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part of his body.'-The same writer relates a | awful conflict;"'--that “never before similar occurrence in the person of a young had his filial communion with God been Florentine at Rome, unjustly put to death by interrupted : on suddenly losing it, and order of Pope Sixtus V. in the beginning of his finding himself exposed without protecreign, and concludes the narrative as follows: tion to the horrors of his responsibility,
- When the youth was led forth to execution, and the malignity of the powers of he excited the commiseration of many, and darkness, he was as it were taken by through excess of grief, was observed to shed surprise, and nearly destroyed by conbloody tears, and to discharge blood instead of sternation and distress.” He adds,— sweat from his whole body; a circumstance which many regarded as a certain proof that “ The more minutely the subject is examined, nature condemned the severity of a sentence so the more perfect will be found the accordance cruelly hastened, and invoked vengeance against between the sufferings of Christ and the cause the magistrate himself, as therein guilty of here assigned for them. These sufferings premurder.'-Amongst several other examples sented two successive stages,-consternation, given in the Ephemerides, of bloody tears and and agony,-conditions which, although frebloody sweat occasioned by extreme fear, more quently confounded by commentators, are not especially the fear of death, may be mentioned only different, but actually opposite to each that of a young boy who, having taken part other. The natural contrast which subsists in a crime for which two of his elder brothers between the exciting and the depressing paswere banged, was exposed to public view under sions, as likewise between their respective the gallows on which they were executed, and effects, has been already mentioned. Excessive was thereupon observed to sweat blood from his fear and grief debilitate and almost paralyse whole body.'—In his commentaries on the four the body, whilst agony or conflict is attended Gospels, Maldonato refers to—'a robust and with extraordinary strength. Under the former healthy man at Paris who, on hearing sentence the action of the heart is enfeebled ; and if, of death passed on him, was covered with a owing to constriction of the cutaneous vessels, bloody sweat.'— Zacchias mentions a young perspiration ever occurs, it is cold and scanty. man who was similarly affected on being con Under the latter the heart acts with great demned to the flames. Schenck cites from a violence, and forces a hot, copious, and in martyrology the case of—'a nun who fell into extreme cases a bloody sweat through the pores the hands of soldiers; and, on seeing herself of the skin."-Pp. 111, 112. encompassed with swords and daggers threatening instant death, was so terrified and agitated, “ It has been suggested that the bloody sweat that she discharged blood from every part of her of Christ might be attributed to relaxation of hody, and died of hemorrhage in the sight of her the cutaneous vessels, in conjunction with : assailants;'—and Tissot reports from a respect- dissolved state of the blood; but the explanation able journal that of—a sailor who was so is inadmissible, since, as has been shown, his alarmed by a storm, that through fear he fell condition at the time was not that of weakness, down, and his face sweated blood, which during but of strength, and the blood which issued the whole continuance of the storm returned with his sweat was not liquid, but clotted. like ordinary sweat, as fast as it was wiped Besides, except under peculiar circumstances, away.'»-Pp. 85—88.
and in connexion, there is reason to believe,
with violent action of the heart, relaxation of In applying these facts to the case of of the cutaneous capillaries is not productive of our Lord, Dr. Stroud remarks that "to bloody sweat, which on the contrary requires advance the divine glory, to magnify and implies a strong expulsive force.—' In all the law and make it honourable, and to hemorrhage,' says Harvey, “the more veheaccomplish the redemption of mankind, mently the arteries pulsate, the more speedily Christ voluntarily consented to bear in will the body be emptied of its blood. Hence his own person the retribution due to also, in all fainting, fear, and similar affections, human depravity, and in that capacity when the heart beats languidly, weakly, and to lose for a time all sense of God's without impulse, all hemorrhage is checked and friendship, and all enjoyment of his restrained.'”—Pp. 112, 113. communion, although conscious that the misery thence arising would occasion “ The intense grief and consternation which his death ;"—that “the scene at Geth- the Saviour experienced at the commencement semane was a wise and necessary pre- of his sufferings in the garden, and under the lude to that at Calvary, a foretaste or shock of which he fell prostrate to the earth, trial, which prepared him for the last might possibly have destroyed him by simple
exhaustion, but would never have produced the , Stroud, however, has collected a great bloody sweat reported by Luke; who, inde- number of cases in which water, or pendently of his guidance by the Holy Spirit, serum, in a very large quantity, somewas, as a physician, peculiarly well qualified to times amounting to some pints, has notice and record such an
He been found in the perioardium, by which therefore ascribes this sweat to a cause by which the heart is surrounded, when death had it is fully and solely explained, namely, the been caused by" a broken heart.” Rupture communication of supernatural strength : of the heart, whether caused by intense * There appeared to him an angel from heaven, grief or by physical disease, produces in strengthening him.'-It was then that,-fall- many cases an effusion of blood into the ing into an agony, (Christ) prayed most ear- pericardium, the effusion taking place nestly, and his sweat became as it were clots during the last moments of life, and the of blood dropping to the ground :'--implying extravasated blood divides into crasthat he was no longer prostrate as at first, but samentum and colourless serum, while on his knees. Attempts have been made to that which continues in the vessels explain away the strong terms used by the remains fluid. evangelist, but they certainly denote a sweat “ The Commentaries of the Academy of mixed with blood in a half-coagulated state, so Bologna, for 1757, contain an account by profuse as to fall from the head and neck (the Galeati of a man who, after having long enparts chiefly liable to be uncovered, and from joyed good health, and taken much equestrian which sweat of any kind is most readily fur- and other exercise, adopted a sedentary mode nished), in thick and heavy drops to the ground. of life, in consequence of which he laboured for Unless Luke meant to convey this meaning, his more than thirty years under various pains and employment of such expressions is unaccount- ailments, and at length died suddenly. Besides able.”—Pp. 114, 115.
several other lesions observed in the body, a 3. A third fact connected with the the heart ; and the pericardium was so distended
small rupture was found in the left ventricle of death of our Lord was equally extraordinary. “When they came to Jesus
as to occupy a third part of the cavity of the and saw that he was dead already, they chest. On opening it, a large quantity of serum brake not his legs : but one of the
was discharged, and two pounds of clotted blood soldiers with a spear pierced his side,
seen adhering at the bottom.-In the and forthwith came thereout blood and London Medical Repository for 1814, Mr. water. And he that saw it,” adds the Watson relates the case of a gentleman between apostle John, “bare record, and his fifty and sixty years of age, who died suddenly record his true ; and he knoweth that from the rupture of an aneurism of the aorta ; he saith true, that ye might believe."
and observes,—"The sac had burst by an aperNeither water nor any fluid having
ture of nearly three-fourths of an inch in length the appearance of water, is usually found into the pericardium, which, as well as the sac in the body after death. An eminent itself, was filled with coagula and serum, to the surgeon who had witnessed hundreds of amount of about five 'pounds.'— The London dissections, and taken accurate notes of Medical and Physical Journal for May, 1822, the condition of the blood in nearly one reports from the Paris Atheneum of Medicine, bundred and fifty of the bodies which he an instance of spontaneous rupture of the heart had examined said, in a letter quoted in a gentleman aged about sixty-five years, of by the author, “I have never found moderate habits, and in the full enjoyment of clear serum, such as I could suppose to health. With the exception of the rupture, be separated from the blood in its coagu- the heart was in every respect perfect, its sublation, collecting in any part of the stance being neither softer nor thinner than body after death.” Dr. Davy, who pub- usual. — “The pericardium, which appeared lished detailed accounts of above two much distended, had a blueish colour, and prehundred inspections, in which particular sented an evident degree of Auctuation, conattention had been given to the condi- tained a quantity of serum and coagulated tion of the blood in the heart and great blood.'"-Pp. 150, 151. vessels, although he had found the blood either wholly solid, wholly liquid, or in
man named James Brown, about various intermediate conditions, “ met twenty-seven years of age, who had been at with only a single instance, and that sea, and lost his left leg, and subsequently lived under very peculiar circumstances, in as a tramper about the country, was drinking which a portion of clear serum was with two others in a beershop in Blakeley detached from the crassamentum." Dr. ' Street, when he suddenly complained of illness
VOL. X. - FOURTH SERIES,
lay down on one of the forms, and vomited a , unfortunate female of this city," says a little; and, ere a surgeon who had been sent for surgeon residing at New York, "literally could arrive, expired. Mr. Ollier, on examina- and truly died of a broken heart, as was tion of the body, found it wholly free from any found on dissection ; and there was mark of violence, the stomach and liver were in every reason to believe that this cona very diseased state, the heart-purse contained summation of her misery was the unabout a quart of blood and water, and there was avoidable consequence of her exquisite a rupture in the great artery leading from the dejection of mind at that particular heart, which was produced by disease, and must moment. . . . At the summit of the have caused death almost instantaneously. An aortic ventricle was discovered the inquest was held on view of the body on breach from which the effused blood had Monday, by W. S. Rutter, Esq., coroner, when issued. It was irregularly lacerated, and the jury found that his death had been caused measured about half an inch in diameby disease, and not otherwise.'— A letter on the 'ter.” A post mortem examination of a subject, addressed to the author by the late labouring man who had for ten years J. A. Ransome, Esq., of Manchester, contirms suffered great despondency of mind, the foregoing narrative, and contains the follow- owing to the unfaithfulness of his wife, ing note from Mr. Ollier.— The disease of the and who had died suddenly, took place aorta was a thickening of its coats, without any in the presence of a medical gentleman ossific deposit. The size of the aperture was at Leamington. On opening the chest, very small, and was situated just where it rises the bag of the pericardium appeared from the ventricle, and would not have been much distended with fluid, and was of a observed but for the consequences. The blood dark blue colour. On cutting into it, a was separated, although indistinctly, into pint at least of transparent serum issued serum and crassamentum.'-As a proof of the out, leaving the crassamentum firmly equivalence of the terms, the same surgeon, attached to the anterior surface of the when delivering his testimony at the coroner's heart. On further examination, to asinquest, judiciously used the more popular certain the source of the hemorrhage, it language above mentioned, -“The pericardium was found that the left ventricle, from contained about a quart of blood and water." » the origin of the aorta downwards to Pp. 400, 401.
within an inch of the apex, was ruptured.
A stout, muscular, working man, fortyThese facts, with others of the same six years of age, who had laboured for kind, are deemed by Dr. Stroud sufficient many years under great mental anxiety, to prove that the blood and water which was attacked with severe cardiac sympflowed from the side of Christ, when toms on the evening of Nov. 5, 1826, pierced by the soldier's spear, were the and, after great agony of body and mind, result of a previous effusion into the died on the 9th day of the same month. pericardial sac of a quantity of blood, On opening the thorax, the pericardium which had there separated into serum was found distended, and emitted when and crassamentum, and was derived divided a quantity of serous fluid ; but from rupture of the heart. Rupture of the heart was entirely concealed by an the heart, produced by agony of mind, envelope of coagulated blood in three he concludes, therefore, was the true distinct layers, owing to rupture of the physical cause of the Saviour's death. left ventricle close to the septum, and In persons who die of what is called a nearer the apex than the base of the broken heart, it is well known that the heart. Philip V. died suddenly on being auricles are sometimes found much dis- told that the Spaniards had been detended; the power of contraction is lost, feated ; and, on opening him, his heart and the circulation is in consequence was found ruptured. stopped. When, however, the distension is followed by violent contraction, the “ Mental agony, or a violent conflict between result is often rupture, which generally opposite and distressing emotions, naturally takes place in the left ventricle ; and occasions palpitation ; and, when rapidly raised unless the vital force happens at the to the highest degree, produces either bloody time to be much depressed, the blood sweat, or sudden death by rupture of the heart, thus discharged into the pericardial sac an event usually attended with loud cries. In divides into its constituents more readily the latter case, although scarcely in any other, than when it remains within its natural the blood inwardly effused separates after death receptacles. These constituents are com- into its solid and liquid parts, so as to present monly termed blood and water. "And when exposed, the appearance commonly termed
blood and water. Such is precisely the view | us, “it has often been the subject of his which, in the simplest form of narrative, and thoughts, and not unfrequently of his without note or comment, the scripture gives conversation and correspondence.” His of the death of Christ. In the garden of Geth- attachment to evangelical truth is evisemane he was subjected for the first time to dently cordial and discriminating: if we mental sufferings of overwhelming severity, were required to specify the theological which rendered his soul exceedingly sorrow school to which he is attached, we ful, even unto death;'—and, had he not received should mention that of Dr. Pye Smith, to angelic succour, would apparently, without the whom his volume is dedicated. He has aid of any external infliction, have proved fatal read many good books, and accustomed on the spot; but, having been thus seasonably himself to biblical criticism ; but, as a counteracted, proceeded no further than to pro- writer, he evinces, we think, some dedace a bloody sweat. — His sweat became as it ficiency of tact. If his arrangement had were clots of blood dropping to the ground.'- been more lucid, and his abstinence from After a respite of some hours, during which he repetition and digression more stringent, evinced the greatest fortitude and self-possession, he might have produced a book of half these peculiar sufferings were renewed on the the size of the present volume which cross, where they again attained their highest would have been more generally read intensity, and on this occasion were unattended and more convincing. The redundancies with any intermission or relief. The conse
are by no means worthless; but, in some quence was that, after silently enduring them cases, they divert the reader's mind for three hours, he suddenly expired amidst from the principal topic, and obscure it loud and fervent exclamations, long before the from view. outward punishment could have proved fatal ;
As to the author's main position, we and, on his side having been afterwards pierced wish to speak with caution, but we are by a spear, immediately there came forth strongly inclined to think that he is right. blood and water,'-implying that his heart had If he has not absolutely proved that rupbeen previously ruptured. The correspondence ture of the heart, produced by mental of the several occurrences here related to the agony, was the immediate cause of the natural order of things is sufficiently obvious ; Saviour's death, he has made it appear and, as amidst the wide range of possibilities be glad to learn the judgment of emi
to us exceedingly probable. We shall many other causes and effects might have been assigned, although none of them would have nent physiologists respecting his theory,
as well as that of judicious and candid possessed this necessary character, so exact and
men who are accustomed to weigh critical a correspondence between the statement and the reality, and that in reference to a
scripture evidence. We are quite aware
of objections that may be brought transaction so singular and uncommon, must ondoubtedly be regarded as a strong internal against his hypothesis, but are ready to
avow that we do not at present see how evidence of truth."-Pp. 334, 335.
it is to be refuted. It seems to us also In the second part of this treatise, to exhibit a greater conformity of the Dr. Stroud applies his views of the im- anti-type to the typical sacrifices offered mediate cause of the death of Christ to under the law than can be seen without the elucidation of the doctrine of the it. In the language of Moses it was the atonement-of the types and prophecies blood that made atonement for the soul; of the Old Testament-of the narratives and by divine appointment all the blood and symbols of the New Testament of of the victim was to be poured out at the doctrines and precepts of scripture the bottom of the altar. But," as Dr. -and of the evidence of the truth of Stroud observes, “here a formidable Christianity.
difficulty presents itself. The ordinary After this general survey, some of our death of the cross did not furnish the readers will perhaps expect a few words requisite condition. Instead of occurillustrative of our opinion of the book, ring suddenly by the effusion of the life's and of the soundness of its argument. blood, it was effected by slow exhaustion
The author, who is we are informed and protracted torture. The scanty a physician of experience and acknow- drainings of blood from the transfixed exledged skill, has devoted much time to tremities,” he adds, “could not satisfy the the investigation, a quarter of a century demands of the Levitical law; and if having elapsed since its original con- under that dispensation one of the inception occurred to him, " during the ferior animals had been thus slain, it greater part of which period,” he tells could not have been accepted as a victim
at the altar. The stab with the soldier's that the sufferings of Christ's soul were spear might, in appearance at least, the soul of his sufferings. There is have answered the purpose, had it been much indeed in the scene that is to us given during life, but Jesus was already mysterious. We do not pretend to dead when it took place. The fatal understand what were the immediate hemorrhage foretold in scripture is causes of the Redeemer's consternation, moreover represented as the result
, not grief, and conflicting emotions which of external violence, but of inward threw him into an Agony ; how congrief, and in a certain sense as his own scious innocence and rectitude could have act: He poured out his life’s blood felt as the Saviour appears to have felt unto death. During a long succession both in the garden and on the cross ; of ages, the types and prophecies of or how he, with his full knowledge of scripture announced that Christ would his Father's purposes, and firm faith in suffer the death of malediction, and of their accomplishment, could have been the cross; not however in the usual brought into a state of mind giving rise manner, nor yet by the fracture of his to his pathetic exclamation, “My God, limbs, but by some extraordinary pro- my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?" cess connected with the travail of his But then, how little is there respecting soul,' and terminating on the very day Deity that can be fully understood by of his crucifixion in the effusion of his finite man! How much that is incomlife's blood, the indispensable medium prehensible to us is connected with of atonement."
everything relating to the appearance Independently of the main position, of God manifest in the filesh! The fact however, the influence of the work on is certain : "it pleased the Lord to bruise an intelligent Christian's mind will be him and put him to grief." His soul salutary. It is eminently adapted to was being made an offering for sin. excite sympathy with the gracious The hand of God lay heavily upon him. sufferer, and deepen our emotions of Spiritual griefs weighed him down, and gratitude for his self-denying love. afflicted him more terribly than even Never before did we read a book which the excruciating pains inseparable from impressed us so powerfully with the the death of the cross. intensity of that mental anguish which the Saviour endured in Gethsemane. We thank Dr. Stroud cordially for Never before did we feel so completely what we deem a very valuable contrithe correctness of the ancient saying, I bution to theological science,
Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and writings, shorn like Samson, and rendered
Robert Southey. By Joseph Cottle. Lon- comparatively useless, and ultimately wretched ; don : 12mo. pp. xx. 516. Price 10s. 6d. first, by the indulgence of indolent habits of
procrastination, leading him to break every This is one of the most amusing books that engagement, neglect every duty, and render have come into our hands for several years. The every promise wortbless; and then by the use projects, adventures, conversations, and familiar of narcotics, increasing from one degree to correspondence of the learned and clever young another, amidst indigestion, languor, chronic men who are presented to our view by the pains, sleepless nights, and restless dreams, till survivor, give to the work an enchanting in- wife and children are forsaken, and he consigns terest. To amuse, however, is not the principal bimself to helplessness and contempt. His life design of the writer. He thinks, and thinks is indeed a lesson to geniuses. Southey, on the justly, that there is scarcely an individual, other hand, whose letters drew from Foster the whose life, if correctly delineated, would not acknowledgment, notwithstanding the prejudice present much from which others might derive against him which had been excited by political instruction, and that this is especially the case an ecclesiastical differences, that he was “a “ in reference to the ethereal spirits, endowed man of sterling worth, of sound principles, faithby the Supreme with a lavish portion of intel- fulness to old friendship, generosity, and," added lectual strength, as well as with proportionate he, “I trust I may say, ' genuine religion,'” is capacities for doing good.” In Coleridge, we exhibited as successfully labouring with his pen sce an inteliectual giant, possessing power to for his own support and that of his family, till fascinate all his connexions by his conversa unremitting toil wears him out, and he sits in tional talents, and delight the public bg bis his library turning over the pages of a book