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voy. The next year the average of daily attendants was seven, including one Pwo Karen; and the preaching assistants were called together four times a week. In 1841, the year following, the number of students remained about the same, but the preaching assistants ceased to attend. In August of the same year, 1841, there being an unusual pressure for funds in the mission treasury, and reduction being called for, the school was suspended until the third year following, that is, till June of 1844; when six pupils of much promise commenced the regular course of study. Three of these had already been employed occasionally as assistants. Some of the exercises of the school were also attended by three Pwo Karens. The following year, 1845, Dr. Judson returning to America and the care of the Burmese church devolving on the teacher of the school, his labors were necessarily divided between the church and the students, and this continued to be so until 1847, when the pastoral care of the church was transferred to Mr. Haswell and the teacher's principal efforts were again directed to the school, both in teaching and writing. The next two years there were but three daily students; and after the close of the rains of 1849, the season when a vacation usually occurred, the school was not reopened; chiefly because of new duties devolving on the teacher in consequence of the death of Dr. Judson.

Throughout the whole period of nine years, during which the school was continued, its distinctive character was that of a bible class. The New Testament was the basis of instruction, the four gospels being studied in harmony, as presented in the Life of Christ prepared by Dr. Judson; and the rest of the book, as far as Revelation, being carefully considered verse by verse, with comparison of parallel passages made in the recitation room. It was the constant aim of the teacher, not only to unfold the sense of the Scriptures, but also to show the pupils practically how to make the bible its own interpreter. This

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course was especially desirable, as there were no commentaries to which the students could be referred for light. He also aimed to lead them to analyze the several books as a whole, that the main design and general scope of each might be apprehended. The Old Testament was studied chiefly in its historical and devotional parts. In connection with the bible, sacred geography naturally demanded and received some attention. The other studies pursued were a sketch of ecclesiastical history from the birth of Christ to modern times, and the general outlines of geography and astronomy. During the last year of the school, in addition to the study of particular portions of Scripture, the preaching assistants were exercised in the preparation of plans of sermons, a subject being assigned for this purpose with its appropriate text, which the pupils were required to unfold in writing. The plans presented were read and criticised before the class, and the subjects made special topics of consideration at the time.

The embarrassments encountered in

giving theological education to the Burmans, have arisen in part from the lack of books adapted to aid the student, out of the recitation room, in coming to a right understanding and a proper appreciation of the revealed word. From this cause they have generally come into recitation on the bible with but little previous study of the portions to be expounded; their time out of recitation hours, excepting what was demanded by other studies, being occupied chiefly in reviewing the portions already gone over, and noting down, when able to do so with advantage, the instructions given on those portions. The want of helps to interpretation, to give a right direction to thought and inquiry, was painfully manifest, the pupils being unaccustomed. as was to be expected, to habits of reflection and of continuous investigation.

But the principal embarrassment arose from the lack of the proper elements of ministerial character in some, who, in accordance with the plan of the school,

had been admitted as pupils. This plan, | there were among the pupils men who

as laid down in the Conference of 1836, did not confine admission to those only who gave evidence of a call to the ministry. It embraced "the instruction of school teachers, no less than those for the ministry;" and it allowed the admission of "such scholars as were yet young, and were to study the English;" who, as a preparatory measure, might be "placed in some primary school a proper time for that purpose." As a consequence of this complex feature of the plan, it resulted that individuals were sent to the school who probably gave no decided evidence, to those who sent them, either that they were called to preach, or that they would become useful teachers. They were sent rather to be tried in the school, in hope that they might, with suitable instruction, subsequently prove themselves entitled to confidence, and worthy to be entrusted with the one office or the other. The consequence was, that a number of persons who had been received as pupils, were found, after a longer or shorter connection with the school, to be unworthy of a place in it; and were dismissed, and subsequently expelled from the church also. Under these circumstances the school could not be expected to bear a name for superior moral character, and it soon became manifest that more caution should be used in the admission of pupils. A theological school, your committee think, ought to be composed of men who have been already approved by the churches to which they belong, as evincing satisfactory signs of a call of God to the work of the ministry. The education of school teachers should be provided for by schools of an entirely

different character.

The results gained from the efforts above detailed, have doubtless not answered the anticipations of the original projectors of the school. It has been seen that from year to year the number of pupils was small, and that some of that number, even, it was found necessary to dismiss for bad conduct. Yet

have proved themselves worthy of the labor and expense bestowed on them. Some were men of tried character as assistants before they entered the school, whose qualifications for their work, it is believed, were increased by the more familiar and intimate acquaintance with the Scriptures and the distinguishing doctrines of the gospel, which they acquired in it. Others were younger men of consistent piety and promising gifts, who profited by their opportunities so as to secure the confidence of their brethren and to be entrusted with the preacher's office. The whole number who may be regarded as pertaining to these two classes, is fifteen; four of whom have died, bearing a good testimony to the last; six, we are sorry to say, have within a short time given up their office as assistants, and are engaged in secular work; and five are still engaged in preaching. Besides these, one man was employed for a number of years as teacher of a small school, and others remain consistent and stable private members of the church.

As a part of the results of the school, because growing out of the labors bestowed upon it, several manuscripts have been prepared for assistants; as Comments on parts of Romans and Galatians; References for the New Testament; Notes on the geography of Palestine; a Concordance of the Burmese Bible; and Selections from Church History. A General History, ancient and modern, has also been prepared and printed; besides several tracts and occasional pieces, preserved in the volumes of the Religious Herald. The teacher of the school ever kept it in view, as an important part of his duty, to provide, as far as other obligations would allow, helps to the understanding of the bible, which should be available to the native preachers in their own tongue, and which should place in a more advantageous position than he himself has occupied whoever might hereafter succeed him in the endeavor to educate the native ministry of Burmah.

The number of candidates for the ministry, from among the Burmans and Peguans, at present demanding theological training, must, we suppose, as heretofore, be small. The several churches in Tenasserim, Arracan and Burmah, do not together contain three hundred members. Of these, fifteen at least are already engaged in preaching; and we know not that there are, besides them, even one half of this number who may fairly be regarded as suitable candidates for the ministry. But whether more or less, if they show signs of a call of God to this work, your committee think they ought to be taken through some course of theological training, to fit them for the work before them.

The main objects to be aimed at in this training, we suppose, are a knowledge of the word of God, especially the New Testament, and the ability to use that knowledge to the best effect in preaching the gospel. If the assistants are to be able ministers of the New Testament, they must understand it; and to understand it, they must study it carefully and with all the lights which they can command, and especially with a competent teacher, that their views of the gospel may not be disturbed, but may preserve a just harmony of proportions.

To facilitate the acquisition of such a knowledge of the gospel, the following

works are accessible to the Burmese stu

dent, viz.: the bible; the Life of Christ, compiled in scripture language from the four gospels harmonized; a Digest of Scripture subjects, with their appropriate texts; the Septenary or Seven Manuals, compiled for the benefit of native pastors by Dr. Judson, — selected from the scriptures; a catechism of scripture history; a History, ancient and modern, with a chronological table; Aids to church discipline; a catechism of astronomy and geography; the Religious Herald; and the tracts and manuscripts already referred to.

What provision shall be made to secure the needful training for the assistants, is a practical question of great

importance. Shall the candidates for the ministry at each station be instructed at the stations to which they severally belong? Or shall the candidates at the several stations be sent for instruction to one station? These we suppose are the questions to be decided. And without entering fully into the discussion of them, your committee would briefly express this opinion, that where the number of students is considerable, and their age and other circumstances favor, the plan of collecting them together at one station, to be instructed by one of the missionaries, who, for the time they are so convened, shall devote his best energies to this object, is preferable to that of several missionaries at different stations dividing their labors for this purpose. Yet, even with such a general seminary for all the stations, we suppose there will always be some individuals whose circumstances will not favor a removal to a distance for study, to whom a partial course of instruction might be given without drawing too heavily on the time and energies of the missionaries at the stations to which they belong. Among the Burmans at present, while so few candidates for the ministry exist, it is the opinion of your committee that each station, if practicable, should provide within itself its own assistants. If at any station, however, from peculiar circumstances this plan cannot be advantageously carried out, the candidates should be sent where instruction can properly be given.

III. Karen schools for native assistants. - It has been stated that after the arrival of Mr. Stevens, the Burmese theological students were transferred to him, and that the Karen missionaries at different stations instituted bible classes for the instruction of Karen native

preachers. These classes were taught mostly in connection with the boarding schools of the stations, and continued during the rains only.

1. At Tavoy.-After the Burmese students were transferred to Maulmain, the Karens were instructed by Mr.

given in some of the exact sciences and in geography. But many of the pupils were too young to be recognized as theological students, and the school finally came to be regarded as a boarding school for boys and young men, who were to be instructed according as their capabilities and peculiar circumstances might indicate to be advisable.

Wade or Mr. Mason, and sometimes by | taught, and careful instruction was also both together, for three or four years. Subsequently Mr. Mason alone performed this service, until May, 1846, when Mr. Cross, who had been previously appointed to the work, was prepared to undertake it. During this period, although instruction was given chiefly at Tavoy and in the rainy season, some students were also taught in the dry season at Mata. Including both schools, there were in 1838 twenty pupils preparing to become preachers and teachers; in the following year there were eighteen. Subsequently the number was reduced to ten or twelve, who, however, seem to have been more strictly theological students. This appears to have been the number when Mr. Cross took the charge in May, 1846.

The studies pursued during this period were chiefly the Scriptures. Writing, arithmetic, geography, the use of the globes, original composition, and in some instances the English language, received a share of attention. The pupils were also exercised in taking notes of the sermons they heard, and in public speaking. At one time some instruction was given by Mr. Mason in medicine, geology, and astronomy. Still, the aggregate of instruction enjoyed by each student could not have been great. Mr. Mason in 1842, in writing to the Executive Committee for an additional missionary to teach the native assistants, uses the following language: "Of all the assistants now employed by the Tavoy Mission in the Karen villages, not more than one or two have had twelve months' schooling, and by far the greater part not more than six."

During the first season that Mr. Cross had charge of the school the number of pupils was twenty-three, and the year following twenty-six. Commodicus buildings were erected, and a preparatory department attached to the school. The pupils were pledged to remain four or five years in study, and longer if the missionaries thought advisable. The Scriptures, as formerly, were principally

2.-At Maulmain. The first instruction of any kind given by a missionary through the Karen language was by Mr. Vinton in 1835. At that time there were about 200 Karen converts in this "assisprovince. Two of these were tants," having received some instruction through the Burman language. Several others manifested a desire to be preachers of the gospel. The first object aimed at was to teach these assistants the simplest truths of the bible, and show them how to bring these truths to bear upon the hearts of their countrymen. The plan was approved of God. The Holy Spirit was poured out upon the simple preaching of these assistants as well as on the labors of the missionary, and converts and churches were multiplied.

Mr. Vinton devoted a portion of his native time to the instruction of preachers for almost ten years. At first all instruction was given orally. As catechisms and portions of the New Testament appeared, they became texť books. Such assistants as could be spared from their fields during the rains, and others desirous to become preachers, were taught in a boarding school. But in the dry season, numbers of this character accompanied Mr. Vinton on his preaching tours, and received, as circumstances permitted, further instructions both by precept and example. During these ten years no regular classes were formed, nor any regular course of study marked out. The teacher aimed to adapt his instructions to the capacities of those taught, and to meet present necessities. Some continued in school only a few months, while others remained

several rainy seasons. We have no records showing how many were instructed❘ by the above method, or what was the extent of their qualifications; but all the preachers who labored in this province and in Rangoon until the year 1846, useful or otherwise, were embraced in the number. Mr. Bullard and Mr. Moore made some efforts in the same direction among the Pwos of this province between the years 1845 and 1853.

3. At Mergui.-In 1839 Mr. Brayton commenced labor among the Pwos in Mergui district. At that time there were no Christians there. When conversions took place, he adopted a course in educating a native ministry similar to that of Mr. Vinton in Maulmain.

4. In Arracan. - Mr. Abbott settled in Sandoway in 1840, and every rainy season after that period he had a class of young men. At times as many as fifty were present, most of whom were native preachers. A boarding school was sustained during the rainy season. In later years, however, the preachers were not expected, it having been found to be much better to meet them for two months, more or less, in the dry season. nearer their homes.

IV. The Karen Theological Seminary. As early as the year 1840 the missionaries of the several Karen stations began to feel that converts were being born into the churches faster than they were able to take care of them. These convictions were expressed to the Board. In the meeting of the Board in 1843 special attention was given to the subject of the theological education of Karen assistants, and as a result, and with special reference to the training of a Karen native ministry, Mr. Binney was invited to the missionary field. He arrived in Maulmain in 1844, and in the following year opened in Maulmain the Karen Theological Seminary. This was intended to be a general school, open to all the Karen stations.

Mr. Binney taught the school from May, 1845, until April, 1850, when, on the failure of Mrs. Binney's health, he

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was compelled to return to America. He was an able teacher, and devoted his undivided time and strength to the one work of teaching his pupils. On the departure of Mr. Binney, Mr. Harris took temporary charge of the school, and was succeeded by Mr. Vinton on his return from America in January, 1851. Mr. Vinton continued in the school until March, 1852, when he removed to Rangoon, and the school was closed. Up to this period the school had been in a flourishing condition, both as to its character and its numbers.

Careful and minute records were kept of the school. We regret that on account of their absence (at Rangoon), we are not able to give all the details in relation to the school with desirable precision. We have gleaned from the scanty records of the treasurer's book, and the recollections of individual missionaries, the following items, which we think may be relied on.

The design had been to continue the school the whole year except two vacations, one of two and the other of six weeks, dividing the sessions into two terms of five months each. But owing to the wants of the churches in the vicinity, this rule was never adhered to. Several terms of the rainy season were continued longer than five months. During the dry seasons of 1848 and '49, there were no sessions. And two other years the terms were shortened each some two months. In all, the school was in session fourteen terms, averaging a little more than four months each. The average number of students in a term was about twenty-eight. The whole number of students connected with the school during its continuance was sixty. Twenty-six, in four distinct classes, pursued a regular course of three years' study; the remainder were in school less than three years. About one third of the whole number belonged to Maulmain; the other two thirds to Rangoon and Bassein, in what proportion we cannot state. All the pupils before admission, except some eight or nine, had

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