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up to the limits of the province of strictest interpretation of those words, Chieng-Kheng, to which British rights in such a distant portion of the globe, have revived. These limits bave never remote from the ordinary means of been accurately ascertained, and one of access, out of reach of the telegraph, the duties imposed upon the joint and inhabited by an uncivilized popugeographical commission, now at work lation, would appear to be a danger in those regions, is to ascertain the rather than a security both to France limits of that province.
and to Great Britain. It might become By the protocol of 31st July, 1893, the resort of the ill-conditioned, the Great Britain and France have agreed fugitives and the bandits of the neighin principle to the constitution of a boring provinces, and a base of opneutral zone or buffer state between erations which they might use for their possessions, and by a subsequent incursions of a predatory character agreement a breadth of about eighty against the more law-abiding inhabkilometres has been assigned to such itants of contiguous states. Such a intermediary zone. Great Britain is state of things must rapidly lead to prepared to throw into this zone that trouble and friction. Even the narrow portion of the Chieng-Kheng State strip of neutral ground which divides which lies beyond the Mekong, i.e., Gibraltar from Spain is a source of on the left or eastern bank of the constant trouble and difficulty both to river. France, however, does not ap- the Spaniards and ourselves. If pear to be content with a state of troubles arise between two highly civilthings which would leave Great Brit-|ized powers over a few acres of No ain on the banks of the Mekong, whilst Man's Land situated under the very leaving her at a considerable distance eyes of Europe, is it not probable or from the river.
even certain that in a remote region, By the same protocol, Great Britain peopled by wild races, where every and France agreed to constitute the trilling incident is liable to be grossly neutral zone by means of “mutual exaggerated in its passage from mouth sacrifices and concessions." We have to mouth, we are laying up for ourindicated the “ sacrifices and conces- selves a sure heritage of difficulty and sions” which we are prepared to make, of danger ? Mr. G. Curzon, M.P., viz., the trans-Mekong portion of the than whom few men are better qualiChieng-Kheng State. It now rests fied to speak upon this matter, has with France to show her good faith already in the House of Commons deand her intention to carry out the nounced the establishment of this agreement of 31st July, 1893, by indi- neutral zone as a delusion. In the cating the “sacrifices and concessions” absence of any State with sufficient which she is prepared to make in re- authority to establish and maintain turn. Both parties are of one mind as order, to which this neutral zone could to the undesirability of becoming next. be handed over, and whose peaceful door neighbors in this remote region of possession of it could be mutually guarthe world, but if France expects us to anteed, there seems to be a rock ahead make any further retrograde movement of us of no inconsiderable dimensions, in order that she may advance, she will to avoid which will demand the expebe disappointed.
rience and skill of the most accomThe commissioners representing the plished diplomatic pilots. We have two powers are now on the spot and at already handed over to China the proywork, and until their reports are re-ince of Chieng-Kung, which is astride ceived the question of the boundaries of the Mekong, but higher up the river and character of the buffer state is than Chieng-Kheng, and China would presumably dormant. It will, how naturally have been the power to which ever, on its revival doubtless prove the buffer state could have been handed thorny and complicated. For the mere over for administration and control. establishment of a neutral zone, in the But the collapse of China in the re
cent war has revealed her inherent carried out by Siam, France still reweakness, and has rendered such a mains in possession of Chantaboon. solution impossible.
It is a somewhat singular coincidence The settlement of the question seems that, on the very day upon which the to lie in granting to Siam the control of treaty and the convention were signed the proposed buffer state, and at the at Bangkok, M. Develle had a conversame time joining with France in a sation with Lord Dufferin in Paris, in guarantee to Siam of the future integ, which he (M. Develle) assured our an. rity of her possessions. This is a solu- bassador that the French government tion which Great Britain would accept ; desired no better than to evacuate the but would France do so ?
place, as it was a most inconvenient The question of the retrocession to statiou for troops, and that as the conSiam of the port of Chantaboon is one vention stipulated that Siamese troops in which Great Britain is less directly were to be removed from the Mekong interested than in the constitution of a within a month, "within a month, buffer state. The importance of Chan- therefore, Chantaboon would be evactaboon, however, lies in the fact that uated.” Eighteen months have now it is the outlet of the rich provinces passed since that statement was made, of Battambong and Angkor through and yet there is no sign of withdrawal. which, and through which alone, the Soon after the expiration of the month, trade with these provinces can be car- Lord Dufferin pointed out to M. Deried
on, and is the seat of the pepper velle that, the Siamese troops having trade, now in British hands. The his- been removed from the Mekong, the tory of the occupation by the French of time had arrived for the stipulated this port cau be soon told. When the withdrawal of French troops from Siamese finally decided to accept the Chantaboon; and, in reply, M. DeFrench ultimatum France demanded velle said that he would at once telethe occupation of the town and river graph to the French agent at Bangkok of Chantaboon until the complete and with a view of, if possible, fixing a pacific evacuation of all positions on date for the evacuation of Chantaboon, the left bank of the Mekong had been which, he said, “ without doubt, would carried out. To these terms Siam as- be very prompt." These assurances sented on the 1st August, 1893, and on were renewed in November, 1893, but the 3rd August Baron d'Estournelles, from that time to the present moment, the French chargé d'affaires in En- although Siam has, on her part, carried gland, announced that orders had been out every one of the articles of the sent to occupy the port simultaneously treaty and accompanying convention, with the raising of the blockade of the France bas, so far as the public are mouth of the Menam. The town, fort, aware, shown no signs of her intention and river of Chantaboon were accord- to fulfil the obligation of withdrawal ingly occupied by French and Anna- into which she has entered. mite troops. The convention executed by Siam and France at the same time
NEWFOUNDLAND, as the treaty, viz., 3rd October, 1893, THE controversy respecting the declared in Art. VI. that
Treaty Shore of Newfoundland, and
the nature of the French rights of fishThe French government shall continue ery thereon, takes us back almost two to occupy Chantaboon until the execution centuries in the world's history. The of the stipulations of the present Conven-root of the matter lies in the interpretion, and more especially until the complete tation of the 13th Article of the Treaty evacuation and pacification both of the left bank and of the zones designated in Art. of Utrecht, 1713, and of a declaration III. of the treaty of this day's date.
of George III., dated 3rd September,
1783. By the former instrument it was Notwithstanding the fact that all agreed that the island of Newfoundthese stipulations have long since been land should thenceforward belong of right wholly to Great Britain, but that salmon fishery ; whilst the British gorthe subjects of France should be al- ernment have always maintained that lowed to catch fish and dry them on the French have no right to the fishland on a part of the coast duly speci- eries in rivers. fied. The latter instrument declared During the last half century negotiathe intention of his Majesty, King tions have been almost uninterruptedly George III.,
carried on - commissions have been to take the most positive measures for pre
appointed, coinmissioners have met,
conferences have been held, agreeventing his subjects from interrupting in any manner by their competition, the ments have been drafted, conventions fishery of the French during the temporary
have been signed, many a modus exercise of it, which is granted to them vivendi has come into force - and yet upon the coasts of the island of Newfound- the points in dispute remain as far land, and that he will cause the fixed set- from a settlement as ever. It would tlements which shall be formed there to be be wearisome to recapitulate even a removed (and) give orders that the French tithe of the history of these negotiafishermen be not incommoded in cutting tions, which have almost invariably wood necessary for the repair of their scaf- pursued an identical course. Whenfolds, huts, and fishing vessels.
ever the governments of Great Britain Subsequent treaties have from time and France have been on the point of to time included references to this an amicable settlement, the governquestion, but not of such a nature as ment of Newfoundland have refused materially to affect the respective their assent to the proposed terms, and rights accruing under the Treaty of have dashed to the ground any hopes 1713, and the Declaration of 1783. of a permanent solution. The original Under them France clainis an exclu- points in dispute bave been complisive right of fishery upon the Treaty cated by the discovery and the developShore, and that all British fixed settle- ment of the industry of the lobster ments of whatever nature on that por- fishery, which has necessitated the tion of the coast are contrary to treaty. erection of permanent buildings upon Great Britain, on the other hand, bas the shore. maintained that British subjects have a Eventually an agreement was arrived right to fish concurrently with the at between the British and French French, so long as they do not inter- governments, and signed on the 11th rupt the latter, and that the undertak- March, 1891, constituting an arbitration ing in the Declaration of 1783 to cause tribunal for the purpose of deciding, in the removal of fixed settlements, re- the first place, whether lobsters are ferred only to fixed fishing settlements, fish within the meaning of the Treaty and that fixed settlements of any other of Utrecht, and subsequently, after the kind are not contrary to the Declara- solution of this important question of tion.
natural history and international law, Such being the opposing contentions of deciding other subsidiary questions of the two powers, it is not to be relative to the fisheries on the Treaty wondered at that practical difficulties Shore of Newfoundland. That tribushould have occurred between their val of arbitration has not yet met, and, respective subjects on the spot. read by the light of five years of subse
The inhabitants of Newfoundland quent history, the last clause of the have been desirous of developing the agreement, “ It shall meet as soon as resources of their country as regards possible,” sounds somewhat ironical. mines, agriculture, and other indus- The cause of the delay is due to the tries ; but have been met by the objec- fact that the French Government bave tions of France. French fishermen refused to ratify the agreement on the have been in the habit of fishing the ground that they are not satisfied that rivers, and of barring them with nets, the colonial government would adeand thereby causing great injury to the quately provide for the execution of the arbitration convention, and they | wrongly, taken. When, however, that are not prepared to accept the legisla- is assured, there will be no further tive acts of the colony as a sufficient excuse for delay in referring the points guarantee for the execution of the con- in dispute to arbitration. vention. Lord Salisbury stoutly combated the
CONCLUSION. right of France to concern herself with HAVING sketched in outline some of the methods by which the award of the the chief topics of controversy between arbitrators would be carried into effect. ourselves and our nearest neighbors, it France is entitled to look to Great only remains, in conclusion, to add that Britain for a fulfilment of her engage- there is no reason to apprehend any
а ments, and when the time comes Great but an amicable solution to each and all Britain will be prepared to take all of these questions. During the last such steps as may be necessary to dis- four or five years, however, we bare charge her obligations. The House of become conscious of the growth of an Commons passed a resolution in 1891, irritable and unpleasant feeling in declaring its readiness to support the France towards ourselves, although we government in taking all necessary have been, and still are, wholly unconmeasures for carrying out the treaty scious of its cause. No such feeling is liabilities of this country, and all the at present reciprocated from this side arrangements for arbitration made with of the Channel. In some respects we the government of France in this mat- have exhibited the most careful conter. So the matter was left in 1891, sideration and the most scrupulous reand there it remaius uow.
gard for the policy and aims of French The contention of Lord Salisbury is governments. In Siam, for instance, incontrovertible. We are prepared to where our trade interests were very enforce whatever regulations, if any, directly and injuriously affected by the may be imposed upon us by the arbi- events of the summer of 1893, we tration award, but we are not prepared placed no impediment in the path of to have our acts of Parliament drafted French requirements or demands. The by the French Foreigu Office. A blue-book teems with despatches from modus vivendi has been found, and has Lord Rosebery to the Siamese govern. been renewed from year to year, under ment urging moderation, and counselwhich fishing operations have been ling the acceptance of the French carried on upon the Treaty Shore dur- terms. In Madagascar, again, it would ing the last five or six years, but this not have been difficult to throw obstate of things cannot continue forever. stacles in the way of France, and to It is eminently desirable, in the in- have created for her some diplomatic terests of both countries, as well as in entanglements ; but, so far as we were the interests of Newfoundland, that concerned, she has had a free hand; this sore should be healed. The means she has been at liberty to go to work in whereby a solution may be arrived at her own way, while we have held our have been agreed upon, and the whole peace, and abstained from all commatter only awaits the ratification of ment, though to some of us this abthe French Legislature to be in a fair stiuence has been almost exasperating. way towards a final settlement. The All that we ask in returu is that she financial breakdown of the colony will approach the questions which still must, however, retard for the present divide us in a reasonable and friendly any further progress. Until the future spirit, with a sincere desire for a settleposition of Newfoundland, either as a ment, an appreciation of our position crown colony or as an integral part of and difficulties as well as of her own, the Dominion of Canada is determined and a recognition that, as one of the upon and carried into execution, there oldest and most successful colonizing is little chance of an alteration in the nations of the world, we have certain position which France has, as we think rights in Africa, in Asia, and in
America, which no British government antly enough for us juniors in the milcould surrender, and by which the itary world, there was an undercurrent British people are determined to stand. of uneasiness amoug the Castle authorJAMES W. LOWTHER. ities and the army staff. The Fenian
conspiracy had developed itself, and it was not known how far it had really spread among the people. The Amer
ican Civil War was not long finished, From Blackwood's Magazine. and many desperadoes, with practiA FENIAN SPY.
cal military training, had been turned IN 186, the 200th lay in the Liffey loose upon the world. Many of these Barracks in Dublin. I believe these were ill-disposed Irishmen, who were old quarters have been pretty well re- ready to join any rebellious outbreak, built now, and I dare say I should not and to give the benefit of their experiknow the place again. When we were as leaders to their countrymen there it was before the days of sanita- who belonged to the organization and tion, and though we had a fine lot of were said to be ready to rise. There men, there were always a number of were whisperings of midnight drills, sick. The mist used to roll up from of collections of arms, and of prethe river, and carried with it a most concerted signals which should set appalling smell. The barrack-rooms the country in a blaze from one end were crowded in the old-fashioned way, to the other. But if uneasiness was the drains had been made fifty years felt, energetic action was not wantbefore, and I fancy the water-supply ing. If any two Irishmen conspire, was about as bad as it could be. The there is always at least one of them word typhoid was not known then, but ready to sell information about the undoubtedly we had a very familiar ac- plot to the government, and this time quaintance with the article. Several was to be no exception to the general of our men found a last resting-place rule. We were electrified one morning in the cemetery, and young Devereux by hearing that the Fenian head-centre and Milton lay at the point of death for Wilkins and others had been suddenly weeks. If it had not been for the de- arrested and safely lodged in Kilmainvotion and fatherly care of old Mac- ham jail. A few days later it was the pherson, our surgeon, they would never turn of the military authorities to show have sat at the mess-table again. that they were not to be caught nap
But those who were not sick had a ping, and some gentlemen, who had deal of fun. Cars and cabs were rat- intended to make a demonstration in a tling along the stinking old quays pretty southern county, found to their disgust constantly between the barracks and an infantry detachment strolling on the the fashionable part of the town. same ground as themselves, which was There was yachting at Kingstown, hard-hearted enough to fire upon them cricket in the Phenix, and no end of and show them that rebellion was not garden-parties and cheery gatherings such a simple matter as they had exof sorts in the town and country. The pected. In Dublin we had extra colonel, too, was not a man to let the pickets ready to act by night and day, reputation of the regiment in the field and if any of the scoundrels there had suffer at his hands, and when his made up their minds to break out, they bucketing field-days were added to the would have received " what for” in a weekly brigade and divisional parades, very peremptory and effective manner. the captains of troops found their souls To most of us, however, all this was exercised within them at the way in only a pleasant element of excitement which the old troop-horses lost flesh in our lives, and beyond the additional and began to show the “poor man's duties and the undeniable hardship of mark” on their quarters.
having to go on picket in the early But while life was going on pleas- I morning after dancing at some party