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of those abject beings, whom man's as well as habitually misemployed, then, inhumanity to man has long allowed to of course, sensation, perception, idealizasubsist on

a starving dietary, have tion, and reasoning, are so far liable to laboured under madness which required disorder; and, of course, also as the only a prudent and well regulated principles of morality are grounded in supply of generous food for its cure. rational convictions and consequent Such a fact can be well understood, habits of body, it will be unreasonable when we reflect on what physiology for us to expect a family to dwell informs us of the manner in which the together in moral harmony, unless brain is built up and kept in action by divine truth has governed their affecthe blood; and that, therefore, if this tions before want entered.—Dr. Moore's pabulum of life and nervous energy be Use of the Body in Relation to the deficient, either in quantity or quality, | Mind.


PIRACY prevailed to an alarming ex- as possible. But the captain positively tent in the Gulf of Mexico, some twenty refused to permit any defence to be made or thirty years ago, and was almost re- by either the crew or the few passengers. duced to a system, so that piratical com- Instead of defending himself, he went manders had frequently notice—through to his cahin and there seated himself as unprincipled men with whom they were cool and unconcerned as if no danger in correspondence — whenever vessels threatened, paying no attention to were about to leave with specie on board. remonstrances on the subject of what

At this time a gentleman of the appeared to others to be absolute folly writer's acquaintance took his passage or cowardice. To my acquaintance on board of a schooner, commanded by who went below and inquired what he one of the Society of Friends, which was proposed doing in so appalling an about to leave the island with a consider- emergency, he replied, “Why, friend, able amount of specie. The same day this I shall do nothing." vessel sailed, another vessel, a schooner, also left the harbour, bound for the By-and-hye the schooner was boarded same port, but without any specie on by the pirate's boat's crew, who findboard. After both vessels had been at ing no opposition or appearance of

a short time, and still in com- defence, and no attempt having been pany with each other, a piratical vessel made, by carrying a press of sail, to hove in sight which had evidently been escape, they instantly concluded that watching them, and bore down upon they had boarded the wrong vessel, and the schooner in which my informant almost without exchanging a word, put was a passenger. Meantime the other off, and crowding all sail, made after schooner, suspecting the character of the other schooner in the hope of overthe vessel, made all sail to escape. The taking her. In the meanwhile the passengers were soon made aware of Quaker captain altered the course of their danger, and prepared to defend his vessel, and soon lost sight of the the right, and sell their lives as dearly pirate.


The escape was truly marvellous, and conduct, by which he had been the the passengers, who had reproached the instrument in the hands of Divine captain for his supposed cowardice in the Providence of saving their lives, and most offensive terms, all joined in ex- preserving a very valuable cargo to his pressing their admiration of his judicious consignees in this country.


COWLEY, the celebrated poet of the and solely usurped as poetry. It is seventeenth century, says, "Amongst time to recover it out of the tyrant's all holy and consecrated things which hands, and to restore it to the kingdom the devil ever stole and alienated from of God, who is the father of it. It the service of the Deity, as altars, is time to baptize it in Jordan, for it temples, sacrifices, prayers, and the will never become clean by bathing in like, there is none that he so universally the water of Damascus.”


Whey earth produces, free and fair,

The golden waving corn,
When fragrant fruits perfume the air,

And fleecy flocks are shorn ;
Whilst thousands move with aching head,

And sing this ceaseless song-
“We starve, we die, O give us bread!"

There must be something wrong.

And when production never ends,

The earth is yielding ever ;
A copious harvest oft begins,

But distribution-never !
When toiling millions work to fill

The wealthy coffers strong;
When hands are crushed that work and til,

There must be soinething wrong

When wealth is wrought 23 seasons roll

When poor men's tables waste away From off the fruitful soil ;

To barrennese and drought; When luxury from pole to pole

There must be something in the way, Reape fruit of human toil;

That's worth tho finding out: When, from a thousand, one alone

With surfeits one great table bends, In plenty rolls along;

While numbers more along, While others only gnaw the bone,

Whilo scarce a crust their board extends,
There must be something wrong.

There must be something wrong.
Then let the law give equal right

To wealthy and to poor ;
Let freedom crush the arm of might,

We ask for nothing more :
Until this system is begun,

The burden of our song
Must be and can be only one
There mnst be something wrong.

-- Boston Christian Reflector.


The Provincial Letters, by Blaise Pascal. , superstition, of proud magnificence

A New Translation, with Historical Intro- and intense bigotry, that they beheld duction and Notes, by the Rev. THOMAS with exultation the destruction of Port M‘Crie. Edinburgh: Johnstone. 12mo. Royal des Champs, the centre of the

learning and piety of the Jansenists. We are glad of an opportunity of But the intolerant and vindictive mandirecting attention to these celebrated ner in which they pursued their rivals, letters, a new translation of which has together with the exposures which had just been published. Nearly two cen- been made, aided in producing a returies have rolled away since their first action unfavourable to themselves; and appearance, and still they are read with in little more than another half century interest and delight. Independently of they fell into almost universal odium ; those circumstances which originally they were banished from France, and contributed to give them so much éclat, their order was finally suppressed. there are two things especially which

The Company of Jesus, as the order will always secure to them an extended of Jesuits was originally designated, perusal

. The one is the beauty of the presents to the mind one of the most composition : the charming simplicity singular and astonishing objects which of their style, the lively playfulness of are furnished by the records of history. their wit, the closeness of their logic, We behold a society, one with the papacy and the polished keenness of their irony, and yet distinct from it, an imperium in cannot fail to prove attractive. The imperio, as political as it is ecclesiastiother is the masterly way in which cal, at once terrible and insinuating, they unveil the character of Jesuitism, gigantic in its power, mysterious in its and expose the corrupt and detestable movements, and captivating in its adcasuistry of a society which for so many dress, combining large numbers and years possessed an almost unbounded great variety with perfect unity, and influence throughout papal Christen- possessing a flexibility capable of adaptdom. The controversy between the

ing itself to all persons and all circumJesuits and the Jansenists, which gave stances. Like the monsters seen in the rise to these letters, has long since prophetic vision, arising out of the become a mere fact of history; but the agitated waters, when the winds of theological points which it involved heaven strove on them, this portent of were the subject of warm discussion the age was evoked amidst the conclufrom a period at least as early as the sive struggles of the papal community time of Augustine ; they were strongly consequent on the reformation. debated by the Thomists and the

It is a singular fact, that Ignatius Scotists, the Dominicans and the Fran- | Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, was ciscans, and they have, with various born within eight years of Luthers the modifications, continued, even to the

one destined to give to the papacy its present time, to supply materials for severest blow, the other to afford it the polemics under the more modern appel most effective aid. In the same year, sations of Calvinism and Arminianism. 1521, in which Luther appeared at the The Jansenists, who were, when Pascal diet of Worms, Ignatius, then a soldier, wrote, in mortal struggle for their ex- in his full career of gallantry and ambiistence with their implacable and un- tion, received that wound in the defence scrupulous enemies, have long ago of Pampeluna which became the means ceased to exist as a party in the church of giving a complete change to the of Rome. And even the victory which the whole course of his life.* All the strong Jesuits obtained entailed consequences disastrous to themselves. They for some * Mons. Villiers, in his Essay on the Reformation time, indeed,enjoyed their triumph. Their of Luther, adduces an extract from Damianus, one influence with the pope procured the re

Synopsis Historiæ Soc. Jesu, printed in 1640, draws peated condemnation of their opponents; a parallel of contrast between Luther and Ignatius and such was their ascendancy over Louis

illo Germaniae probro, Epicuri porco, Europæ exitio, XIV., that compound of sensuality and orbis infelici portento, Dei atque hominum odio,

of the first historians of the Jesuits, who, in his

in ten particulars, and concludes thus, “Luthero

passions, and the restless and energetic | Before the expiration of the sixteenth activity which had characterized his century, they had obtained the chief proud and daring chivalry, now took the direction of education throughout the form of religious enthusiasm, and this whole of catholic Europe. They also was excited to the highest pitch by found means of becoming the confessors imagined visions, and apparitions, and of nearly all its sovereigns, and of bringthe full persuasion of a divine call hence- ing under their guidance the consciences forth to show his prowess as the sworn of most persons who were eminent for knight of the Virgin Mary, and the rank and power. Their foreign mischampion of the distressed church. sions were prosecuted with a zeal and Other minds soon became kindled by heroism which would have done honour his ardour. In Paris, after a course of to any cause, had they not been so often study and of severe discipline, he found disgraced by trickery, and fraud, and a few suitable and able associates who persecution. Still their object was fully entered into his plans. They de- gained in the extension of the Romish termined to attempt the construction of church. In India, in Japan, in China, a new order, which, by combined and in South America, both their missionary systematic action, should rally the efforts and their success were remarkdrooping spirits of the holy see, and able. In Europe their power for some give life and vigour to the enfeebled time was almost irresistible. Their inchurch. The great objects originally Auence at Rome was paramount. Their intended were the suppression of heresy, interference with governments was inthe education of youth, and the extension cessant. They mingled themselves up of the papal domains by foreign mis- with all transactions of importance, sions. They met, however, with many whether of public bodies or privaté discouragements ; but, in order to con- individuals, in affairs of a commercial, ciliate the favour of the pope, in addition political, or ecclesiastical nature. Als to the three vows of poverty, chastity, authorities, spiritual or secular, either and monastic obedience, they took ano- courted their favour or dreaded their ther, binding them to go to whatever opposition. part of the world his holiness might There were, indeed, many causes send them, without burdening him with which combined to give to this order cost or charge. At length the bull of so formidable a power. There never, Panl III., in 1510, established the in- perhaps, was any society or community stitution under the name of “the Com- of men at once so extensive, so varied, pany of Jesus." And thus, to use the and yet so compact. By the constitution words of Villiers in his Essay on the of the society, its supreme government Reformation, this society “ rose above was vested in one individual. No divithe horizon like an awful comet which sion of opinion weakened the executive. scatters terrors among the nations." The head was a general, chosen for life.

The progress of this community was His government was the most absolute as astonishing as their rise was singular. monarchy. His decisions were final. Though the original bull limited their His will was law. His power over the number to sixty, this restriction was funds of the society, over the persons soon removed, and" in less than half a and actions of all its members, was uncentury after its institution, the society limited and uncontrolled. Under this obtained establishments in every country great chief was a gradation of officers, that adhered to the Roman catholic whose authority no subordinate might church. In the year 1608, the number question. Every superior was as absoof Jesuits had increased to 10,581. In lute in his sphere as the general was in the year 1710, the order possessed 24 the government of the whole. One will professed houses ; 59 houses of proba- directed all their movements throughout tion ; 340 residences; 612 colleges ; 200 the states of Europe and in every station missions; 150 seminaries and boarding abroad. schools; and consisted of 19,998 Jesuits." To render the whole system more

effective, all its parts were selected and te.-Deus æterno consilio opposuit Ignatium."-"TO Luther, that disgrace of Germany, that Epicurean adapted to each other with the greatest swine, that curse of Europe, that monster destruc

No one must be admitted, even tive to the whole earth, hateful to God and man, &c. -God, by his eternal decree has opposed Ignatius. to his noviciate, in whose body or mind,

• Robertson's History of Charles V., vol. ill. in whose opinions or character, there was page 198, note.

any apparent disqualification for the




order. The candidate for admission general, the persons and property of all was required to go through a prepara- the members of the society were extory course of discipline and probation empted, by a bull of Paul III., from as a test of his fitness for the service, every kind of superintendence, jurisdicduring which the most unreserved and tion, and punishment of ordinaries. repeated confessions were expected of And all archbishops, and bishops, and all his sentiments, and thoughts, and every other authority, as well ecclesiasinclinations, and purposes ; in addition tical as secular, were prohibited from to which, all his associates were bound obstructing or molesting the companions to disclose to the superior, every thing of Ignatius, their houses, churches, or which they had noticed of his capabili- colleges. ties and character, and all which they Thus constituted, the Jesuits became had elicited from him in his most un- the most active and powerful auxiliaries guarded moments; and the whole, with which the holy see ever possessed. They the remarks of that superior, were con were prompt for all service, ready to do tinually registered and duly forwarded and to dare anything in obedience to to the seat of power. And it was not their superiors, without ever allowing till many years had passed, and a long their judgment or their conscience to and cautious trial had been made, that interfere. And each devoting his life to he was fully admitted as a professed that particular line of study or of service father. During the preparatory train- allotted to him, it is no wonder that this ing, and indeed at any time, those who order produced some of the most were deemed, on whatever account, unfit finished scholars, the finest writers, and agents of the society, were dismissed ; the most subtle casuists. So complete nor was it deemed necessary that any was the union of this body that all of reason should be stated. The general talent and acquirement which every had thus the means of knowing, with individual possessed was the property of great accuracy, the character and quali- the whole, and perfectly at the disposal fications of every member. If an agent of those who guided its concerns. And were needed for any department of that the power and resources of this service at home or abroad, if any enter- society might be employed in the most prise were to be attempted which re- effective manner, reports were regularly quired daring courage, or consummate transmitted to the general from every prudence, or insinuating softness, or part of Europe, and from all their unwearied patience, or stoical endur- foreign stations, of all that was transpirance, it was easy to fix on the man ing and all that was designed. By suited to the work. It was always means of the confessional, they not only understood where ancient or modern acquired access to sovereigns, and statesliterature, where physical or moral men, and men of wealth and power, but science, where high talents for teaching they exercised a potent influence over or for business, were to be found; and a them ; so that when at the full height word from the superior was all that was of their power, there was scarcely a required to secure prompt and implicit monarch in Europe who wielded such a obedience.

sceptre as that of the general of the All the members of this new society Jesuits. were taught to consider themselves as That the members of this society the peculiarly devoted servants of the have, by their learning, by what they church, acting under their own officers, have done to promote education, and hy and destined, not to the seclusion of many valuable publications, conferred monks, or to constant employment benefits on society, cannot be denied. in devotional exercises, but to mingle That they have, as foreign missionaries, with society, and to fill any office or manifested heroic zeal, and exhibited in accept any employment, which might their sufferings the constancy of martyrs, further the objects of their order. That must be acknowledged. But the amount no other ecclesiastics might interfere of injury inflicted on the interests of with their plans or their consciences, humanity, of truth and righteousness, they were confessed only by priests of by this formidable body, has been inown fraternity. And that they might calculable. It has, we are aware, become have perfect freedom to pursue their almost a fashion,-most strangely so, -own designs, and accomplish all the in certain quarters, to applaud in the secret instructions received from their highest strains all the virtues and ex

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