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ordeal of a long probation ; and all who disappointed and dissatisfied, quitted cannot endure the tests which are ap- the society with an honourable testiplied, whose purpose wavers and whose monial. heart fails, whose “vocation" appears By this publication our author affords from any cause doubtful, are dismissed us an opportunity such as is rarely before their initiation is completed. found, of a peep behind the scenes, And it is owing to a case of this sort where we see the future actors prethat we are, by the author of “The paring to play their parts. We are inNovitiate,” presented with the course of troduced to one of the schools of the glatraining adopted during the first year and diators, where we see the future combatdiscipline in a Jesuit establishment in ants going through their exercises under England.
the training of the lanistæ, preparatory Mr. Steinmetz was born in the West to their public appearance in the amphiIndies. His father was a protestant and theatre. We are admitted to an inhis mother a catholic. “Of six children, spection of the elementary processes of five were devoted to the baptism of this moral manufactory, in the singular Rome, and only one conceded to that productions of which the whole eccleof Luther. The author was one of the siastical world is interested. We see five. In his twelfth year, his mother no
to doubt the fidelity of took him from school, and consigned him the author's statements, to the care of a priest to prepare him for curacy of his descriptions. Every his first communion; or, as she said, unprejudiced reader will at once per'to break him in.' The dogmas of the ceive that, throughout the whole, there faith were then imparted to him for the is an air of truthfulness, and sincerity, first time. The seeds of religion sank and candour, which goes far towards deep in the virgin soil; he embraced removing every thing like suspicion of the faith with rapture--went to con- the author's veracity. There has not fession every week, and to communion been, as we are aware, any attempt to every fortnight. Such was the result invalidate the statements here made, of two months exclusively dedicated to farther than the angry vituperations and the study of religion in the house of dark insinuations of some who have the priest. With religious fervour came been galled by these disclosures, though zeal for the conversion of heretics. the author has challenged official conHe studied controversy. In his twelfth tradiction, and has produced a copy year he strove to propagate the faith. and fac-simile of the testimonial which He attacked the forlorn hope of his he received from the master of the father's religion-his eldest sister; and novices, on quitting Stonyhurst. And she was converted to the faith of Rome.” | certainly, if the author's narrative were Having studied medicine for two years, a mere fabrication, or an extravagant and being determined to enter the priest distortion of the truth, nothing would hood, he was sent to England, and for be easier than for the agent in London, five years pursued his studies with dili- or those in office at the establishment, gence and success at St. Cuthbert's to prove it such. In addition to this college, near Durham. After this he view which is given to us of the intravelled for some time on both conti- terior of this wonderful system, the nents, and being left destitute of parents historical notices of the author himself, and of property, his mind naturally and the workings of his mind in the active and enthusiastic, with strong re- various positions in which he was placed, ligious tendencies, was fixed on the and which ended eventually in his order of Jesuits, as affording scope leaving, not only the Society of Ignatius, to his energies, while it excited his but even the catholic church itself, are imagination with objects of boundless far from being uninteresting. grandeur. On application made to the Our readers may not perhaps be agent of the society in London, he was, generally aware that the establishment after some delay, accepted. He arrived of a Jesuit college, or the existence of at Stonyhurst in February, 1838, full of any such society in England is illegal. zeal and high determination ; passed So late as the passing of the Catholic one of the two years to which the term Relief Bill in the reign of George IV. of the novitiate extends; attended in a the existence of any such community is very creditable manner to all the rules prohibited. But this law is never enforced. and exercises enjoined ; and, becoming | It is a dead letter on the statute book.
“That bill forbids Jesuits—and members of , employed to effect this, our author other religious orders, communities, or societies says :of the church of Rome, bound by monastic or religious vows—from coming into the realm,
" It is not to be wondered at that this inunder pain of being banished from it for life: sidious course has lured into the novitiate the excepting only natural born subjects who were
fons of noblemen and the wealthy of the land. out of the realm at the time of the passing of There is a very nostalgia generated in tender the act. Such religious persons may, however, minds, which makes them cling (as if under the enter the United Kingdom on obtaining a
fascination of the serpent) to the spot where licence in writing from one of the principal their minds first budded into spring, and to the secretaries of state, who is a protestant; and
men who possess the tender secrets of their may remain such time as such secretary shall per- youthful indiscretions, which heaven has long mit, not exceeding six months; unless the licence since forgotten! It is through the confessional is revoked before the end of the six months. **
that drips the potent fluid, which encrusts the They remonstrated by their delegates against heart with a coating impervious to all external the stringency of the act in question ; but it influences, that do not pass first through the was intimated to them sub rosu, that they need medium of the father of the conscience,' who be under no appreliension, as they might
reigns in undivided and undisputed possession drive a coach and six through the said act.'”–
over the mind.”—P. 44. Pp. 33, 34.
Not far from this college is the SemiThe members of this body are now, nary, where the process of training is in various parts of the kingdom, very carried on when the novitiate termiquietly but very actively pursuing their ob- nates and the vows are taken, after jects, but their seat is at Stonyhurst, in having passed through which its memLancashire. Here they have a college bers become complete Jesuits, fit for for the education of Roman catholic their work, called the “ professi.” Beyouth, furnished with Jesuit masters. fore entering the seminary, two years
must have been passed in the novitiate. “ The stipend is for children under twelve The place appropriated to this probayears of age, forty guineas; for those above tionary course is called Hodder House, that age, fifty; and for students in philosophy, which visitors seldom see. The doone hundred guineas. The course of studies main of Stonyhurst was the munificent professed, comprises the Greek and Latin classic gift of Thomas Weld, of Lulworth authors, composition in Greek and Latin prose Castle, “who enhanced his generosity and verse; regular instruction in reading and by giving his son to the society.” The elocution, writing and arithmetic, English, occasion of this was the 'expulsion French, Italian; history, sacred and profane, of the Belgian Jesuits in consequence and geography. The higher classes receive of the French Revolution, who subselessons in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. quently took refuge in England, and The philosophical course embraces logic, meta- | obtained this asylum.
• The Jesuits physics, ethics, and natural philosophy, with soon set to work, rebuilt and added, chemistry, and the higher mathematics. There cultivated and improved, and at the is in the college an extensive apparatus for present time, they possess an ample experimental philosophy, an astronomical ob- domain of some thousand acres of exservatory, a chemical laboratory, a collection of cellent land, three flourishing establishminerals, &c. There is also a considerable and ments, and a splendid church."-P.38. increasing library of approved works of history
Our limits will not allow of a deand of general information ; of which the tailed account of the various duties and scholars have the use, on paying a small exercises through which the candidates monthly subscription. Masters of music, have to pass during their novitiate. drawing, dancing, and fencing, give lessons to Suffice it to say, that all is order, method, those whose parents may desire it. All are
and punctuality. The whole time, day closely examined four times a year, in what they and night, is with singular tact so dishave learned during the preceding quarter, and tributed, that mental and bodily ex, rewarded accordingly.”—Pp. 38, 39.
ercise, devotion and meals, penance and From this college, it appears, many, combine in producing one great result,
recreation, are all so arranged as to and some even of the Roman Catholic a perfect Jesuit. Not a moinent is lost, aristocracy, are induced to enter as no kind of means is left unemployed novitiates. Alluding to the methods which a profound knowledge of human
nature can suggest, to further the pro- A subject is announced by the superior, posed end. The period of the novitiate and its points, or principal topics and is not so much a time of learning or of divisions, are given,
The first quarstudy, as of creating and fixing of cer- ter of an hour the mind pursues tain babits, the formation of a certain the prescribed course of thought kneelcharacter; in fact, the casting of a man ing; the next quarter is similarly into a new mould. It is like the train- employed in a standing posture, the ing of some animals, by which all the third sitting, and the fourth, kneeling general instincts and particular ten- again. At the commencement of the dencies of their nature become so modi- novitiate, a week is passed in the Retreat, fied and combined, so subdued or a seclusion in which the novice has, at stimulated, as to produce the type de- least our author had, four meditations sired. The subject of this process re- of an hour cach, every day, the nature mains still generically a man; but a of which, and the manner of performing Jesuit belongs to a species in a very them are described at some length :marked manner distinct from all others.
On this course of preparation all the “I had four meditations each day, the inpowerful aids of religion are brought to tervals being filled up with verbal prayer, spibear. But the religion with which the ritual reading, an examination of conscience, spirit is imbued, under the influence of preparatory to confession, and a walk in the which the character is formed, and the garden for relaxation. On the last occasion, I mind fortified for all the possible con was accompanied by the brother,' who bad me tingencies of future life, is not the in charge for the week. This indulgence was religion of the Bible; it is essentially doubtless kindly intended to ease the pressure deficient in the simplicity, the spirituality, of the solitude into which I was suddenly the universal benevolence, which the thrown from the turmoil and busy scenes of New Testament inculcates. The reading, life. In general, according to the requisition of which is regular and constant, is not that Ignatius, a person in retreat must be lest enof the divine word. We did not,” says tirely to himself and his spiritual director, who the author, “ read the bible; or, if any should not visit bim oftener than is necessary." did so, they did it privately, and by special permission." Their reading is There is also annually “the Grand Rethe lives of saints, the legends of ascetic treat,” or “the Spiritual Exercises” of heroes, the labours, and achievements, Ignatius, which the novitiates enter on and glories of St. Ignatius and his fol- immediately after the feast of that saint. lowers. And as Loyola was the sworn During this time, there is the same knight of the Virgin Mary, the members strict seclusion, except a few short of his fraternity become her enthusiastic intervals of recreation. The whole of worshippers, to whom innumerable chap. xiii. is occupied with a remarkprayers are addressed, and without the ably interesting description of the invocation of whose aid, not even a course of exercises during this Retreat; walk is attempted. The thoughts of the tendency of which must necessarily be the novices are incessantly familiarized to leave a deep impression on the spirit, with the presence, the approving re- and at the same time to foi the mind gards, and the intercessions of angels to habits of fixed and consecutive and archangels, of confessors and mar- thought. tyrs, and holy virgins; so that they Amidst all these duties and rigid oblive constantly in an ideal world, people servances, the health of the novices is by supernatural beings of their own not neglected.
Such intervals of recreimagination, which gradually acquire ation are allowed, so mixed is bodily the vividness, and force, and permanent with mental labour, and such is the impression of reality. The action of regularity, the sufficiency, and the these influences is intensely sustained by quality of their meals, as may, most daily masses, innumerable acts of devo- effectively keep up
their bodily tion, and by a peculiar kind of exercise strength. Nor is the study of etiquette called “meditations."
neglected; a polished smoothness in These meditations, indeed, form a their manner is assiduously cultivated, remarkable part of the training. Every and the suaviter in modo is as essential day (as we understand our author) an as the fortiter in re. hour before breakfast is employed in “For our missionary duties," says the littie chapel in these exercises. 'our author, “ we were directly and indi
101. X. -7till SERIIS.
rectly prepared; indirectly by all our | ing is an instance of a part of that discipline reading, and directly by the short ser-by which this habit is formed. Imagine the mons which every novice in his turn novices pleasantly engaged at dinner, satisfying had to compose and deliver, and by a the grateful stomach with savory food, and the course of Christian doctrine which was pious soul with holy thoughts. The Martyrread in class,” page 185. “We had ology and Fasti have been read. One novice also to compose and deliver longer has the cup in his hand, another his fork to his sermons after the great Retreat,” page mouth, a third is dividing his meat, a fourth is 186. “ We delivered
sermons masticating. Suddenly the reader solemnly without gesture, keeping custody of entones, “By order of holy obedience!' Now eyes, after the manner of the last named look! the cup is down-the fork deposited-the celebrated orator,” (Bourdaloue). “The meat relinquished-the teeth forget their funesermon was generally criticised by the tions—the mouth is closed in the death of superior, or the minister when he was obedience. The hands are joined on the breast appointed ; and sometimes keenly-I -each throbbing heart is asked by vanity, 'Is suppose, ‘to try the spirits,'” page 187. it I? Is it I? Now, listen to the brief. By
.is “ If I may be permitted to speak of order of holy obedience! Brother myself, I would say that, when I left hereby reprimanded for his general unedifying the novitiate, it would have been an conduct, want of punctuality, hurried gait, easy matter for me to preach a sermon bustling demeanour, totally unbecoming : extemporaneously on most of the topics novice of the Society of Jesus. He must reof Christian morality; and I record the member what is required of him by the rules of fact with candour and thankfulness, the seminary, and entirely discard the habits of that the habit of meditation acquired a school-boy. Holy obedience enjoins luim to in the novitiate gives me great facility kiss the feet of all the brothers as soon as he in riveting my mind to any subject sug- bas dined.' The reader sat down, and dinner gested by the will or the fancy: and proceeded as if nothing had taken place, except for any length of time without dis- the crimson blush on the cheek of the brother traction," page 189.
whose brief has just been read.”--Pp. 252, 253. For all the minutiæ of mortifications
“He (Ignatius) establishes on reasons deand penances, including the habitual duced from the scriptures and the fathers, three silence enjoined, the “custody of eyes,' degrees of obedience. The first, and the lowest, that is, the straight forward, or rather, consists in doing what is commanded. The the downcast look without any per- second is, not only to execute the orders of the mitted deviation, the prohibition of superior, but to conform our will to his. The forming friendships, or even indulging third, to consider what is commanded as the in preferences, the perusal by the su
most reasonable and the best, for this only perior of all letters written or received, reason--that the superior considers it as such. the mutual espionage, the scourge, and In order to attain this degree so elevatedthe chain, we must refer to the work which is called the obedience of the underitself. We shall close with a few brief standing-he says, that we ought not to care extracts respecting what may be consi- whether he who commands is wise or dered as the sum and climax of all Je- holy or imperfect ; but consider in him only the suitical virtues, that in which this order especially excels allothers, that which ren- authority into his hands, in order to guide us
person of Jesus Christ; who has placed his ders the society pre-eminently dangerous, and who, being wisdom itself
, will not pernit and capable of effecting conscientiously his minister to be mistaken.”—Pp. 150
, 151, and devoutly, the most enormous wickedness, i. e., HOLY OBEDIENCE: obedience has holy father Ignatius selected three meta.
“ Here then, (referring to the prescribed rules
) not to the precepts of God's word, nor the authority of Christ, but to the su
plors, to give an idea of what sort of obedience perior! An obedience into the reason
he expects to find in his Jesuits. These meta. of which no inquiry must be made, but phors are, Ist, wax; 2nd, a corpse ; 3rd, an old “a perfect, blind, entire obedience, he did not stop there; he subjoined the proces
man's stick. Very expressive, certainly
. But * which recognizes God in his supe-perty of war, namely, "to take what form be rior.'” page 60.
pleases;" he intimates the passiveness of : “ The very mention of this awful formula is corpse, “which las no voluntary motion ;' he sufficient to stille the conceived reply, to cut declares the unscrupulous adaptation of an old short the half formed word, to suspend all man's stick, which he uses according to bis actijn, and to still every motion. The follow- convenience. Now, in all fair play, I ask, if a
man becomes, in the hand of his superiors, as , sion of the bible he bowed with the this wax, this corpse, this old man's stick, in simplicity of a docile child, and adhered the manner that Ignatius superadds by way of with the tenacity of a resolute man. explanation-I ask, “in the name of common He commits himself boldly to scriptural sense,' will not that man do whatsoever his principles and phraseology, when they superior commands? He will, you say, but clash with the speculations of phi• where no sin lies ! Will your wax demur to losophy and the diction of philosophizing be made into a RAVAILLAC, by Madame Tus- divines. The fundamental principle saud? Will your corpse refuse to be dissolved of the baptists in the baptismal controinto rank corruption ? Will your old man's versy he carries into every controversy stick aid his steps, but refuse to “knock down' and every investigation, - the true 'according to his convenience ?!” – Pp. 233, meaning of the text is to be decisive, in 234.
spite of difficulties, inconveniences, dis
likes, surmises, and human authority. The “ Jesuit in the Family,” by the God is in all his thoughts : he has consame author, is a work of a different tinually before him God's sovereign description. It is a Tale,” told with power, his constant superintendence of great vivacity, and is designed to illus human affairs in all their minutiæ, his trate the working of the system, and to determination to overrule for good all “ display the Jesuit in action, especially the evil that exists in the universe, the with regard to conversions. It has certain accomplishment of all his pur not the boundless complexity and gor- poses and fulfilment of all his declarageous extravagance of the work of tions. It is such teaching, it appears to Eugene Sue, but it is beyond comparison, us, that the age requires. more true to nature and to fact. To
The present volume consists of Misthose who are pleased with such works cellaneous Treatises. Its contents are as “ Father Clement,” &c., this “tale” derived chietly from original manuwill afford a high treat, as the incidents scripts. It is a slight deduction from are both numerous and exciting, and the their value that they had not undergone author has evidently an extensive and the author's final revision when he died, intimate acquaintance with the whole but that they had been originally inmachinery of Jesuitism, and the spirit tended for publication is evident from which actuates it.
their character. The difficulty of reading his hand writing, which we can cer
tify was not a trifling obstruction, has The Works of the Rev. Alexander Carson, occasioned undesirable delay in their
LL.D. Volume the First. Dublin: 12mo. appearance, and has caused, in some pp. xii. 454. Price 5s. cloth.
cases, a demand on the ingenuity of the
editor as well as on his industry ; but, This is the first of a series of volumes though these things are properly mento which we are anxious to direct the tioned in the preface to avert the ser attention of all our readers. The name verity of criticism, the result has been of Dr. Carson has appeared before the so successful that they would not have British public principally in connexion been guessed if they had not been with the ordinance of baptism; and it disclosed. is not generally known, that if he had The first and longest picce is on the never written a syllable on that subject, doctrine of the atonement.
The auother works of which he is the author thor shows in an address to the pubwould have entitled him to an honour-lic which occupies nearly two hundred able place in the first class of modern pages that the scriptures declare that theologians. His acuteness in the de- all men are guilty before God; that tection of error, the exposure of so- the scriptures teach that the death phistry, and the perception of the hinge of Christ is an atonement for sin, on which a question turns, is perceptible the only atonement, and an atonein all his writings, whether they relate ment for the chief of sinners ; that to the claims of evangelical truth to the faith in the Lord Jesus Christ is the cordial acceptance of mankind, or to way of being interested in his atonement; the details of doctrine and practice. that faith in the atonement of Christ, or The bible was his constant study ; the the belief of the gospel, effectually bible was his oracle to which he ap- changes the mind, pursuits, and conpealed on every question ; to the deci-l duct, of all that receive it; that this