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the extreme north. This is called, Bombay coast. When appointed supertechnically, the “Great Arc Series,” intendent, he at once took up the and it is fifteen hundred and forty“ Great Arc,” which in 1824 he carried miles in length. Lambton first carried up to Sironj, where he measured a the triangulation southwarıls to Cape base-line. Then he had to go liome to Comorin, where a base of verification recruit, and was absent for five years, was measured ; and then, in 1811, be- during which the assistants carried on gan to work northward from Banga- a chain of triangles east and west, lore. But he was also working east known as the “ Calcutta Longitudinal” and vest, and by the year 1815 had series. This series was completed on laiil down a complete network of tri- a measured base-line of verification at angles between Madras, Bangalore, Calcutta in 1832. This was, however, and the Godavery River, although he after Everest had returned to the head was kept very short of money, and was of affairs, and had taken out with him constantly being harassed by govern- the new Colby measuring apparatus, nent officials, who could not be made which was for the first time in India to understand the utility of his oper- applied to the Calcutta base-line. ations.

Then the “Great Arc" series of triLambton had not only pecuniary angulations was resumed with arilor, difficulties and official opposition to as forming the main axis of the trigocontend with. The country was in a nometrical survey. A great deal of stale of political disturbance. Yet he the work had to be done during the succeeded in demonstrating not only rainy season, for the sake of the clearer that the accepted breadth of the pe- atmosphere then, but at the cost of ninsula at Madras was forty miles much loss of health and life to the wrong, but also that Arcot was ten surveying party. In traversing the miles out of place on the maps ; and plains, permanent towers had to be that Hyderabad was eleven minutes in erected to gain the necessary elevillatitude and thirteen minutes in longi- tion, and this involved tremendous tude wrong. The disturbed condition labor and delay. There were between of central India caused a suspension of Sironj and the hills seventeen of these the “Great Arc” series of surveys for towers, each fifty feet higli, and each a while, and Lambton went south again containing a stone platform, on which to complete the network of triangles the instruments miglit rest without there. Later, he resumed the “Great vibration. They were at great disArc," and broke down under the severe tances apart, and a special system of exertion and exposure on the survey signalling, both for day and night, had between II yderabad and Nagpore. He to be devised. died at a lonely spot in the Central A party was sent on ahead to prepare Provinces, on the 20th of January, a site for a terminal " base of verilicil1823, and a modest pillar now marks lion” to complete the “Great Arc” the place where lies the body of the series. The site was selected in the father of the Great Indian Survey. Dehra Doon Valley, between the Se

Colouel Lambton died at the age of walik lills and the Himalayas. When seventy, and he had been twenty-one the calculations were corrected, the difyears engaged exclusively on this great ference at the base-line as between work. His operations comprised a tri- triangulation and actual measurement angulation of 165,342 square miles, at was only seven inches and one-fifth. a cost of £83,537. He was succeeded This slows how careful was the work, by Colonel Everest, whose memory is and how accurate the instruments. perpetuated in the name of one of the But some other verifications had to be highest summits of the Himalayas. made ; and it was 1841 before the Everest, indeed, had been for some “Great Arc," the central meridional years Lambton's chief assistant, and survey of India, was completed. It had carried the “gridirou " along the lis a stretch of fifteen hundred and


forty miles ; it comprises an area of filling up the triangles with details bas triangulation about fifty-seven thousand been industriously going on. The gridsquare miles, and the triangulation had iron is the skeleton upon which every occupied nearly forty years.

contour and feature of the country In the same year (1841) the Bombay has to be impressed. The whole syslongitudinal series was also completed, tem of the Indian Survey now rests extending a distance of three hundred upon ten measured base-lines, all now and fifteen miles, and comprising an revised with the Colby apparatus area within the triangulation of 15,198 namely, at Cape Comoriu, Bangalore, square miles.

Beder, Sironj, and Delira Doon ; Now had to be undertaken a series Calcutta and Sonakoda ; at Altock, of parallel meridional chains to the Karachi, and Vizagapatam. 6 Great Arc" with cross-connections The Great Indian Trigonometrical to complete the “gridiron." Colonel Survey has been a marvel of patient Everest retired in 1843, broken down persistence and of resolute grappling in health ; and it was he who intro- with obstacles of the most stupendous duced the gridirou or intersecting chains kind. It remains a model of precision of triangles, in preference to the con- and accuracy, certainly not the least tinuous network with which operations noble of the monuments to British began in the south.

skill, energy, and devotion to duty. The work of the several chains or arcs, has been carried on by different parties, and under successive leaders, from year to year. The mortality

Froin Temple Bar. among the officials of the



CHINESE GENTLEMEN AND VIRTUOSOS. been very heavy ; and the swamps and You must know that the Chinese is jungles of India have exacted fearful far more commonly a virtuoso than tribute for the imposition of the meas

And a Chinese collector is a real uring-chain. It would take too long, connoisseur. He has no idea of beauty and would be too tedious to name all - except to eye it suspiciously as probthe technical and territorial divisions ably of Japanese or other foreign of the work; but we may say that origin ; all he worships is age. And the “ North-eastern Himalayan” series

mark this most curious trait - anformed a sort of cap to the whole, by tiques of his own country only. What connecting the northern ends of the a conservatism to boast of this ! The several chains of triangles, and form- Chinese scholar and virtuoso has the ing a sort of framework for the griil- profoundest admiration for his own iron. This Himalayan series includes country's ancient literature and art. some of the highest mountains in the He will not deign to have anything world, whose heights and distances had foreign or new on his shelves. I think to be determined — including Mount this is somewhat of a rebuke to us, Everest, twenty - nine thousand feet bunting for relics of cvery country but above the sea. East and west, north our own. It puts us on the stand of and south, the work of triangulation nouveaux riches. And don't thiuk that bas proceeded since the completion of a Chinaman spends nothing on his colthe “ Great Arc” without intermis- lection. He will outbid the vulgarest sion, save during the Mutiny ; and in millionaire in the world for a genuine 1883, the main triangulation, or gridiron, old bronze or porcelain. His collection was completed over an area of a mile is not built up in a day by wholesale lion square miles. But since then, the commissions given to dealers. His is chains have been extended eastwards bought piece by piece as opportunity into Burma, and westwards towarls and finances allow. The collection Beluchistan and Afghanistan ; while made by a single man's lifetime is all the time, as the framework was nothing. You will see pieces in his being built up, and since, the work of catalogue bought by father and grand


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father and remote ancestors. They are that the Chinese is a man of remarkheirlooms. They are passed down ably refined and ästhetic ideas. The from father to sou. They are the type of cultivated man, as represented mark of education and noble birth ; in the novels and poetry, is one who because the only nobility there is edu- retires from official life to some quiet cation and official rank, and noble birth hillside temple, where he sits at an is being the descendants of ancestors open casement gazing out on quiet who have held office and taken de trees and listening to the songs of birds. grees. An heirloom of a choice bit of On the table before him is a vase with porcelain proves education and wealth a rose, or hyacinth, or chrysanthemum, in the purchaser. Does this not make and teapot and open book and pen, you feel rather new, with your two- where he is composing poetry. There penny fans and plates on the wall ? he lives, the world forgetting by the

In a native city like Yangchow (na- world forgot, studying the classics and tive means a Chinese town where no poets, and composing. At times he foreigners reside, and seldom visited will gather a few friends to a cup of by them ; that is to say, some other wine or a night's conversation on art than the treaty ports) in Yangchow, and philosophy ; but he tinds his soul's the bric-à-brac dealers look with dis- contentment in the study of books and favor on foreign purchasers. They nature. know it is displeasing to their patrons. Now this is an idyllic type rare It seems like desecration that the in- among nations. The Chinese have a norant trading and fighting barbarian grand old literature and philosophic should imitate their polite hobby. books by the side of which Plato and They are still more angry when they the Memorabilia of Socrates and Christ find he has been spying out the land, seem mere brochures. The Chinese and has got books with the seals and are essentially a literary and ästhetic descriptive words. It is as we feel, if people, although they too can boast we are poor but ardent critics, when of many campaigns and architectural we look over the collection of books monuments. Their public buildings in and paintings bought ou retirement by brick are few; but those in mud still a gentleman whose youth was spent in fill us with admiration. Their tradisomewhat different pursuits. The poor tions are wholly opposed to ours ; I do man is inclined to throw up his hobby. not say their character, because I beWhat is the good of me, he cries, who lieve it is so strongly imitative as to have an educated and hereditary taste become as energetic and enterprising and discernment in these things, spend as

under the iconoclastic ing my rare and hard-earned cash in impulse of Western (I do not say civa single specimen, when this man, ilized) ideas. It is this encroaching whose judgment has exercised itself contact of these manners and ideas so all his life in “dosset," flings down a opposed to their traditions that causes cheque for a thousand pounds, and tells the intense hatred that they as a nation his dealer to “get him á roomful of feel for us. For their traditions are them China knick-knacks ; good ’uns, very old, very theoretical. Barbarous mind !” This is the feeling a Chinese traditions grown up in the rough pracgentleman would liave on viewing our tice of life are more easily displaced public collections, although he would than those which have their roots imcertainly show nothing but the po- bedded in an ancient but evergreen litest admiration. Further acquaint- philosophical literature. But when the auce would of course convince him that public examinations, on which success we are no “new men” in our appre- in life depends, shall cease, no matter ciation of antiques ; but I do not think by what blow, to confine themselves to he would for that regard us as a brother. Chinese classics alone, then gentleman He is too nationally conceited.

John will become as laborious, docile, Yes, it will be new to some to learn and enterprising in modern war and



finance and policy, and military and obvious as to make nou-observance industrial methoils and training, as forced. humble coolie John already is in shop- I remember once I was endeavoring keeping in San Francisco and Australia to get hold of a sea-slug away in the and the Straits. Then we shall have to middle of the table ; when I did grip it look out.

with the chopsticks I cut it in half ; I believe that China is irresistibly one minute ; no notice. I got one, and the coming race.

dropped it half way; no remark, exBritishers insist on shootivg-boots cept a lively continuation of the conand nothing to do with natives. In- versation. I tried again — I was fond stead of being of no importance, of them. My under chopstick slipped, personal appearance and dress is every- and I flipped the soup and half a slug thing on a first introduction among across the table. " Allow me," said Chinese, just as it is elsewhere ; and my host; “ that's a slippery customer, Chinese favorably impressed, and not but far too good to let go for want of insulted by disregard of convenances, a net," and he handed me over one in can be very pleasant hosts. In fact, I a spoon. “I am extremely fund of have found the saying a true one, that them myself; but I never attempt the the Chinese are the politest nation in chopsticks. I like to get a good mouththe world. But don't be frightened by rul, so I use my spoon.” Of course he the tremendous formality that the had never done so in his life. Of books talk about. In half an hour, if course he commenced eating them you are gay yourself, every constraint himself — with a spoon. Fortunately disappears and jollier companions could I recollected a puu on spoons and ponot be found. They have that genuine liteness, and brought it out, full of politeness that annihilates constraint. wrong toues and Wadified conceits. Full of tact, they do not press you with The most hearty good mirth followed ; attentions or observe by the slightest the dinner was as heartily enjoyable sign your mistakes in language or eti- and full of real fun and laughter as if quelle. Uuless your mistake is so we had beeu old chums reunited.

STRINGS or THOUGHT. - It is not easy / work out complex calculations. Combined to imagine ourselves without the means of with oral tradition, and working by the communication furnished by the twenty- laws of association, the guipu preserved four letters of the alphabet. How could the annals of the Peruvian Empire. Yet we carry on our business? And, indeed, with this imperfect substitute for writing those races who are ignorant of writing and notation, the Peruvians advanced to a have remained in a state of barbarism. degree of civilization which, though in The ancient Peruvians were an exception some respects inferior to that of their to this rule, but they were not altogether Spanish conquerors, was in others dewithout a means to communicate their cidedly superior. They constructed magthoughts to those absent. They trans- nificent roads, they maintained an elaborate mitted their ideas by means of the guipu. religion, they constructed solid and elegant The Panama Star and Herald says : “ The buildings, they overcame the difficulties of instrument was a cord about two feet long, their arid climate by means of a stupencomposed of threads of different colors dous system of irrigation, their aqueducts tightly twisted together, and with a num- being among the wonders of the world, and ber of smaller threads suspended from it in they cultivated the fine arts with some the manner of a fringe. The colors de success. One proof of their advanced civnoted sensible objects and even abstract ilization is the fact that the ponulation of ideas. Arithmetical purposes were served Pern under the Incas was twelve times by knots tied in the threads, indicating greater than it is at the present day. ciphers ; they could be associated so as to

Sixth Series,
Volume VI.

No. 2649. – April 13, 1895.

From Beginning,

Vol. COV.


78 87

I. ROBERT SOUTIEY. By George Saints-
bury, .

Macmillan's Magazine',

Blackwood's Magazine,

William Greswell,

Fortnightly Reriew,
By Emily Lawless,

Nineteenth Century, .
TYROL. By A. E. W. Mason,

Temple Bar,

The Great Citoyenne (Madame Roland).
By M. Dale,

Chambers' Journal,





118 127

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