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GOVERNMENT PATRONAGE SPRINGING OUT OF
satisfaction of the Committee of Council, and 1 much has been accomplished in a short time, placed under inspection ; Field Gardens, by all that is needful will in due time be effected payment of half the rent and by a grant for by the same means. the first purchase of tools; Workshops for 8. It may be urged, that Government and Trades, by grants for building and first Parliament are misled by the reports of the purchase of tools; and School-kitchens and Inspectors, which, relating to those schools Wash-houses, by grants for building ; besides only that are under inspection, afford but an the gratuities to Masters and Mistresses imperfect estimate of the quantity and quaabore mentioned.
lity of education in the country.
9. It is, moreover, preposterous to make II. OBJECTIONS TO THE MEASURE. further demands upon the public funds, while
a vast amount of property bequeathed for UNCONSTITUTIONALLY INTRODUCED. educational purposes remains without any just 1. It is introduced on the mere authority or useful appropriation. da Committee of Council appointed in 1839 to administer a small annual grant in aid of
EXPENSIVE CHARACTER OF THE MEASURE. school-buildings, instead of being submitted 10. It involves a vast annual outlay of to Parliament in a Bill.
public money,-a fatal objection at a period 2. Even in 1839, on its original appoint- when, to save Ireland from utter famine, the ment, the unconstitutional character of the Government has been obliged to raise a loan Committee of Council was pointed out by of eight millions sterling, and may not imLord Stanley in the Ilouse of Commons, probably be driven to further expense to resand by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the cue the other portions of the United KingHouse of Lords.
dom from a similar calamity. 3. The noble Lord moved an Address, 11. The scheme will be found to embrace praying that Her Majesty would be gracious- at least fourteen several heads of expense,
pleased to reroke the Order in Council of which, it has been calculated, will eventually the 10th of April, 1839, appointing a Com- involve a yearly outlay of little less than mittee of Council to superintend the applica- £2,000,000. tion of any sums voted by Parliament for the purpose of promoting Public Education. The Motion was supported, on a division, by 275;
THE MEASURE. opposed by 280: majority for Ministers, only 12. At least 88,000 individuals, to say no5., The Archbishop of Canterbury moved an thing of their connections, will be dependent Address to the Throne with the same object, upon the Government, and consequently subwhich was carried against Ministers by a
servient to it. majority of 229 to 118. Thus, the Com 13. Pupil Teachers and Stipendiary Monimittee of Council has been denounced by a tors; Queen's Scholars and other Exhibitionlarge majority of one House, and nearly so ers in Normal Schools; Schoolmasters and by a majority of the other, as an unconstitu- Mistresses; Masters of School-gardens; Mastional, irresponsible, and dangerous Board, ter-workmen in School-workshops; Mistresses the appointment of which ought to be re- in School-kitchens and Wash-houses ;-all
these, with their respective families and friends, 4. If, viewed in connexion with the limited and all those who aspire to such appointments, purpose of its first appointment, this Com- with their families and friends; and also Pupil mittee excited so much jealousy, how much Teachers admitted into the revenue departmore when it has actually assumed that ments, with their families and friends, - will stretch of prerogative which was then ap- thus be rendered the obedient servants of the prehended as barely possible.
14. A similar influence will obviously exNEEDLESSNESS OF THE MEASURE.
tend itself over the Trustees and Managers of 5. The needlessness of the proposed mean schools in receipt of or seeking the aid of the Here is proved by the amazing increase of State. voluntary efforts.
15. The continued servility of so large a 6. Elementary Schools have vastly in section of the community will be secured by creased, and are still increasing in number; the power reserved to withdraw or withhold Training Schools are becoming numerous ; pecuniary rewards on the adverse reports of the quality of the instruction has greatly the Inspectors and in the absence of clerical improved, and is still improving; the number certificates. of children under tuition has trebled within the last twenty-eight years; vast sums of mohey have been expended in school-buildings; and many religious denominations and public 16. Both the principle and the details of bodies are engaged in making unprecedented the measure, and the circumstances attending efforts to promote education.
its production, show it to be INTENDED TO PA7. It is but a fair inference that, since so VOUR THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH.
THE MEASURE SUBSIDIARY TO THE ESTA
THE MEASURE AS IT AFFECTS DISSENTERS.
17. It is proved, by the recorded and prin are drilled in the Catechism and the ted Minutes of the Committee of Council, to Liturgy, it will ultimately require, achave been brought forward at the sole instance cording to the practice of the Normal of clerical and other bodies connected with College at Stanley-grove, that the Thirtythe Established Church.
nine Articles shall also be learned by 18. The Inspectors, most of whom are heart. Clergymen, are not appointed without the (4.) The scheme will gradually give the concurrence of the Archbishops, which can Clergy a new and vast power, not only be withdrawn at pleasure, when the appoint over Dissenters, but over the laity of the ment ceases; and they receive their instruc. Church of England. tions “with regard to religious teaching" from (5.) It will produce a perpetual succesthe most reverend Prelates.
sion of theologically bred Schoolmasters, 19. The parochial Clergy have an authority large numbers of whom, it is probable, co-ordinate with that of the Inspectors, the will obtain holy orders; thus unnaturally yearly certificates of the one class being as increasing a State-paid Clergy, already a necessary as the favourable reports of the grievous incumbrance on the nation. other, to Pupil Teachers, Stipendiary Moni (6.) Beneath a thin, though an elaborate tors, &c., &c. No favour whatever can des veil, it more than half reveals a skilfully cend but through the intervention of the devised machinery for the recovery of Clergy.
Church power over the popular mind. 20. In the Church of England schools, which are under the authority of the parochial Clergyman, the religious teaching is to 22. It aggravates the public burdens of be at once definite and compulsory; and, Dissenters, imposes on them new disabilities, since no scholar can become a Pupil Teacher places them under inequitable disadvantages, or a Stipendiary Monitor without being, in and aims insidiously at the destruction of the first place, well versed in the Church their educational institutions by increasing, at Catechism, nor remain one unless the Clergy- their expense, the attractiveness of Church of man distinctly certify that he has been at England schools, and by rendering attendance tentive to his religious duties," - it follows, on their own Sunday-schools an act wbich, in independently of the existing practice in such many instances, will entail practically penal schools, that the Church Catechism and at consequences. tendance at Church and at the Church Sun. 23. They will have to pay a new tax, (as day-school, will be compulsory on those who it will virtually be,) in addition to tithes, wish to reap the proposed benefits.
church-rates, Easter-offerings, and other 21. When we consider the character of the ecclesiastical imposts, in support of a system proposed religious teaching, the order of per- of religious teaching at variance with their sons appointed as Inspectors, their extensive own convictions, and under the exclusive powers, and their complete subjection to the direction and control of the Established Heads of the Church; the high authority con- Church. ferred upon the parochial Clergy, the im 24. By offering numerous advantages on mense amount of money and influence placed the sole condition of constant conformity to at their disposal, with a power at almost any the doctrinal symbols and the rites of the moment to diminish or withdraw their patron- Established Church, it creates new disabilities age, (for the Clergyman may at any time more grievous in their pressure and more withhold his testimonial, and thereby blast extensive in their application than those the fortunes of a youth for ever, without any removed by the repeal of the Test . and one having the power to ask him for a rea- Corporation Acts. son,) and add to all this, that the Church is 25. It tends to the disadvantage of all permitted in every material point to pre- Dissenting schools, and all scholars, schoolscribe her own terms,--the measure cannot be masters, committees, and subscribers comviewed in any other light than as a Subsidiary nected with them, by compelling Dissenters, Church Establishment. To these considera
as tax-payers, to pay towards the support of tions might be added many more; such as, - Church of England schools without receiving (1.) The scheme has been
justly character an equivalent for their own ; by conferring on ised as “a system of spiritual despotism, the pupils and masters of Church of England unclogged by a single condition in fa- schools advantages denied to the pupils and vour of religious freedom, and totally masters of Dissenting schools ; and by como exempt from legal responsibility.” straining the committees and subscribers of (2.) It absurdly proposes to give Govern- Dissenting schools either to make inordinate
ment clerkships and gaugerships for the efforts otherwise uncalled for, or to compete learning of the Liturgy and the Church with rival schools under grievous disadvanCatechism.
tages. (3.) It may be reasonably expected, that, "beginning with insisting upon annual cer- poor to send their children to schools under
26. It offers so many inducements to the tificates that Apprentices and Monitors Church-and-State patronage, that, in many
THE MEASURE HOSTILE TO CIVIL FREEDOM.
parts of the country, the Sunday-schools, and interference is assumed, the public mind is even the congregations of Dissenters, will, in accustomed to Governmental control of process of time, almost inevitably be dissolved Education, educational stipendiaries are and disappear.
created without number, and a machinery is put in action capable of indefinite expansion.
32. It assumes that the Education of the 27. It is hostile to civil freedom in various people is the office of the State,--a proways:
position which cannot be admitted ; and (1.) In committing the education of the that the State is best able to perform that
people to teachers dependent in a great office, – proposition which experience measure upon the Established Clergy disproves, and the Executive.
33. The plan is liable to this further (2.) In placing schools, as well as School objection, that it may be varied or extended
masters, Pupil Teachers, and Stipendiary at any time without the useful notoriety of Monitors, under the virtual control of parliamentary discussion; a state of things the Established Clergy and of Inspectors which is highly unconstitutional. nominated by the Executive and ap 34. It will extend immensely the adminisproved by the Heads of the Established trative power of the Government, without Church, and no way responsible to adequate publicity and parliamentary check. Parliament.
35. Not merely the committees of schools, (3.) In thus spreading over the face of the and subscribers to the funds, but also the
country a large army of Governmental parties who have materials to supply, and Ecclesiastical functionaries ready to apprentices to obtain, or even land to lease do the bidding of those on whom they or cultivate in connection with Government are dependent, and in encouraging to a schools, will deem subserviency to the wide extent a disposition among the reviewing official properly and profitably people to expect sustenance from the rendered. State.
36. The proposed retiring pensions involve (4.) In extending the duties of the the futile principle of pensioning every class
Inspectors, heretofore confined to places, of men whose voluntary occupation, though over the conduct of persons, hundreds not prospectively lucrative to themselves, of thousands of whom will, more or less happens to be beneficial to others. completely, be at their mercy as to their 37. It increases the wealth and influence prospects in life.
of the Established Church, already too great; (5) In destroying the freedom of Educa- and entrusts the Education of the young to
tion, which is the firmest basis and the Established Clergy, who have in all times
surest safeguard of civil freedom. been the most negligent and inefficient in (6.) In adopting a plan of procedure instructing either the young or the old.
which, on the Continent, has been found 38. In respect to religious instruction, one of the most efficient instruments of whether in Church of England or other tyranny and despotism.
schools, it clearly proposes to pay for all (7.) Finally, in appropriating taxes paid kinds of such instruction without discrimi
by all classes of the people, without nating between the good and the bad, the distinction of creed or worship, to the false and the true,-a principle of action maintenance of schools and schoolmasters based upon the pernicious doctrine that any of one particular creed and worship. one religion is as good as any other.
39. It thus exhibits the Government
directly, and the Established Clergy in28. From this plan, devised by a directly, as engaged in the authoritative "Liberal". Government, we may learn the maintenance of all existing religious systems, folly of looking to the State for any as if to them all were equally true, equally Educational plan which does not violate the false, or equally indifferent. most cherished convictions of Dissenters and 40. The whole corps of Inspectors are of the friends of liberty.
animated by one spirit, and are adherents of 29. Although introduced as “no plan," it the principle of national endowment. is clearly "u scheme fully arranged," a 41. The proportion to be observed between tentative device, which is to determine how voluntary contributions and the aid of the much the public mind will bear.
State, so far from stimulating private bene. 30. It is proposed only as an instalment, volence, will first discourage, and afterwards not from any doubt or hesitancy of the extinguish it; while, to the Established Government, but simply because the public Clergy, it suggests the wisdom of sacrificing, mind is known to be hostile to any more in the form of voluntary contributions for perfected scheme,
school purposes, a small portion of their 31. In the meantime, under the guise of present revenues, in order to entitle themapparent concession, a most important point selves to receive an additional income from is gained - the principle of Government the State of perhaps fourfold amount.
GENERAL OBJECTIONS TO THE MEASURE.
42. It compromises the interests of private themselves condemned in the Universities of schoolmasters, threatening as it does to Oxford and Cambridge. swamp them by the creation of a vast num 52. It proceeds from the same deliberately ber of State stipendiaries, with various enti- formed purpose which has determined upon cing advantages.
the endowment of Popery, and which has 43. The extreme youth of the new race of already endowed Popery, in the education of schoolmasters constitutes an obvious objec- the young. tion. 44. Every teacher who will not accept the
III. MEANS OF OPPOSING THE MEASURE. largesses of the State, will be driven into 1. The uncandid and evasive answer of unfair, hostile, and obnoxious competition Lord John Russell, in reply to Mr. Hindley, with antagonists who derive their resources affords no reason for relaxation in opposing from impositions and exactions practised on the measure, but the contrary. himself with all the penalty and obloquy a 2. Whether the Government take a grant Government can inflict.
for £100,000, or any larger sum, they can in 45. The proposed scheme will tend greatly either case begin to put their plan in operato paralyse the efforts of private individuals tion. and communities who cannot conscientiously 3. So long as the Minutes of Council accept of Government aid, and especially remain on the tables of Parliament unqueswill render it increasingly difficult for them to tioned, the Committee of Council are warranobtain masters for their schools.
ted in taking it for granted that the authority 46. These Minutes of Council are not they claim is conceded, and in making still founded on those principles of local assess further advances in its exercise. ment, suffrage, control, and action, which 4. It is therefore strongly advised, that were in some degree recognised and embodied steps be taken immediately to oppose the even in the measure of 1843.
measure by Public Meetings, Memorials to 47. They do not so much as provide, that Her Majesty's Ministers, and Petitions to in a parish having but one school supported Parliament (a form is subjoined). by Government Grants and the prospect of 5. Public meetings should be called, if Government appointments, every child in possible, in every town, parish, village, and that parish sball have A RIGHT to all the hamlet ; and the resolutions adopted, either advantages of that school, without going embodied in the form of memorials to Her through religious exercises, or submitting to Majesty's Ministers, or simply authenticated religious authority, to which its parents may by the signature of the Chairman, should be object.
transmitted without delay to Lord John 48. It deserves consideration, whether the Russell. novel mode proposed of giving boys instruc 6. All memorials and petitions should, it is tion in various trades and handicrafts, be not submitted, contain a decided protest against in inconvenient opposition to the rules and any Government interference with the educausages which, whether right or wrong, have tion of the people, and should conclude with hitherto regulated their exercise.
a prayer that the proposed measure be with49. The measure violates in a twofold drawn, and the powers given to the Com. manner a settled economical principle. It mittee of Council in 1839 be revoked. proposes to create a supply independently of 7. Above all, individual electors should a corresponding demand : for,
correspond by name and address with their (1.) It will vastly increase the number of Representatives in Parliament, and intimate
schools and schoolmasters, whereas the distinctly the view which they shall be poverty of the people prevents them from disposed to take of their conduct, if they are availing themselves of education for their not prepared, not merely to oppose and resist children to the full extent of the means the present unconstitutional and obnoxious already provided by voluntary and inde- measure, but also to withhold their support pendent exertions.
from any future measure, the effect of which (2.) It will, through the operation of the may be to increase the number of Dissenters'
Industrial Schools, greatly augment the grievances and augment the power and wealth amount of skilled labour at a time when of the Established Church, the labour market is in every department 8. Petitions may be forwarded for presendistressingly overstocked.
tation to the Representatives of the petition50. The statistics of crime prove, on the ers, or (if sent free of postage or other whole, that poverty is the parent of more charge) to the Central Committee, who will offences against the law than ignorance, while place them in the hands of Members opposed it is also the grand impediment to the exten to the measure. sion of education.
9. Every mode and form of constitutional 51. As brought forward by the present and effective opposition should be set in Government, the measure is liable to the motion; e. g.:forcible objection of being based upon that (1.) Towns and parishes may forcibly very principle of exclusion which they have object to the centralizing character of the
measure, and the menaced addition to Ireland in Parliament assembled. The the public burdens in the shape Petition of the undersigned, &c. (virtually) of a new and heavy ecclesias Sheweth, tical impost.
That your Petitioners have at all times, in (2.) Congregations may protest against it common with the Protestant Dissenters of
as calculated, among other evils, to England, been anxious to promote the undermine their congregational institu- extension and improvement of Education tions, by enticing away the working among all classes of the people. classes and their children through the That they have for many years sustained
lure of superior worldly advantages. (or assisted in sustaining) at their own cost, (3.) Sunday-school teachers may justly schools for the poorer classes. complain that it is directly adapted to
That they view with serious alarm the counteract and neutralise their voluntary, scheme of State patronage and inspectorship self-denying, and useful efforts, by developed in the Minutes of Council comabsorbing the children of the poor into municated to Parliament by Her Majesty's the so-called National Schools, in which, Ministers, from the belief that its practical no doubt, attendance at the Church effect would be inevitably to diminish, and Sunday-school and at church will be ultimately to extinguish, all those voluntary more than ever insisted upon.
efforts for the promotion of popular Educa(4.) The Committees and supporters of tion, whether in Infant and Day-schools, or
British and other voluntary day-schools in Sunday-schools, which are not connected may urge, that they will be unjustly with the Church of England. compelled, through the taxes, to contri That they feel constrained to protest bute to the support of exclusive Church against the measure as unconstitutional in of England schools, without being able, the manner of its introduction and in the from insuperable objections, to accept principle which it appears to involve,-as any such support for their own schools.
partial in the favour shown to the Established (5.) Protestant Dissenters will have a just Church at the expense of all other religious
right to complain that a new and oppres denominations,—as tyrannical in the double sive ecclesiastical impost, with unprece inspection to which it would subject all the dented disabilities, is about to be imposed teachers who should find themselves induced upon them.
or compelled to avail themselves of its 10. Men who care little about Dissenters provisions, -as corrupting the public mind or their principles, may yet hesitate, in the by an extensive system of bribery in the immediate prospect of an Election, to sanc- shape of pensions, places, and other rewards, tion the wrong with which Dissenters are -and as an unjustifiable increase of the threatened.
public burdens. 11. Happily, honourable Members are not
They therefore pray your Honourable yet committed. In the case of the Maynooth House to withhold its consent from any Grant, it was otherwise. Many of them had further grants of public money for Educaspoken or voted before the communications of tional purposes, and to address the Crown to their constituents were received, and a Gene- revoke the unconstitutional powers vested in ral Election--no trifling consideration in such the Committee of Council on Education. matters was not then near. On this occasion, And your petitioners, &c. they are unpledged ; and consistency does not require them to proceed.
N. B. It is necessary in order to avoid 12. But no time must be lost. The emis- postage charges) to observe the following saries of Government are abroad; and, when directions in transmitting Petitions to Members they see the gathering storm of opposition, for presentation :their policy will be to hasten the accomplish 1. Petitions consisting of more than one ment of their measure before the full power sheet, must bear some signatures upon the of that storm is felt.
2. If sent through the post, they must be
left open at each end, and be addressed direct FORM OF PETITION.
to the Member for whom they are intended,
at the House of Commons." To the Honourable the Commons of the 3. The words “ Petition to Parliament”
United Kingiom of Great Britain and I should be written on the outside.