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own times, transcribed upon it some to determining accurately what each of the treatises of Ephrem the Syrian, a writers of the New Testament individually deacon of the thirteenth century, and wrote, especially among the four evangelists, these rendered its original contents and to removing from bis text what has been almost useless. Tischendorff, by che- added during the lapse of time from the others, mical means, has succeeded in render- with a view to the completion of his narrative. ing, this important manuscript legible ; Occasionally, however, material and historical and has published a beautiful transcript matters are in question ; lastly, there are cases, of it in three hundred and six pages, but which are sufficiently rare, where the with a critical appendix, which is highly variety of the readings even affects the docesteemed. Not content with this, he trine. has engaged in an enterprise of a much “ llence you will be able to judge how immore extensive character. He is en portant or unimportant this criticism is. In deavouring to collect all the manuscripts my opinion, in the text of the book with which of the Greek New Testament written no other book in the world can be compared, before the tenth century, lying dispersed from the sacredness of its origin, its higla sig. throngh the libraries of Europe, in- nificance, and immeasurable consequences, tending to print them verbatim. This nothing can be held to be so trifling as to be collection will occupy, he thinks, thirty indifferent. What did the apostle write ? or forty volumes ; and yet this is only what did he not write? even be it but a particle, one part of a more extensive plan which or even but a grammatical form, I hold to be he hopes to accomplish.
a question the solution of which is deserving of The desirableness of these efforts to the most serious study. Have not, not merely clear the sacred text from those acci- books, but even whole libraries been written, dental errors which have naturally oc- and that without meriting censure, upon the curred in copying the inspired writings, correctness of the text of the Greek and as they occur in the copying of all other Roman classics.”—Pp. 210, 211. writings, will scarcely be disputed; but it is very possible to imagine that they are
But between the two melancholy extremes much inore momentous than they are ac
of reckless unbelief and careless indiscriminating tually. It will serve to confirm faith in credulity, my faith is immoveable that the the substantial accuracy of the common
Book of Redemption will be of the same copies of the Greek Testament, if we validity to the very latest posterity, thousands quote some of the observations of of years hence, that it is to me at present, and Tischendorff himself on the subject. the same as was its value to the miner'g* As a man thus engaged is not likely to son, who raised the treasure with enthusiasm undervalue the importance of the work and success from the depth of the mine, where to which he is devoting his life, it is it had lain buried for ages.”—P. 213. pleasant to read such language as the following from his pen :
It is scarcely necessary to say that
Tischendorff's principal object in visit“But I must at the same time explain myself ing the East was to obtain or inspect with respect to the kind of varieties of the manuscripts that might aid him in his text which is here under consideration. I have great undertaking ; and though he often, especially out of Germany, heard such reserves for another work his formal questions as the following:Well, how does report on this subject, it is satisfactory Christ present himself in your manuscripts ?' to find that he expects from his journey •What is there in them about the Trinity ?' material assistance, in clearing up doubts Elsewhere I have heard severe remarks upon which he had entertained respecting the the suspiciousnes of individual passages. From latest acquisitions which in Europe these 1 perceived how little the essence and form the groundwork of a critical exspirit of the thing were understood. The amination of the New Testament text. variations of the text refer more particularly to The investigations of our travellers do so called trifles than to matters of doctrine. not appear to have added much to that I say "so called,' for I can recognize the cha- which was previously known respecting racter of trifles' only in contradistinction to the geography of Palestine ; but that that of doctrinal' importance. Most fre-country has been described by so many quently, that is to say, many thousand times in recent visitors, that novelty was scarcely many codices, the question relates to the ca to be expected. Their descriptions of pricious falsification of expression with regard to grammar and style, and also very frequently
what they saw are, however, pleasant to those of Mr. Williams, chaplain to reading, and Dr. Wilson, especially, the late bishop Alexander, and Dr. examined with great minuteness and Schultz, Prussian consul at Jerusalem, apparent accuracy, the places through who maintain the authenticity of the which he passed, and their antiquities. tradition. Now, we believe that in But the localities of Palestine may now this case, and in others of the same be divided into two classes ; the obvious, kind, divine Providence has veiled the and the uncertain. About its promi- fact with impenetrable obscurity. nent features there is little that is un Moses was buried in a valley of the known or doubtful. There can be no land of Moab, “but," it is said, "no question, for example, that the Jordan, man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this the Dead Sea, the Sea of Galilee, Jeru- day.” The brazen serpent was preserved salem, and the Mount of Olives, are till the times of Hezekiah, but, as the where and what they have always been children of Israel made an idolatrous declared to be. But with regard to use of the relic, the reforming prince small places and topographical details, wisely brake it in pieces. In like the more we read the less we believe manner, the Most High, knowing that The local traditions with regard to superstitious use would be made of an these things are utterly worthless ; and acquaintance with the precise spot at whatever quantity of docility an English- which Jesus died, at which he was man may bring with him, he is almost | buried, and whence he arose, knowing sure to find it fail when he has been that it would be an occasion of evil even shown Adam's grave, the spot at which to his own children, exciting emotions Melchizedek met Abraham, the house of which would be mistaken for spiritual the rich man at whose gate Lazarus emotions, though having nothing truly lay, and the balcony from which Pilate spiritual' in them,-knowing that it addressed the clamorous multitudes. would tend to localize that which has On the other hand, the deductions from no connexion with locality, reverence recorded facts and present appearances for holy places being quite uncongenial made by the most erudite investigators with the spirit of the new covenant are painfully diversified. Dr. Robinson, dispensation, did purposely by his whose qualifications for the examina- providence, make it utterly impossible tion of questions of this nature, and that in the remoter ages of his church whose careful inquiries have given to these sites should be satisfactorily ashis “ Biblical Researches” great popu certained. Never was a district on larity, has in the exercise of an inde- this earth so torn about and transpendent judgment, published many novel formed by violence as the area of Jeruopinions respecting the scenes of inte salem, since it has been trodden down resting transactions. The authors of of the Gentiles." How many vicissithese volumes, coming after him, and tudes has it and its suburbs undergone, speaking in very respectful terms of altering entirely the aspect of all its his labours, yet feel themselves com- scenery, and mingling hills and valleys, pelled to reject some of his favourite majestic edifices and empty solitudes in conclusions. Calvary and the adjacent chaotic confusion ; and this not once of garden, are fixed by tradition at a spot twice alone, but with often repeated where, in the fourth century, Helena, desolations ! After the military enthe mother of Constantine, was said by gines of Titus had been planted all some of her contemporaries to have around the walls, spreading universal discovered the cross, and which has havoc and destruction, is it likely that since been a resort of pilgrims. Dr. Joseph of Arimathea himself would Robinson argues strongly against this have been able to identify his own supposition, which he declares to be garden, had he sought it ?' And what totally irreconcileable with the scrip- can topographical research accomplish tural accounts of our Lord's crucifixion after Adrian has sent his army to deand burial. Dr. Wilson agrees with stroy whatever escaped the fury of him thus far, but differs from him re- Titus, built public and private edifices specting the real position of the place for the Æolian colony, and erected where these transactions occurred. temples to Jupiter and Venus in the Tischendorff at first acquiesced in the most sacred places ?–and after Constan; reasonings of the American professor, tine has pulled down those temples
, and but has since surrendered his convictions Christianized according to his notions
THE GREEKS AT JERUSALEM.
and the notions of his contemporaries, valuable. He has devoted above three every vestige of what was Jewish or hundred pages to the Independent pagan?-and after the eruptions of Eastern Churches—the Papal Eastern subterranean fire, whether natural or Churches-the Eastern Jews-the Samiraculous, have compelled the work- maritans--the Muhammadans—and the men of Julian to desist from their un- Joktanites. We cannot attempt any hallowed labours ? - and after the epitome of the information he gives quarries of the neighbourhood have respecting these, but we will extract a been exhausted by Justinian to raise few pages respecting the different classes the valley to a level with the mountain, of religionists he found at Jerusalem. and furnish thus a foundation for the magnificent church which he dedicated to the virgin ?-and after the Persian " The Greeks have eight convents for men, Chosroes, having taken the city by , and five for women, in Jerusalem. In that assault, has wreaked his vengeance on
called Demetrius, which is the most spacious of all the Christian edifices ?-and after these edifices, the body of the monks usually the four months' siege in which the reside. Among these recluses are found several military engines of the Saracens inces of the bishops of the patriarchate, who santly played from the ramparts ?—and never visit their peculiar sees. One of after the seven crusades in which Jeru- them is the Wakil, or vicar, of the patriarcb, salem was fortified and dismantled, who usually resides at the capital of the Turkish captured and re-captured by crazy empire, where it is supposed his influence is fanatics and wretches intent on plunder? most needed to secure the interests of the comHistorical considerations would unite munity over which he presides. About thirty with theological convictions to deprive monks, in their turn, live in the church of the us of all sympathy with what Tischen- Holy Sepulchre, that they may be ready to dorff calls “the impulse to pray upon a perform the daily services. Altogether there spot sacred and holy above any other are about a hundred Greek monks in Jerusaspot in the world.” Sacred and holy ! lem. It is a somewhat curious circumstance, say rather, desecrated and defiled, dis- that they are all foreigners, principally from honoured and polluted, made the theatre the Greek islands, and that no natives of Syria of abominations and cruelties so atro
are permitted to join their fraternity. The cious that even Tophet may claim exclusion of the Arab Christians is said to comparative purity. If there were have arisen, about two centuries ago, from their a spot on earth which superstition immoral and disorderly conduct, and the comand hypocrisy had rendered unfit to binations into which they entered to acquire be a place of prayer, it might well be the mastery over their foreign brethren. On thought to be here. But neither mount the other hand, no foreign members of the Gerizim nor Jerusalem is more or less Greek church are allowed to officiate as secular acceptable than any other place, in the clergy; and the usual services of the two sight of Him who is a spirit, and who churches without the entrance of the church of must be worshipped in spirit and in the Holy Sepulchre, where the members of the truth. The contrite believer, reside Greek rite usually assemble for worship, are where he may, has “come to mount conducted by native Christians. Several of Zion, and unto the city of the living the Greek monasteries at Jerusalem are devoted God, the heavenly Jerusalem." Dr. Wilson's knowledge of oriental principally to the accommodation and enter
tainment of pilgrims. The Georgians, who languages and customs facilitated
are in union with the Greek church, have no greatly his endeavours to learn the
convent of their own within Jerusalem. That state of the various classes of the called the Deir el-Massallabah, lying a little to inhabitants of the lands he visited. the S.W. of the city, is their property. It reHe could communicate with the people, ceives its name from the absurd conjecture that without the intervention of an inter
it covers the spot where the wood of the preter; and he understood their precise
cross of our Saviour was reared ! It is meaning, and the force of their statements. This often surprised and pleased supposed to have been first erected by Tatian, them, and of course enabled him to the Iberian king, so early as the fifth century.”
--P. 451. obtain information which he could not otherwise have acquired. The portions of his work which relate to the natives “ The Armenian convent and church of St. of these lands are in our view the most James, are the largest in Jerusalem. They
occupy a very considerable part of Mount Zion. many, and a few are from England. In general. There is said to be accommodation in the con- they are very poor; and as they avoid secular vent for about two or three thousand pilgrims, employment, they are almost entirely dependent -the average number of the sons of Haik sup on the alms which are collected in their behalf posed to visit Jerusalem annually at the time in the different countries of Europe. They of Easter. The accommodations are fitted up number, however, a few families in good cirfor persons in various ranks of society. We cumstances, who are very careful to avoid any were kindly invited by the patriarch's secre unnecessary display of their substance, lest tary to make our choice of them ; but, as I they should excite the cupidity of the Turks, have already mentioned, we lived in Jerusalem
or encourage charitable demands upon them. with an Arab Christian of the Greek church. selves which they may not be able to answer. The Armenians resident in the town are esti- They all enjoy the protection of the respective mated at not more than two hundred. They European consulates in Syria; and they are are principally merchants and agents.”—P. 452. seldom interfered with by the native govern
As they originally belong to different “ The Syrians occupy an ancient monastery, relations, they have no civil head belonging to
European nations, and have different political whicb is supposed to have been the house of
their own community. Mark. It is on ground belonging to them, “ The Peroshim have two synagogues, one of which is said to have been contiscated by the which seems a private concern ; and they are Turks, that the English church of St. James about to rebuild another of some magnitude, is being erected.”—P. 452.
which has long been lying in ruins. They bare
adopted means for collecting subscriptions for "The Copts, who got their first footing in this erection in different parts of the world. Jerusalem when it was subject to the Egyptian They embrace all known by the name of the Khalífs, possess a large convent called the Ashkenazim, or German Jews, previous to the Deir es-Sultán, contiguous to the Holy Sepul- rise of the Kbásidim in Gallicia, who are but a chre, which, like several of the secondary con modern sect. They estimated themselves to us vents in Egypt, is presided over by a married at about 600 souls. priest, and a smaller one dedicated to St. “ The Khasidim are reckoned at about 100, George, contiguous to the pool of Hezekiah. including some visitors from Safed and Tie During the sway of Muhammed 'Ali in the berias, where the members of their sect prinHoly Land, they set upon the erection of a cipally reside. They are enthusiastic and sanew edifice, which, on the expulsion of his perstitious to a degree passing with many of troops, they were led to abandon. They are them into absolute fanaticism ; and their worvery few in number, and they are visited by few ship is accompanied with as much agitation and of their countrymen. They afford shelter to violent gesticulation as if they thought that the pilgrims who come from distant Abyssinia, they could take heaven literally by storm. and who are in strict community with the They consider great excitement essential to the Coptic church. Along with the Jacobites, existence of true devotion. I have been told they look principally for protection from the by a friend, that an established maxim with Armenians, who, like themselves, are nominally them is the Talmudic proverb, 7710 773IVT 1X the supporters of the monophysite doctrines.” Anav aipaa xbx « The Shechinah does not ap-P. 452.
pear but in the place of joy." They are ex
tremely scrupulous in the observance of their “The Jews of Jerusalem may be divided into self-invented rites and ceremonies, and suppose three classes, the Ashkenazim, the Sephardim, themselves possessed of much more sanctity and the Karaim.
than their brethren. Their chief they view as “The Ashkenazim, known among Europeans a perfect saint, and they give him the name of by the name of the German Jews, are divided | Zadik, the “ righteous,” and believe that he has into two sects, the Peroshim, or Pharisees, and direct communication with superhuman beings. Khásidim, or Puritans. With a few exceptions, They believe in the Indian doctrine of the transthey are not natives of Jerusalem, but religious migration of souls, and they are great students of devotees who have resorted to the Holy City thc Cabala, and particularly of the Sobar, ita from the different countries of Europe, to end principal authority. We heard of nothing distheir days among the desolations of Zion, and orderly in their conduct toward their brethren. to enjoy the privilege of burial among the graves They have two small synagogues, one of which of their fathers in the valley of Jehoshaphat. is the house of Rabbi Israel, an influential Most of them are natives of Poland and Ger-member of their community, who has set up &
,צורות בתי כנסיות של ירושלים תובב guard of soldiers
printing establishment in the Holy City. This Khuftor va-Ferach, a work of which he gave individual, whom we saw at work, is a very in me the loan, and from which, as I observed, genious and enterprising man. One of his many valuable geographical gleanings can be presses is of his own construction; and the collected. From his house, we went along other, a Columbian press, is the gift of Sir with some of his attendants to the Sephardim Moses Montefiore of London. He is said to synagogues. They are quite contiguous to one have cut and cast his types at Jerusalem. His another, forming, in fact, parts of the same printing is good on the whole, but his binding of building. The Jews worship in them is wretched. We purchased a few of the works according to the respective countries from which from him which he has published. They prin- | they come. The Jewish service which was cipally consist of portions of the Jewish liturgy. being conducted in them, at the time of our He was proud to show us in one of them a visit, was not proceeding in the most orderly prayer in behalf of her gracious Majesty Vic- manner, though certainly with more decorum toria, the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland. than we afterwards witnessed in the Eastern
“ The Sephardim are the most numerous Christian churches. The most affecting sight body of Jews in the Holy City, amounting ac- which we saw among them was that of a poor cording to their own census, as they informed blind man, who was repeating his prayers with us, to 700 families and 3000 souls. Most of all his might. The Rabbis who were reading them are natives of the different countries com the law from the nan (or na'n,) the readingprebended in the Turkish empire; and some of desk, respectfully invited us to take our station their families have, for two or three generations, behind them; and we complied with their been settled in Jerusalem. They are alnıost wishes. When at the close I was about to copy all subjects of the Porte; and their chief
some of the inscriptions on the walls of the Rabbi, called the Hákim Páshá, exercises civil synagogues, they offered to provide for me a authority among them, with the permission and representation and transcript of the whole, support of the government. An honorary which in due time they put into my possession.
, , residence, was stationed at his door. He is re
“ Plans of the Houses of Assemblies at Jerusponsible for all the taxes levied on the com
salem.' (“Let it be built and erected speedily munity over which he presides, and has several in our days.") The inscriptions are similar to clerks in his employment. His influence extends more or less over all the Sephardim Jews The Yishvioth, or establishments for study, are
those at Hebron, which I have already noticed. of the country. He lives in circumstances of
twenty-five in number. considerable worldly comfort. The interior of
“At the time of our visit to Jerusalem, we his dwelling we found remarkably clean and found only five adult males belonging to the orderly; but, like the other residences of the Karaim, (Caraites,) or Textuarians, who interJews at the time of our visit, it had undergone pret Scripture, as they allege, as the name various ablutions and purifications with a view implies, according to the manifest meaning of to the celebration of the passover, which was
the reading, and not according to the rumours at hand. In the arrangement of its diwáns of uncertain tradition. The notices of the peand couches, it was exactly similar to the culiarities of the sect, which I intend to give, I houses of the Turks and town Arabs, which dispose of under the head of the Jews of Egypt, have been often described.
The reception the country in which they probably first origiwbich he gave us was kind and cordial ; and he nated. It is remarkable that there are so few very readily answered all the questions which
of them in the Holy City, for one of the names we addressed to him. He gave us an account by which they are known is that of Jerusaof the distribution of the Jews in the Holy lemites, wbich they derive from their strict Land—which I elsewhere notice—which we
devotedness to the exercise of bewailing the afterwards found tolerably correct. Of the
desolations of Zion, The Sephardim Jews, Samaritans at Shechem, his knowledge was less who spoke very contemptuously and hatefully accurate. It is a carious fact,' he said, that of thein to us, represented them as Sadducees; they are always thirty-nine in number ; they but both the name and tenets of this sect they know no increase and no decrease" In bis utterly disclaim. In fact, one of the ten articles library, which is of considerable extent, we
of their creed recognises the doctrine of the refound a large number of Hebrew manuscripts, surrection and judgment. Basnage, Wolfius, some of which appeared to be of considerable Triglandius, and other Hebraists, have most antiquity. When I began to examine him distinctly shown that they have no connexion about the opinions of the Jews of various geo with the Sadducees.”—Pp. 454—459. graphical questions connected with the Holy Land, be referred me for information to the Respecting the Jews, Dr. Wilson gives