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belong several native preachers or assistants, who have enjoyed large opportunities of theological training, compared with their converted countrymen, and are also not a little practised in the actual work of preaching. Some of these, it is expected, will shortly be set apart more formally to the work of the ministry by the laying on of hands of the presbytery. The opening of Burmah has set before them also an open door, and no man can shut it; and more than one have exhibited a praiseworthy readiness to enter in, and reap and gather

unto eternal life. Two or more assistants, unordained, will remain in the city to aid the missionaries, Messrs. Haswell and Bixby, who will give themselves especially to the preaching of the word and to prayer. Their field is very broad, embracing the Maulmain Province southward to Yé, and Martaban on the north, too broad, if regarded by itself alone. But Burmah must not be neglected, and Messrs. Simons and Stevens, whatever the demand here, are more needed in and above Rangoon.


Karen Mission premises. I have passed several days at different times with the Karen Mission. Their premises are a mile and a half or two miles from the Burman Mission, on the opposite side of the not very high hill that skirts Maulmain on the east, the road to them crossing the ridge near the Great Pagoda. The grounds are well laid out, and the general arrangement of the buildings seems judicious and in good taste. Opinions have been divided as to the wisdom of selecting these

EAKER-SMITH-ANDREW grounds for a mission station, chiefly on the score of health. They lie low, and at flood tide in the rains are, or were, mostly covered with water. They are exposed also, on the south and east, to the full force of the wind. Thus far experiment has been in their favor; and if not conclusive till further trial, we may hope will eventually be so. I say hope, for, after some alternations of feeling, my conclusion is, that, health granted, there is no place more suitable for the Karen Mission. (I do not say that when originally

proposed it should have been taken.) | goon, and, more late, the return of Mr

The compounds, Sgau and Pwo, are furnished with four dwelling-houses, a chapel, school houses and dormitories; in short, with all the appurtenances indispensable to such an establishment for the purposes intended. I should regret their abandoument, to be laid waste. A large Burman population (2000 to 3000) have settled in front of it, but are too separate to cause serious inconvenience; while they furnish a good opportunity for Burmese preaching. Karens have easy access to the premises from the river; their boats are readily moored in them; they know the place and are at home there. In other respects the establishment is more retired than it could be on the Burman Mission compounds, and therefore more free to do its own work, which is not an evil; while the ingress and egress on foot, not always convenient, is becoming quite feasible. With these statements, Newton, for so the station is sometimes called, is as to outward appearance not to be lightly called a travesty of the Newton from which it is named. In sober truth, look which way you will, it is to my perhaps partial eye a place of singular beauty "where every prospect pleases," of God's workmanship. But this beauty of the outward has no beauty, in this respect, by reason of the inward "that excelleth." Within this establishment, and to be subject to its moulding and quickening influences, are the germs for the enlightening and saving of the Karen people. Here is the school of the prophets, the future pastors and teachers, to carry knowledge and salvation to the vil ages of the wilderness, along the water courses and among the hills. The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them. The beginning is even now to be seen, and the end is sure.

Changes in the Mission.

The operations of the mission have been interrupted the past year, especially in its theological and normal schools, by the removal of Mr. Vinton to Ran

Moore to the United States in consequence of ill health, leaving the sole charge to the only remaining member of the mission, Mr. Harris. In addition to this, several changes were being projected in the internal administration of the schools, having in view the more exclusive, and so more effective prosecution of the primary ends in view. These changes to some extent have been made, and will, it is expected, go more fully into operation at the opening of the next year. As an almost necessary consequence, the number in attendance at the schools has been diminished, and the courses of study somewhat varied. The theological class, in present charge of Dr. Wade, who at the unanimous request of his brethren consented to take it, now numbers fourteen, including, however, some not fully recognized as candidates for the ministry. Six others are daily expected from Bassein and as many more from Rangoon. The normal school has twenty-five pupils, in care of Mrs. Wade, relieved in English branches by the missionaries recently arrived, who are occupied mainly in the study of the Karen language. These arrangements, in part temporary, were seemingly imperative and to be made without delay. From the causes already mentioned, and others, Karens had taken alarm, and rumors of desertion and abandonment were spreading wide and far in the jungles. To abate this alarm and restore confidence and strengthen the things that remained, appeal was made to one not unknown of old time in the missions, who "naturally cared " for the Karens. Dr. Wade was then pastor of the Burmese church. The appeal was not in vain. He at once removed to Newton, and the schools are sustained. The mission consists at the present time of Messrs. Wade, Hibbard and Whitaker. If Mr. Binney is prevented from coming, Dr. Wade is expected to retain his relations to the mission and the theological school, provided his health will permit.

New station.

Mr. Harris is among the few designated to Burmah Proper. He leaves for Shwaygyeen in the Sitang valley on the 12th, for the purpose of exploration. Should this prove satisfactory, Shwaygyeen, or Toungoo, a hundred miles further, will be the centre of another wide field, rivalling in richness any now under our culture. Mr. Harris's route is

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up the Salwen two tides, or about fifty miles, to Kyouk-sarit, thence by Beling creek westward to Sitang river, and by the Sitang or across the lowlands to The Shwaygyeen. height of the rains" is said to be more safe for travel than their beginning or close, when the evaporation would be greater, and more practicable, as the waters are more abundant. Mr. Brayton, it is expected, will be associated with Mr. Harris, taking the Pwo department. There will also be native assistants, both Burmese and Karen. Shwaygyeen is distant from Maulmain, by the direct land route, about 140 miles; but nearer doubtless to Rangoon and on the direct road to Toungoo.

I must close this long letter to complete my preparations for departure; but not without expressing, however imperfectly, the rich gratification I have had month by month in the society of our missionary friends here, not only because receiving so large and unintermitted manifestations of personal kindness, but more especially as gaining daily fresh proofs of their attachment to the cause that brought them hither, and of their reliableness for whatever God may call them to do or suffer for its advancement. While the convention was in session, Maulmain gathered within itself the interest of the entire field. But it has and ever will have an interest of its own.


Let it not be forgotten be

"Burmah is`open," but brought continually, missionaries, churches, schools, and these thousands yet unevangelized, into remembrance before God.

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LETTER FROM MR. GRANGER. Division of labor by the Deputation. Rangoon, Sept. 7, 1853. — We came here in the monthly steamer from Maulmain, Aug. 21, and on the 26th I left for Prome in company with Mr. Kincaid. We returned yesterday, having been gone just a fortnight.

I much regretted that I could not have the company of my colleague on 'this excursion. It had been our purpose to go together. But on reaching Rangoon we found that our time for remaining in Burmah was limited to a single month, and that so much was to be done that it could be accomplished only by dividing our labors for a short period. It was the best thing we could do under the circumstances. Dr. Peck was able to prosecute his inquiries here with reference to Rangoon and the adjoining country, and to make himself acquainted with the working of our missions at this place.

This arrangement necessarily required. us to relinquish our original intention to visit the mission at Bassein. But this was justified by the importance to be attributed to our obtaining accurate information of the present condition of those large portions of the newly acquired provinces where no missions at present exist. Besides this, we were informed that the unsettled state of the country rendered it unsafe for us to proceed to Bassein in a native boat across the delta. Although a steamer was then about to leave Rangoon for Bassein in which we might have gone, it was impossible to ascertain when a similar opportunity to return would present itself. Accordingly we decided to write to Mr. Beecher, the only missionary in the field, save Dr. Mason, whom we had not seen, inviting him to come to Rangoon by the first safe opportunity. He has replied that he will be here on the 9th or 10th inst. The result, so far as can now be ascertained, justifies our decision.

Mr. Kincaid and the English officers.

I esteemed it a great advantage to have the company of Mr. Kincaid. Besides

Divine providences towards Burmah.

The providences of God towards Burmah have been most marked. He has

employed the very sufferings of his deliverance. The return of our missionchildren as a means of effecting their aries was most timely. After meeting innumerable checks and annoyances from the local government at Rangoon, and threats which would have dismayed many a bold heart, a royal order came down from the capital and was publicly read in presence of the governor's court, inviting the missionaries to proceed to Ava, and forbidding all interference with their work.

Our brethren were busily engaged in making preparations to leave, had purchased one boat and were negotiating for another, when Commodore Lambert came up to Rangoon with the Fox and an armed steamer. But for the opposition which so long hindered their progress, they would have been beyond the reach of British protection, and the result of the war might have been very different from what it has been.

his knowledge of the country, the people | of Christians protection against such and their language, he has been an eye atrocities as had heretofore been shown witness of the recent changes, and was to them. personally known to nearly all the civil and military officers at the different points on the river. Without departing from his appropriate work or compromising his position as a missionary, he was able, during the trying scenes which accompanied the breaking out of the late war, to render valuable assistance both to the authorities and to the cause which he came here to serve. The facts which he was able to communicate respecting the country and the character and policy of its rulers, were made the basis of many of those general operations which have resulted in freeing so large a portion of the empire from the most despotic government in Asia, and of securing the inestimable boon of religious liberty to the future missionary of the cross and to thousands of native Christians. I was repeatedly told by officers of the highest respectability that his representations had been verified in every main particular, since the occupation of the country. The policy of the Calcutta government, it is well known, was adverse to the war. Lord Dalhousie, when at Rangoon, sent for Mr. Kincaid to inquire particularly respecting the number, condition and persecutions of the Christians. The facts were given, and he learned that there were seven or eight thousand disciples in the Rangoon and Bassein districts. "But," said his lordship, "these are adults, who have embraced Christianity from their own convictions. There must be a much greater number, their children and friends, who are nominally Christians." The governor general, I would remark, has had a regular Presbyterian education, is an elder of the Scotch Kirk, and understands the difference between nominal and real Christians much better than too many of the Southerns one meets in this country. In reply to all the communications which he received, he frankly confessed that they made the strongest reason why the British government should guarantee to this large body

Trip up the Irrawadi. Our voyage up the Irrawadi was slow. The river is now at full banks, thirty or thirty-five feet above its ordinary level, and the current from four to six miles an hour. We went in a flat, or barge attached to a small iron steamer, and were provided with every needful accommodation. We accomplished the voyage to Prome, a distance of 250 miles, in eight days. Under ordinary circumstances it would have been a tedious trip; but to me, to whom everything was new, and whose object was to see and to learn as much as possible respecting the people and the country, it was the very arrangement I desired. At this season of the year, the country through which we passed could be distinctly seen from the deck of our vessel. From those who ascend in the dry season it is completely

hidden by the high banks on either hand. The steamer always anchored at night, and made frequent stops at the large towns for provisions or fuel, so that I was able to go on shore at most of the important towns on the river. In every instance I sought information respecting the place, its population, healthfulness, &c., and respecting the population in the adjoining country. Much of the information thus obtained will, I trust, be found useful in laying plans for the establishment of future missions.

I have kept full notes of the observations and events of each day, but it would be impossible to send them to you by mail. I can now only speak of those things that possess a present value.

Burmese towns-Their exposure to robbers.

Almost the first thing that attracted my attention after leaving Rangcon was the town of Kee-ming-ding [Kemmendine], distant from the former place about four miles. It extends along the river for three and a half miles, having two, three, and in some parts four, parallel streets, and must contain four or five

thousand houses. This gives a very good idea of most of the Burman towns. They have length with little depth. In the villages the houses are planted thickly, close to the water's edge, and it is only in the larger towns that they are set back any distance from the front row. If, as sometimes happens, a small stream enters the river at the place, it affords additional "water privileges," and two rows of houses make off from the river at right angles.

It is this peculiar construction of the towns which exposes them so fatally to the sudden attacks of the numerous robber bands which now infest the whole of Pegu above Henthaday. Troops are stationed at all the principal towns for the protection of the inhabitants. But one or two hundred sepoys, with a gun boat, cannot guard effectually a town from two to five miles in length. Thirty or forty war boats, propelled with great rapidity, make an unexpected dash at

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Dacoits in Burmah are only nominally outlaws. They have been tolerated by the government for ages. peace they live by plunder, and sell their service to the king in time of war, and to usurpers in times of revolution. Thurawadi ascended the throne through their aid. He was dethroned by his son, this son by a younger brother, the present king. In the latter instance, the reward to the robbers for their services was the surrender of the city of Ava for pillage. The chiefs of these large bands, scattered in small companies over the country, are always near the court, and generally in the interest of the party unfriendly to the king.

Present hostile policy at Ava. At the present time the public policy of the king is said to be pacific. But it is known that a powerful party exists at Ava, of which the heir apparent, a younger brother of the king, is the acknowledged head, whose avowed object is the recovery of the lost territory. With this individual the famous robber chieftain, for whose head Lord Ellenborough

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