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dress down to the kness, and was re no means resisted the attempts of the ported to have been miraculously saved insurgents. from destruction, when in 1816 the These and many other discoveries of French ineffectually attempted to burn the shameful impositions to which they it. This image had, it was said, the had so long been subjected, so exasperated property of sweating. This was called a the people, that all religious feeling was miracle ; but the insurgents, who tore lost in the detestation of those who had it down, with its fellow idols, found that so lately been the objects of their reå vessel of boiling water was placed spect. The churches were closed for beneath the statue, and the steam was some time; all images and pictures of carried through tubes over the body, the saints which, as customary, were and issued through small holes or pores. hung up in the streets, were torn down As to its quality of not burning, it by and destroyed.–Ramon Monsalvatge.

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CAPTAIN KEMP. CAPTAIN KEMP was one of a numer- | his ship was in port. At the close of ous class, who, in early life are induced one of his discourses the preacher made by a spirit of enterprise and flattering an appeal to unbelievers and rejecters prospects, to try their fortunes in the of Christ, in language which he was in east. His mother was a member of the the frequent habit of employing, and baptist church in Devonshire Square, remarked, that if such objections should and carefully instilled into the youthful prove right, it would not materially mind of her bold and adventurous son, affect believers ; but, said he, in conthe principles of her faith. A sea-faring clusion, "If we should be right, what life, with rising prospects of multiplying will become of you ?" This pointed temptations, soon obliterated all reli- interrogation, like the arrow from the gious thoughts and impressions, till at bow drawn at a venture, which reached length sceptical, or rather infidel, opin- a king's heart, penetrated the conscience ions, took possession of his mind. Still, of the gay captain, and never ceased to from early habit and fond recollections affect him till he became a humble of home, he did not wholly estrange penitent at the foot of the cross of himself from Christian worship. At the Christ.-Hoby's Memoir of Yates. time when Dr. Carey and his associates were conducting their missionary opera Captain Kemp rendered important tions in full vigour, and when the assistance afterwards to our mission in doctor himself statedly preached, Captain India, by conveying missionaries in his Kemp was an occasional hearer, when! vessel free of expense.

SCHOLASTIC DISPUTATION.

The schoolmen gloried in dispensing and which was conducted with so much with texts of scripture. Thus it was subtlety that during the whole time not boasted among them, that “there was a one word of the scripture was quoted.”— disputation that lasted the whole of the Birt's Patristic Evenings. sixth of July from morning till night,

A HARD HEARTED CREDITOR.

An honest lawyer of Brecon, who un- Mr. Cottle, of Bristol, but as your husfortunately adopted the notion that he band owed me money, I shall carry it was a poet, and to substantiate his claim to the credit of his account ;" when, published a book, died soon after, leaving buttoning his pocket, he walked away. his widow in straitened circumstances. I immediately sent her another guinea, Meeting with a gentleman who was and requested her not to name so disgoing to Brecon, says Mr. Cottle, I re- reputable an action in one from whom quested the favour of him to convey to I had hoped better conduct. This genher a guinea, as a small present. A tleman, till the period of his death, week after, I received a letter from the twenty years after, always shunned me! widow, thanking me for my kind re- At the time the abstraction took place, membrance, but she said that she was he was a wealthy man, and kept his not benefited by it, as Mr. said carriage ; but from that time he declined to her, “This is a guinea sent to you by in prosperity, and he died in indigence.

REVIEWS

A Treatise on the Physical Cause of the had been crucified but six hours. Now

Death of Christ, and its Relation to the the death of crucifixion was proverbially Principles and Practice of Christianity, lingering. The sufferer was worn out By WILLIAM STROUD, M.D. London: by pain, and thirst, and hunger, but the Hamilton and Adams. 8vo. pp. x. 496.

wounds inflicted on his hands and feet The aim of the pious author of this were not necessarily or immediately work is to illustrate by medical science fatal. No vital part was injured; no large the most important event that ever vessel torn. Thelocal inflammation would took place. The death of the incarnate cause sympathetic fever: throbbing Son of God, being the basis of all well. headache, intense thirst, restlessness, founded human hope, is interesting and anxiety would follow. When supbeyond all comparison to every man puration set in, the fever would abate ; who appreciates rightly the love which but the wound being prevented from it exhibited and the advantages which healing, suppuration would continue it secures.

Personal affection for the and the fever would assume a hectic adorable sufferer naturally inclines the character, and sooner or later would devout believer to meditate on the exhaust the powers of life. When the scene; every expression that fell from inflammation of the wounds produced the Redeemer's lips, and every incident mortification, nervous depression would that can throw light on his emotions, be the immediate consequence, and the are worthy of consideration; and if sufferer would sink rapidly. No longer physiology can do anything to elucidate sensible of pain, his anxiety and sense the facts of the history, every enlight- of prostration would become excessive ; ened Christian will be ready to welcome hiccup would supervene, his skin would its aid.

be moistened with a cold clammy sweat, Three circumstances connected with and death would ensue. It was in this the dying sufferings of our Lord must manner that death on the cross must strike an intelligent reader of the New have taken place, in an ordinarily Testament as extraordinary. The first healthy constitution. The wounds in is the early termination of those suffer themselves were not mortal; but, as ings; a termination which took place long as the nails remained in them, the before it was expected by the actors in inflammation must have increased in the scene, and much more speedily than intensity till it produced gangrene. was common among persons doomed to Thirty-six hours would be an early the same punishment. The Jewish period for death to be caused by crucirulers, knowing that the death of the fixion in a healthy adult : forty-eight culprits was not to be expected on the hours would be far more day in which they were crucified, were When Felix Carey was in Burmah, he anxious that it might be expedited, so interceded successfully with the viceroy that the bodies might be removed from for a man who was crucified ; he took the crosses before the commencement of him down after he had been nailed up the sabbath; but when the soldiers more than six hours, carried him home, came to execute the order which had and dressed his wounds. The sufferer been obtained, they found that Jesus was able to sit up the next day, and was dead already. Joseph of Arimathea eventually was cured. Josephus tells of went to Pilate and requested permission three of his own acquaintances whom he to remove the body of his deceased friend; had recognized on crosses at a village "Pilate marvelled if he were already called Thecoa, and who at his request dead;" and it was not till he had ascer were taken down, of whom one survived, tained the fact from the centurion that though two expired in the hands of the he consented. The object was that the physicians. Captain Clapperton, writing bodies should be removed before six in on the capital punishments inflicted in the evening, and it was not till nine in Soudan, as quoted by Dr. Stroud, says, the forenoon that they had been nailed “ I was told, as a matter of curiosity, to the crosses, Our Lord died when he that wretches on the cross generally

common.

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linger three days before death puts an himself, or induce his enemies to let end to their 'sufferings.” What was it, him go. “That it was in the power of then, that caused our Lord to expire Christ to avoid such a death," says the suddenly, having just before cried "with author of the work before us, “had he a loud voice," when he had been on the chosen to renounce the object of his cross but six hours ?

mission, is evident amongst other reasons It has very commonly been remarked from his miraculous overthrow of the that the Saviour had been brought into hostile band in the garden of Getha state of exhaustion previously by the semane ; from his question to Peter,sufferings he had undergone during the Thinkest thou that I cannot even now preceding night and early in the morn- request my Father, and he would send ing; but Dr. Stroud observes that “the to my aid more than twelve legions of scourging, mockery, and labour of carry- angels ? [but] how then would the scriping the cross, were not in themselves tures be fulfilled, (which declare) that more distressing to Jesus than to the thus it must be ??-and from his remark malefactors who accompanied him ;- to Pilate,—Thou wouldst not have had his fasting and watching had not, at any authority at all against me, had it furthest, continued longer than from the not been given to thee from above. In preceding evening ;-his removal from all the scriptural allusions to this subplace to place was not likely to be ject, the death intimated, although volattended with much fatigue, since all untary, is moreover represented, not as the places lay within a narrow compass; self-inflicted, but as penal and vicarious," -and heat of climate could not have page 58. On such a subject as this we been very oppressive in Jerusalem at would write with great diffidence; but, the vernal equinox, to a native of the though we have been accustomed to incountry; more especially when it is con- terpret our Lord's language respecting sidered that, during the last three hours his power to lay down his life, as inof his life, from the sixth to the ninth dicating that his relinquishment of life hour, the sun was obscured, and that in when all was

“ finished

was his own the much hotter climate of central act, we cannot deny that this view is Africa crucified persons usually live open to some grave objections. If this three days on the cross.” Nor had the were the case, death was to him an preliminary outrages produced such entirely different thing from what it is visible effects as to prevent Pilate, who to us. Death, that terrible infliction had known of them, from expressing which is regarded with so much dismay, surprise at his early death. Nor do they is to men in general the deprivation of account for his loud cry just before he life, not by their own active agency, life expired, which Matthew Henry says being forced from them by physical

was a sign that after all his pains and causes ; while death, to him, according fatigues his life was whole in him, and to this hypothesis, was the relieving nature strong." “ The voice of dying himself from suffering, an act by which men,” adds that celebrated commentator, he authoritatively put an end to his “is one of the first things that fail." anguish. He had never made use of his

Another explanation of the fact given superhuman powers to supply his own by eminent writers, both in ancient and bodily wants, but had refused when modern times, has been that when Jesus tempted to do so after his long fast in the had hung upon the cross six hours he wilderness. Had he turned the stones voluntarily relinquished life. This view into bread, he would not have been of the case is certainly congenial with an example of the endurance of exexpressions he had used some weeks treme destitution to his brethren who before, when he said, “Therefore doth could not work miracles. He had never my Father love me, because I lay down apparently made use of those powers to my life, that I might take it again. No mitigate the pains inflicted upon him man taketh it from me, but I lay it down by his foes, or render himself insensible of myself. I have power to lay it down, to any of the hardships pertaining to the and I have power to take it again.” The lot of suffering humanity. It was some reference of this language may be, how- thing new-something quite distinct ever, to his voluntarily placing himself from his previous course--if when his in the way of his foes when he knew life was still whole within him, he with, that his hour was come, and refraining drew himself from further suffering, and from the use of any means to protect from the endurance of those peculiar

pains which he must have experienced extreme terror. On this subject Dr. had he sustained passively the natural Stroud writes thus :results of what his enemies had done, allowing himself to linger still till human “ From the foregoing testimonies of eminent nature sank under physical pressure. authors, to which many more might be added, Martyrs at the stake called sometimes it thus appears that one of the principal corfor more faggots; it would have been a poreal effects of the exciting passions is palpitagreat relief to them to have been able to tion, or vehement action of the heart; and it dismiss their spirits; and it seems to us will now be shown that, when this action is that it must have been a great mitiga- intense, it produces bloody sweat, dilatation, tion of the Saviour's distress if he felt and ultimately rupture of the heart. By those himself both able and at liberty, by an acquainted with the structure and functions of act of his own will, to terminate the the animal frame such results might readily be scene without going through that climax anticipated; but to others, authentic records of of suffering which is implied in the in- their actual occurrence will furnish the best voluntary endurance of that which we proof of the fact. Perspiration, both sensible call death. If it can be shown on the and insensible, takes place from the mouths of contrary, as Dr. Stroud thinks, that his small regularly organized tubes, which perforate death was the result of causes operating the skin in all parts of the body, terminating upon the buman frame, to the experience in blind extremities internally, and by innumerof which he had graciously consented able orifices on the outer surface. These tubes beforehand, it seems to be more accord

are surrounded by a net-work of minute vessels, ant with some scriptural phraseology, and penetrated by the ultimate ramifications and to enhance our obligations to his of arteries which, according to the force of the self-sacrificing love. 2. The physical effects produced by the heart, discharge either the watery parts of

local circulation, depending chiefly on that of the distress which the Redeemer endured in the garden, before his human ingredients in the form of a glutinous liquid, or

the blood in the state of vapour, its grosser enemies had touched him, were also in extreme cases the entire blood itself

. The extraordinary. Almost as soon as he influence of the invigorating passions, more arrived there, he was seized with consternation and grief. The serene state especially in exciting an increased flow of blood

to the skin, is familiarly illustrated by the of mind in which he had addressed his disciples in those discourses which he process of blushing, either from shame or anger; had delivered after supper, and in that for during this state the heart beats strongly,

the surface of the body becomes hot and red, prayer which is recorded by John, was no longer perceptible: it was succeeded and if the emotion is very powerful, breaks out by agitation and dismay. He retired into a warm and copious perspiration, the first and prostrated himself, praying that if step towards a bloody sweat. Of the latter

affection several instances are related in the it were possible that hour might pass from him, and then returned to the three German Ephemerides, wherein Kannegiesser friends whom he had left together, and remarks, -- Violent mental excitement, whether whom he found sleeping. He retired occasioned by uncontrollable anger, or vehement and prayed again, and again returned. joy, and in like manner sudden terror, or intense A third time he retired and prayed, and fear, forces out a sweat, accompanied with signs a messenger from heaven appeared to either of anxiety or of hilarity.'– Aster ascribing him. Now came the agony. Being

this sweat to the unequal constriction of some in an agony he prayed more earnestly, vessels and dilatation of others, be further oband his sweat was as it were great serves, —- If the mind is seized with a sudden drops of blood falling down to the fear of death, the sweat, owing to the excessive ground,” or, according to the rendering degree of constriction, often becomes bloody.'preferred by Dr. Stroud, “His sweat The eminent French historian De Thou menbecame as it were clots of blood drop- tions the case of —' an Italian offieer who comping to the ground.”

manded at Monte-Maro, a fortress of Piedmont, In reference to this astonishing fact during the warfare in 1552, between Henry II. medical science shows that a bloody of France and the emperor Charles V. This perspiration may be the result of mental officer, having been treacherously seized by order anguish, but that the cases in which of the hostile general, and threatened with this effect have been known to occur public execution unless he surrendered the place, have been few, and have never been was so agitated at the prospect of an ignominiproduced but by the excitement of ous death, that he sweated blood from every

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