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other denomination shares with his own / who as clearly as the moderns, and in the advantages and blessings incident some respects more thoroughly, underto an adhesion to the simple laws of stood the principles of liberty and indeChrist. Had he entitled his work a pendency. But they were baptists. History of the Independents, there Hence we suppose Mr. Fletcher's nonwould have been no ground for re- recognition of their existence. mark: every one would at once have In proof of this, it may not be uninknown to what body he referred. But teresting to our readers if we produce a in a history of Independency we na- few sentiments on the nature of the turally expect to find all who hold church from the writings of the eminent sentiments upon church government of baptist Menno Simons; especially since the kind indicated, having a place. his writings and opinions are scarcely The reader is thus led into positive known in this country. Thus of the error. Parties who held the fundamental parties who constitute the church of principles of a true church polity are the Redeemer he says, “The church of overlooked ; and we are made to under- Christ is a gathering of God-fearing stand, that before the rise of the inde- people, and a fellowship of the saints pendents of modern times, all were who have believed in the promised seed, ignorant of them.

the Prophet, Saviour, King, Prince, Certainly it may be said, that till Immanuel, &c., wherein they shall conthe appearance of Robinson, these prin- tinue till their life's end. His word they ciples did not take their present definite have received with pious and sincere but negative form. But on the other hearts, his example they follow, and are hand, it is equally certain, that until led by his Spirit.”* On the indethe Reformation no one ever dreamed of pendency of the church of all human the church being subject to the laws of interference and law, he thus writes : Bovereigns and of states. It was be- “ Jesus Christ with his powerful word cause that, abroad and at home, the and Holy Spirit is the Saviour and reformers sought to make the church Defender of his church, and not Cæsar, subordinate to the civil power, that nor kings, nor any worldly magistrate. those relations came to be called in The kingdom of the Spirit must be question and opposed. It had been from upheld and protected by the sword of the beginning the doctrine of the church the Spirit, and not with carnal weapons : of Rome, and is now, that the church of as is placed beyond all contradiction by Christ cannot be subject to secular the teaching and example of Christ and potentates ; and therefore, no one of the his apostles. Again, I say, did magisschismatical communities, so numerous trates understand the church and his in the middle ages, ever protested against kingdom, they would to my thinking it. It was a non-existent thing. When- sooner die than grasp their worldly ever the secular arm was employed in power and sword in the things of the religious affairs, it was in obedience to Spirit, which are reserved not to the the laws, and as a servant of the church; power of men, but to the judgment of and not by any means as possessing the great God, the Almighty.”+ rights over it. The protest was against He carefully distinguishes the magisthe hierarchy of Rome, its abominations, trate's duty from the rights of conits cruelties, its crimes, and its irreligion. science : “ Also we should be obedient It a universal sentiment that to magistrates in all things to which Christ alone, or the church his repre- they are ordained by God's word ; as in sentative, was the Lawgiver of his forining dykes, roads, canals, in paying people. But no sooner was it taught, cess, toll, tribute, &c. But if they that kings and emperors might make domineer above Christ Jesus, or ordain laws in the church, might enforce Chris anything in conscience against Christ tian duties from their own motion and Jesus, after their own pleasure, with right, might establish a religion ac- human commands, and not according cording to their conscience at the point to God's will, thereto we will not conof the sword, than men were found to sent; but rather lose life and property protest against it, to proclaim the om- than knowingly and willingly, for the nipotence of Jesus, the freedom of con- sake of any man, be he king or emscience, and the pure, simple laws of his church. At a very early period of the Reformation were some to be found * Opera Omnia, p. 296. t Ibid. p. 323.'

was

VOL. X.-FOURTH SERIBS,

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peror, sin against Christ Jesus and his Two parties were struggling, the one to

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retain, the other to attain, the supremacy, Yet more distinctly does he propound Episcopacy and presbytery stood in a hely the duty of the magistrate, restraining tagonism to each other; and from the it within the bounds set forth by Christ irreconcilable claims of either to scripand his word.

prace “ The magistrate is tural sanction, arose the protest of the called to punish the wicked ; to protect Brownists, Barrowists, and separatista

, the good ; to decide and judge rightly which finally resolved itself into the in all causes ; to regard uprightly the form of church government erected by In orphan and the widow; to protect and Mr. Robinson. Episcopacy had made guard by his power the poor, the stranger, the sovereign the head of the church, and the pilgrim; to rule cities and and subordinated the fellowship and the palei countries with good policy, and to govern conscience of Christian people to the the towns which are not against God state. It had, moreover, embraced in and his word, for the peace and quiet, its ample bosom the entire nation, withthe honour and profit of the people; to out respect to character, age, or piets

, seek and love with his whole heart Presbytery, on the other hand, would

filc God's word, name, and honour, and in make the state its servant, and rule by scriptural equity, without bloodshed the aid of the civil power, enforcing its and disturbance, promote, defend, main- creed and holy discipline with a vigorous tain, and protect the same.” But he arm on every conscience as divine. yet further adds, “ Faith, says Paul, is Against these tyrannical foes of religious not of yourselves, but is the gift of God. liberty independency lifted up its front

; If a gift, then may it not be forced by and all its earlier defenders and proany outward power or sword, but must moters expended their best and largest shine upon all by the Holy Spirit, by efforts to the overthrow of the hierarchy the pure teaching of the holy word, and of the one and the synodal authority of with humble earnest prayer through the the other ; for both were alike unseripmercy of God.''+

tural. Either not perceiving this

, or Thus were the early movements of not thinking it needful to examine the the reformers, in their appeals to state matter, that portion of our author's aid and interference, opposed. The in- volumes which treats of the canses of dependence of the church was asserted, the revival of independency in this and the rights of conscience clearly ex- country is most unsatisfactory

. His plained. Of all this Mr. Fletcher ap- sketches

, indeed, of Browne

, Barrowe

, pears to be ignorant. His narrative Greenwood, and Penry are lengthy ; but gives the false impression that, till the they are chiefly confined to their perrise of the so-called independents, none sonal history. But little is given of were to be found who consistently re- their views on the subjects, or the cause sisted the encroachments of the civil which divided them from their conpower, or refused to bow to the yoke temporaries. imposed upon conscience by the leaders Of a like unsatisfactory nature is the of the reformation. Martyrs equal in account given of the differences that number and equal in piety to the suf- appeared in the churches of the sepaferers for conscience sake among other ration, especially concerning the power protestant communities, exhibited by and authority of elders. In this respect their fiery death and holy constancy, they were anything but independenta that the baptists had apprehended their This leads us to the remark, that if the principles of truth long before the name three principles laid down by our author or designation of independents was as the basis of independency be applied known, and were ready to vindicate at as a test to the various parties whom he any cost the royal prerogatives of Jesus as regards as independents, they will be “ Head over all things to his church." found to condemn them in all but one

It has already been intimated, that point. None of those named in the our author has failed to estimate the second volume as the first promoters of relation of the independents on their these principles in England, not even rise in this country to the system of Robinson himself, understood the first church polity then agitating the nation. and chief individual independence of

human authority, or liberty of con

science. This indeed our author admita • Opera Omnia, p. 149. Ibid. p. 119. in these words,

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" In one respect these parties fell short of the nistries, voluntary religions, and counterfeit truth, and became somewhat inconsistent, pro. worship of God ;' and even to enforce all bably without knowing it (?). “We acknow- their subjects, whether ecclesiastical or civil, to ledge,' said Barrowe and Greenwood, that the do their duties to God and men.' It is sinprince ought to compel all their subjects to the gular to find this so long maintained by the hearing of God's word, in the public exercises of early independents; more especially as it is so of the church.'”—P. 166, vol. ii.

much at variance with their other opinions, and

as they had suffered so much in consequence of In this sentiment Browne, Johnson, it in every period of their history, and even at and Robinson alike concurred. Said

the very moment when the confession was the latter, “ Yet, do I not deny all com

written."--Pp. 220, 221. pulsion to the hearing of God's word, as the means to work religion, and common We can understand why such tenacity to all of all sorts, good and bad ;-or to fatal error is regarded as singular by condemn convenient restraint of public Mr. Fletcher ; for if he has entered upon idolatry."* So that the very elementary the study and elucidation of this period principle of the whole fabric was far with the impression that he will find from being comprehended by these his “ three principles of independency," pædobaptist independents.

(principles which his denomination has In the same manner we find, that, only attained to in more recent times), while they vindicated their external in vigorous operation, he has mistaken independency of ecclesiastical control, the whole tenor of the historical records in their internal arrangements they he has been called to peruse. Nothing sacrificed it. But one portion only of can be more evident to a dispassionate Mr. Fletcher's second principle can be inquirer than that, if he is correct as regarded as true of them. They indeed to the elementary principles of independespoused the principle of self-govern- ency, then those principles were neither ment, but only so far as it related to the practised nor maintained by the parties claims of the dominant hierarchy, while he would fain claim as their revivers and internally, in their organization of the asserters. church itself, they practised a congre Pædobaptist independency goes astray gational-presbyterian discipline.

at its very first step. It denies a volun“ Both Brownists and Barrowists,”

tary agency at the very threshold of the says Mr. Fletcher, “regarded the officers Christian church to the novitiate for reof the church in an erroneous light, ception therein. It imposes a religion dividing their functions into a number upon the child before its faculties and of classes not warranted by the faithful capacities are in exercise. It violates interpretation of the New Testament.” the first principle which Mr. Fletcher P. 165. They were in fact presbyterians. says, “ is still to be regarded as invioThat such arrangements were not harm- lable,” that man is "a spiritual unit, less, as Mr. Fletcher asserts, is suffici- whose eternal destiny is entirely dependently manifest from the disorders that ent upon the manner in which his

persubsequently broke out in their churches sonal duty to God is discharged," by in the land of exile, which concerned professedly bringing the child into a these very arrangements.

relation to God of the most responsible But if these early independents were nature, without the possibility of the not sound on the fundamental point, it exercise of that personal choice, or sense were no wonder that they erred as to the of personal duty, on which responsibility rest, or that we should find Mr. Fletcher rests. If “ the first thing provided for thus speaking with regard to his third by Christ in reference to the adaptation principle :

of his holy religion to man was, that “ The greatest error beld by these parties every individual Christian should be pertains to the third principle of independency, religious capacity as being subject to

free to think, worship, and act in his or that which relates to the connexion between

Christ and his word alone" (vol. i. p. 71), church and state. In the thirty-ninth article, then docs pædobaptist independency they allow princes and magistrates to suppress root up the basis of personal religion and root out by their authority all false mi- and of church order, by enforcing a re

ligious act when “ freedom to think” * See Hist. Introduction to the Broadmead Re cannot characterize the unconscious cords, where this question is treated at length, neophyte, the helpless candidate for adPp. 37, 42, 87.

mission into the community of the in whose erection modern independents Lord's people. The child is made to rejoice. A wider examination of the take part in a religious act when no history of the reformation might permoral or religious capacity is awake. haps lead Mr. Fletcher to a recognition The provision made by Christ is nulli- of their existence, and that among fied. The first stage in its religious life baptist independents might be found in is taken when without thought, freedom, every age practical examples of the or accountability. We therefore do not principles he would challenge as the wonder or deem it singular that these especial heritage of his own denominaearly pædobaptists should so long deny tion. In our view, a “ History of Indeso large a part of the principles of inde pendency" ought to have included them; pendency, or that they should so long although courtesy and common use remain without a full apprehension of might have permitted their absence froin them.

the pages of a “ History of the IndeBut we do wonder that neither im- pendents.” Mr. Fletcher has chosen for partiality, nor love for historic truth, his work the former designation and not should have forced from our author an the latter. We do not however impute this admission that there were in those days to that sectarian spirit which can see no some men of greater discernment than merit in any body but its own ; under a these, who laid the axe to the very root general term claiming for itself a peculiar of all human authority in the worship property in that truth which it holds in of God and coercion of conscience, and common with others. We trust that by the proclamation of the voluntariness Mr. Fletcher has not fallen into this misof human belief, the declaration of the take wittingly; but that it has proceeded guilt and sin of those who forced reli- from mere oversight and want of gion upon the soul, the assertion that thought. In other respects there is Christ was the only lawgiver in his much to commend his labour to the church, laid in their blood the foun- kind reception and welcome of his own dation of that noble edifice of liberty denomination.

BRIEF NOTICES.

one.

A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in the Au- | The editor has brought much valuable matter

thorized Version. Following the Harmony of into a small compass, and furnished a book exthe Gospels in Greek, by EDWARD Robinson, ceedingly well adapted for family use. The D.D., LL.D, Author of Biblical Researches history may be read aloud in domestic worship in Palestine. Professor of Biblical Litera- with great advantage and without much diffiture in Union Theological Seminary, New culty; those passages which are given by more York, With Explanatory Notes and Re- than one evangelist being in parallel columns, ferences to Parallel and Illustrative Passages. one of which may be easily selected, and London : R. T. S. 8vo. pp. xii., 203. those read continuously that are found only in

The notes are judicious and appropriate To compare together the accounts furnished

to the character of the work. by the inspired men who recorded our Lord's discourses and actions, deducing from them a Horæ Biblicæ Quotidiana. Daily Scripture consistent and comprehensive narrative, is a

Readings, by the late Thomas CHALMERS, work to which many ingenious and industrious D.D., LL.D. In three Volumes. Vol. I, men have devoted themselves. The desirable Edinburgh: Sutherland and Knox. London : ness of such a performance is manifest at first Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 8vo. pp. xlii. sight; but the difficulty of executing it satis

422. factorily is greater than would be supposed by It appears to have been the invariable practice any one who had not made the attempt. Pa- of this eminent man, during the last six years tient research has however accomplished much, of his life, to devote a portion of every day to and both in this and in former centuries many meditation on from ten to twenty verses of Harmonies and Diatessarons of great value scripture, and record bis thoughts as he prohave successively appeared. Dr. Robinson ceeded. He began with Gencsis, and, at the prodaced one in 1834, which was highly es- time of his death, had arrived at the end of teemed; but in 1845, having visited Palestine Jeremiah. This volume contains one-third part in the interim, and more fully considered several of the whole, terminating with Joshua. It important topics of inquiry, he pablished one, constitutes the first volume of a scries of eight according to the text of Hahn, newly arranged, or nine, comprising the “Posthumous Works of which is the basis of the present compilation. Dr. Chalmers, which are being prepared for the

press by his son-in-law, the Rev. William | volume, will thank us for having directed their Hanna, LL.D. Prefixed to the “ Daily Scrip- attention to it. ture Readings” are twenty-four pages of “ Sabbath Exercises," taken from private papers, An Examination of " Anastasis," the late work forming, as the editor expresses it, “ that secret of Professor Bush; exposing the Fallacy of chamber of his innermost thoughts and emo the Arguments therein adranced, and proving tions, which lay very deeply buried from the the Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Body public eye-which he never voluntarily ex to be a Scriptural and a Rational Doctrine, posed—which he sensitively guarded against By the Rev. DERIC FISH, M.A., Author access and invasion.” It is, we presume, a of The Divine History of the Church selection from these private experimental records during the Twelve Hours' Sleep of the Apostles that is here given to the public. The “Scrip Peter and Paul.London : Seeley, Burnture Readings," which constitute the staple of side, and Co. 12mo. Pp. XX., 400. the volume, will be valued highly by all intel

Some of our readers who have not seen Proligent and devout readers. They are, in fact, a brief commentary, but a commentary written fessor Bush's Anastasis, as well as others who for the author's own use, the plain, terse, un

have, may perhaps remember a review of that sophisticated record of his thoughts, resolutions

work soon after it was published, which apof difficulties satisfactory to his own mind, and peared in our pages. The Professor maintained reflections which he desired should be impressed that the only resurrection we have to expect is upon his own heart. The individual man

& psychical development which takes place at Dr. Chalmers himself—is visible throughout, death, and that the only coming of the Lord working out inquiries, and making remarks which he promised, took place at the destruction which seem perfectly natural, and the insight of Jerusalem. We showed, as we thought, that into which is to the reader instructive and de. his argumentation was based on the subordinalightful. Short, pertinent, and lively as the tion of revelation to human reason, and of the comments are, it occurs to us that excellent use

Old Testament to the New. It is Mr. Fysh's may be made of them in various ways, and par: arian hypothesis that Mr. Bush can be re

opinion, however, that it is only on the millenticularly at prayer meetings, or in congregations in which worship is carried on without the aid futed: and chronological computations of proof a preacher. To read two or three chapters, phecy are wrought up with the other arguments with these notes interspersed, we should think throughout his book. Of course it does not infinitely preferable to the practice sometimes examine Mr. Bush's criticisms thoroughly,

meet our views; but any person who wished to resorted to of reading a sermon.

would find much to interest and assist him in

this volume, The Anabasis of Xenophon, with English

Notes, Critical and Explanatory, a Map ar- Life Lore: Lessons from the Childhood of ranged according to the latest and best au Nolan Fairfield.

London : Longman, thorities, and a plan of the Battle of Cunaxa. Brown, Green, and Longman, 12mo. pp. 188. By CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., Professor

This is a work of fiction, professing to be of the Greek and Latin Languages in Co. lumbia College, New York, and Rector of the founded on fact. Some of its pictures are too Grammar School. Revised and adapted to

strongly coloured, and one feels that they are the use of English Schools., London: Tegg Howing style and beautiful imagery, its high

too bright and glowing to be true; but its and Co. 12mo. pp. xxiv., 503.

poetic feeling, and above all, its holy principles, The subject of this volume is the march will not fail to delight many readers. The in

drawn from the pure fountain of Christianity, from Sardis to Babylon of Cyrus the youngercidents, real or fictitious, are all subordinate to not the Cyrus of scripture, but one who lived a hundred and fifty years after him and the the higher purpose of the volume-the inculca. retreat of the Greeks who had accompanied has been eminently successful. He is a church

tion of great moral truths. In this the author bim to the field on which he fell, through the countries watered by the Tigris and the

man, and perhaps a clergyman; but if so, with Euphrates.

a heart in full sympathy with all goodness in The manner in which these whatever body of Christians it may be found. events were described by Xenophon conduced Would there were many churchmen like him; much to their celebrity, and this work has always been deemed one of the most interesting yet we can but feel how strangely inconsistent and instructive in the Greek language. The such churchmen are with the system they

profess. text of the present edition is formed on a comparison of those of the most eminent English Salvation; or the Sinner directed in the Way of and German scholars, and beautifully printed ;

Lise. By the Rev. WILLIAM J. M.Corb. and the copious English notes appended by Dr. London : R.T.S. 24mo. pp. viii., 132. Anthon, are adapted not only to facilitate the acquisition of Xenophon's meaning, but also to The sinner is here presented with a descripfurnish a large additional mass of critical, geo- tion of his present state and prospects, and with graphical, and historical knowledge. The an exposition of the great doctrine of salvation valuable work of Ainsworth, entitled Travels by Jesus Christ. He is invited to partake of in the Track of the Ten Thousand Greeks," and the blessings of the gospel, and is remonstrated the investigations of other modern writers have with for his indecision and delay. The style of been employed largely for this purpose. Both the book is admirably simple and sententious. teachers and students of the Greek language A large portion of it consists of quotations who are unacquainted with this admirable from the word of God.

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