespierre. What may have been Eugène Pottet, assisted by M. Tixier, the fears, the thoughts, the torments the director of the Maison de Justice, of the wretch in those last hours ? tried to identify this first cell, but When the tumbril arrived at Robes- found the task impossible. It seems pierre's house in the Rue St. Honoré, clear that her first cell was one of the it was stopped while deliriously excited worst in the Conciergerie, and was in women danced a mad ronde of joy the worst part of the prison. Close around it; and a child sprinkled the outside it were clamor, blasphemy, disstones of Duplay's house with blood. turbance, and the reek of the smoking The Jacobins were swept aside by a of turnkeys. The removal of the poor torrent of human joy. Fouquier dis- queen to somewhat better quarters was charged his office against his old master probably due to the humanity of the and patron; and Sanson, sublimely in- concierge. After l'affaire de l'oeillet, in different to his patients, let fall the which the Chevalier de Rougeville fatal knife upon the neck of the man tried to effect the escape of the queen, who had given him so much employ- and would have succeeded but for an ment.

accident which led to discovery, RichAccording to Mercier (Le Nouveau ard was temporarily deposed, and Bault Paris), Paris, during the gloomy Ter- reigned in his stead as concierge. ror, had even ceased to dance, except And this is actually the cell of Marie occasionally round the scaffold. After Antoinette ! When the brilliant girl the fall of Robespierre, there were of fifteen was married to the dauphin, “vingt-trois théâtres, dix-huit cent hals afterwards Louis XVI., her mother, ouverts tous les jours." There were Maria Theresa, thought the future of bals à la victime, bals d'hiver ; and so her daughter “le plus brillant qu'on

; great was the popular delight at return- puisse imaginer ; " but Maria Theresa ing to the dance, that “on danse aux never saw, or foresaw, the dismal cell Carmes ; on danse au Noviciat des that we have visited. When Madane Jésuites ; on danse au Couvent des Roland, who bitterly hated Marie AnCarmélites ; on danse au Séminaire toinette, heard of the shameful indig. Saint-Sulpice. On danse encore dans nities offered to the queen at the chaque guingette des Boulevards, aux Tuileries by the mob, the Egeria of the Champs-Elysées, le long des ports ! " Girondins said, “Que j'aurais voulu

- a truly national way of expressing voir sa longue bumiliation !” She the return of joy for the removal of the could not look into this cell in order to bloody gloom of the Terror. The furies triumph over the fallen queen, because gave place to the merveilleuses, and. Egeria had also to tread the red path of dandies replaced sans-culottes. Vive la the guillotine ; but, if she could have joie ! Robespierre is dead.

done so, she would have seen Close to the little cell of Robespierre humiliation, but an imperial woman, is another and a larger cell, which is showing a courage as high-hearted as, both a dungeon and a shrine. This is and even prouder than that of the wife le cachot de Marie Antoinette, the cell of the virtuous Roland. The daughter in which the unhappy queen passed of the Cæsars fell from a loftier height the latest and the longest time of her than did the daughter of Phlipon, and stay in the Conciergerie. When she had to endure a yet deeper misery. arrived, General Custine, the soldier- The contrast between throne and dunmartyr of the Revolution, was turned geon was greater than that between out of a cell to make room for l'Autri- l'Hôtel du Ministère and a condemned chienne ; and the position of this cell, cell; though to the bitter cup of near the wicket at which prisoners saw Madame Roland may have been added their friends, was very disagreeable, the thought that she had fostered that


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Revolution which devoured its own the Jacobins were fully capable of such children, and committed many senseless brutality. The altar bears an crimes in the name of Liberty. Saint- inscription in Latin, which is thus renAmand treats the queen and Madame dered into French :Roland as 6 deux adversaires qui traitent de puissance à puissance.” This Jeanne d'Autriche, veuve de Louis XVI.,

Dans ce lieu, Marie-Antoinette Josèphe is a little exaggerated, since Marie An- après la mort de son époux et l'enlèvement toinette had no dealings with the de ses enfants, fut jetée en prison et y woman who demanded “deux têtes demeura 76 jours dans les anxiétés, dans le illustres ;” but Saint-Amand speaks deuil et dans l'abandon. Mais appuyée more truly of the “haine vouée par sur son courage, elle se montra, dans les Madame Roland à Marie Antoinette ;" fers comme sur le trône, plus grande que

hatred which he attributes, not la fortune. Condamnée à mort par des wholly wrongly, to envy.

scélérats, au moment même du trépas, elle Few can fail to feel that the cell is écrivit ici un éternel monument de piété, yet haunted by the tall figure of the de courage et de toutes les vertus, le 16

Octobre 1793. queen, wearing her mourning dress of

Vous tous qui venez ici, adorez, admirez black caraco, and, under her white cap,

et priez. bearing the proud, suffering face that Delaroche has painted. Dumb yet The dungeon contains also, though speaking, it bears witness to the un- they seem out of place there, two large manly indignities inflicted upon the modern paintings of no particular solitary and most unhappy woman. merit. The first represents la comAt one end is a heavily barred window, munion de la Reine, painted by Drolling placed high in the wall, which looks in 1817 ; the other depicts the transfer out - if it were possible to look through of the queen from the Temple to the it - upon the courtyard. Marie An- Conciergerie. The second is by Pajou, toinette was placed in solitary confine- and was painted also in 1817. The ment, and did not mix with the other latter comprises portraits, or fancy renprisoners, among whom she would derings, of Simon and his wife ; the have found many a friend, though former includes likenesses of M. some of the sans-culottes détenus ad- Magnin, Mademoiselle Fouché, and of dressed insults to her window. The two gendarmes. The cell is longer wretched place - it was specially damp than its breadth. The window has, and cold — is full of memories of the they say, been enlarged. “Que la nuit discrowned but yet most regal woman, parait longue à la douleur qui veille !" who had to bear her woes alone, with-| And what weary nights must Marie out the solace of human companionship Antoinette have passed in this bare or sympathy. On the right of the cell, with the prospect of a terrible dismal dungeon, looking towards the death always before her imagination ! window, stood the queen's bed, an She suffered specially from two dreads : ordinary small prison bed of sangle. one that she would be assassinated in An attendant slept in the cell ; and the cell; the other that, if taken to behind a paravent, or folding screen, execution, she would be toru to pieces were placed two gendarmes. There is by the mob. It needed almost supernow no furniture in the room ; but human courage to bear up against such there is the crucifix which she used ghastly apprehensions. Then, too, she before leaving for the scaffold; and was distracted by the thoughts of her there is an altar, which was erected by children, and she knew into what Louis XVIII. to the memory of the hands the young dauphin had fallen. murdered queen. In entering the cell She spent seventy-six days in the Conit is necessary to stoop, and it is said ciergerie, coming there from the Temthat this door was made lower in order ple on the night of the 2nd of August, to compel her Majesty to bow her head 1793, and leaving it for her execution before the Revolution. The chiefs of on the 16th of October, 1793.

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She was in no way dangerous to the from hæmorrhoids, but there is no Revolution ; and even the leaders of record of any attempt to procure for the Jacobins hesitated for some time to her medical assistance.

Her jewels take her life. The king was dead ; the were taken from her, and even the dauphin was being debased and slowly watch which she had brought with her killed ; they had nearly all they could from Vienna. The loss of the watch, want, and they had destroyed the direct specially dear as it was through its line of monarchs. The king's brothers associations with her youth, cost the were out of reach, and widowed Marie poor queen many silent tears. But she Antoinette might safely have been suffered no word of complaint at this allowed to retreat to Austria ; but or any other insult to pass her lips. Robespierre could refuse nothing that After she had been dethroned Marie might please the Jacobins. The people Antoinette became most truly queenly. did not desire her death, but as Riouffe All the levities of her day of glory and said, “ La France était donc sourde temptation had been burnt and purged et muette ; muette sur les actes d'un away, and sorrow and suffering rengouvernement dont elle ne connaissait dered her in every respect more noble. bien que l'ombrageuse et terrible puis- She was thirty-eight when she was exesance l'humanité a été plus de- cuted. It would seem that, from her gradée en France pendant un an (l'an entry into the prison till the day of 11 de la République) qu'elle ne l'est en her death, she was never allowed to Turquie depuis cent ans."

leave her cell. It is a little difficult to The incarceration of the queen was imagine the sad-eyed queen moving attended by all the cruelty which be- among the spectral, shifting crowd in longed to that godless and inhuman the yard ; but she would at least have time. She suffered severely from cold, found there the consolation of woman's and had to use her meagre pillow priceless tenderness. As it was, she to warm her feet. Madame Bault, was alone with sorrow. touched by the courteous dignity and The personal attendants upon the sad sufferings of the captive, applied to imprisoned queen were one Larivière, Fouquier-Tinville for more coverings a woman of eighty (“une espèce de for the queen's bed, or rather for the poissarde dont elle se plaignait fort," bed of the Veuve Capet, but the heart- says Gaulot), a young woman named less wretch replied, “How dare you Harel, and Rosalie Lamorlière, who ask for such a thing ? You yourself became profoundly attached to her deserve to be sent to the guillotine for royal mistress. The Baults bad, in doing so.” The clothes of the unfor- order to please their employers, to hide tunate lady, whose life had been accus- any pity or sympathy beneath a show tomed to splendor, were miserable, of external roughness and rudeness. worn, and insufficient. No looking. There was no chimney in the queen's glass was allowed ; but in her pity for cold cell, which had to contain her, her the queen, Rosalie Lamorlière — the female attendants, and, close by, two hearts of all the women in attendance gendarmes. The Revolutionary solupon the prisoner were more or less diers “ne sortaient jamais de la chansoftened towards her — procured a bre, pas même lorsque la Reine avait little common mirror, bought on the des besoins ou des soins naturels à se Quay for twenty-five sols d'assignats, donner." The screen was perforated

it to the queen of France, with holes to facilitate observation. who used it up to and upon the day of The bed of the queen was afterwards her death. When Marie Antoinette used by Egalité Orléans, who had voted reached her last prison, she looked for the death of his cousin the king, thin, weak, worn ; her hair had grown and, later, by the Chevalier de Bastion. grey at the temples, and her sight was The queen appeared for the first time enfeebled. One eye was indeed of but before the Revolutionary Tribunal on little use to her. She suffered much October 12, 1793, at 6 P.M. The room

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in which the Tribunal sat is now the sitting; while, as a background, Jacopremière chambre civile, and she as- bin spectators, men and women, crowd cended to it by a staircase which is now round, involuntarily half awed by the known as l'escalier de la Reine. The courage of the woman who met her place was lit only by two candles. The doom so calmly. queen's chief care was to compromise Until the last days of his tyranny, no one by her answers. Her clear, Robespierre always affected an appearcalm replies wauted nothing in diguity, ance of legality; and this even when courage, or self-possession. The sec- the only law was his own will. For ond examination and trial took place form's sake, the queen was allowed on October 14. Hermann was the counsel. She had two, Chauveaupresident; Fouquier-Tinville, the accu- Lagarde and Tronçon-Ducoudray, aud sateur public; Fabricius, the greffier. they, well knowing that the case was The jury - it is well to hand the names decided in advance, put forward such down to infamy - was composed of pleas as they dared to urge. On leav

Gannay, perruquier ; Martin Nicolas, ing the tribunal to return to her cell, imprimeur ; Châtelet, peintre ; Grenier Marie Antoinette was conducted by a Crey, tailleur ; Autonelle, ex-député; lieutenant of gendarmes, De Busne, Souberbidle, chirurgien ; Trinchard, and she said, “I can bardly see where menuisier ; Jourdeuil, ex-huissier ; Ge- I am going.” In her cell she was mon, Davez, Suard. They were all allowed pen and paper, and wrote that paid hirelings, furious Jacobins, and long farewell letter to Madame Elisamortally afraid of Fouquier-Tinville. beth which was given to FouquierThe accusation was merely a violent Tinville, and by him to Couthou, statement of loose, floating prejudice ; amongst whose papers it was found. but Hermann called the queen “ cette At five o'clock in the morning of Octomoderne Médicis." She said, with ber 16, 1793, the rappel was beaten in lofty eloquence, “ J'étais reine, et vous all the sections, and by seven o'clock m'avez detrônée. J'étais épouse, et the armed force designed to guard the vous avez fait périr mon mari. J'étais road between the Palais and the scafmère, et vous n'avez arraché mes en- fold was ready. fants. Il ne me reste que mon sang ; At eight o'clock, Rosalie assisting, abreuvez-vous en; mais ne me faites the queen changed her linen for the pas souffrir plus long-temps." In spite last time. A soldier approached aud of the nervous straiu of such a trial, looked on, “Au uom de l'honnêteté, the queen maintained her quiet, digni- permettez que je change de linge sans fied attitude. She made no appeal to temoins !” cried the outraged lady. justice or to mercy ; she eviuced no “ J'ai ordre de ne pas vous quitter de weakness ; she showed almost no vis- vue,” replied the brutal officer of the ible emotion, except when she repelled Jacobins ; and she had to manage as with noble indiguation the foul asper- she could, crouching down upon her sions thrown upon her as a mother. bed, and screened, so far as possible, As a matter of course, the jury found by Rosalie. The honest girl tells us her guilty on all counts, and she re- that the “Comité avait ordonné qu'on ceived sentence of death. It is not lui refusât toute espèce de nourriture,” hard to imagine that impressive trial on the morning of the execution ; but scene. We know the room, and can it is pleasant to know that a cup easily restore the fatal chamber to its of chocolate, “et un petit pain mistate in October, 1793. Members of gnonette,” were supplied by the charity the Revolutionary Tribunal, five judges, of Rosalie and of Mme. Bault.

The officials in heavily plumed hats and tri- Jacobins had no doubt issued their color sashes, Fouquier-Tinville, Her- chivalrous order in the hope that the mann, the squalid jury, the gendarmes, poor, fainting woman might show the prisoner, are all seen there, in the weakness in the death-cart or on the dim candle-light, in that long night scaffold, and so disgrace l'Autrichienne ;

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but their base intent was frustrated. I to the cart, she saw several of the other Robespierre and Fouquier-Tinville were prisoners in the Conciergerie, and took doubtless behind the cruel order. a farewell of them. The queen asked

At ten o'clock the turnkey, Lari. for a drivk of water ; and one prisoner, vière, was sent by the concierge into Madame Caron, brought her a cup of the cell, and to him we owe some cold water. That cup is now preserved knowledge of what passed there. She as a precious relic in the family of the said to him sadly, “Larivière, vous Comte de Reiset. She drew near to savez qu'on va me faire mourir. Dites the grim office, on her way to the portal à votre respectable mère" (the fish- at which a tumbril, drawn by a white wife could not have been present) horse, awaited her. “Voilà le moment “que je la remercie de ses soins, et de montrer du courage," said M. que je la charge de prier Dieu pour Girard. Her proud reply still echoes moi." Three judges, accompanied by through the history of the Conciergerie: the greffier Fabricius, entered the cell.“ Du courage ! il y a si long-temps The queen was kneeling in prayer que j'en fais l'apprentissage! Croyez against her little bed, but rose to re- qu'il ne m'en manquera pas aujourd'. ceive the functionaries. They told her hui ? " to attend, as her sentence was to be She was once more in the fresh, read to her. She replied, in a firm open air, and mounted the cart with voice, “Such a reading is useless; I difficulty, owing to her bound arnis. kuow the sentence only too well.” She appeared calm, and indifferent to They insisted and the clerk read the the cruel cries of the mob. Near document. At that moment Henri Saint-Roch she was foully insulted; Sanson appeared, a young man of but at the angle of the Rue Royale, the gigantic stature. He said roughly to Abbé Puget, attired as a layman, but the poor woman, “Hold out your recognizable by her, managed, to her hands.” Her Majesty retreated a step, infinite comfort, to convey to her absoand pleaded that the king had not been lution in articulo mortis. The scaffold bound. “Fais ton devoir,” cried the was not erected exactly where that of judges to Sanson. “Omon Dieu !" Louis XVI. had stood. It was placed cried the wretched queen. She thought “du côté des Tuileries, à trente mètres that she was then and there to be assas- environ du piedestal sur lequel on avait sinated. Sanson roughly seized the élevé une statue de la Liberté.” By shrinking hands, and tied them, with accident, she trodon Sanson's foot, cruel force, too tight behind her back. and, in spite of the terrors of the moShe looked up to heaven, and tried to ment, the instinct of a lady impelled restrain her tears. Her hair, when cut her to apologize to the executioner. off, Sanson thrust into his pocket, and Wheu mounting the steps of the scafit was burnt in the vestibule. So far fold, she lost a shoe, which was picked the evidence of Larivière.

up and sold for a louis. So long as it Marie Antoinette was dressed in a was possible, her eyes were raised to white peignoir, which usually served heaven. The bascule dropped, the her for a morving-gown, and wore a knife fell, and the executioner held up fichu de mousseline, crossed over her the head to show it to the mob. breast. On her head was a little plain Next comes another vision of a white linen cap. On that morning, woman's figure, clad also in white, wheu about to rejoin her husband, she standing high on that gory scaffold, would wear no mourning. A Consti- the very planks of which were saturated tutional priest, M. Girard, Curé de with blood. This one had, it is said, Saint-Landry, was appointed to attend asked on her arrival at the scaffold, for her ; but she refused his ministrations. pen and paper to write down her last All was ready, and she looked round impressions, the last thoughts of that hier cell for the last time. As she dark hour. Goethe regretted that the passed along the corridors, on her way opportunity was not afforded her, be

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