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it would injure the cause of religion, the direct their minds into safe channels." difference between the two cases being No man can deny this who has read simply this, that in the one our Saviour their writings, and whatever may be has authoritatively declared his will, in the issue it cannot be said that we the other he has left us to gather it by were not sufficiently forewarned. Surely inference.

a wise man will pause before he permits We object, further, to government them to take this “ new spring” of interference in this important matter, be- influence into their own hands. Dr. cause it would be an additional instance Vaughan, however, treats this alarm as of that excessive legislation which is the groundless, because America, jealous as grand mischief of our day. What is it is of liberty, has never entertained a there which the state will not under- fear in regard to state education. But take to do? It meddles with all subjects the political condition of America is and all interests. Nothing is too mean; very different from our own. They nothing too intricate ; nothing too deli- possess freedom even to an excess, and cate; nothing too sacred, to be regarded with a purely democratic government as beyond its sphere, or out of its power. have no reason to fear any treacherous From the sweeping of our chimneys abuse of power. With us, on the conupwards to the control of consciences, trary, democracy is still struggling and the care of souls, every thing is through many difficulties against the within its hands. When will rulers remnants of old oppression, and may well learn to retire within their own proper be jealous of such a means of power province, and leave the people to manage thrown into the hands of its opponents. their own affairs ? Give them the oppor- Perhaps some will boldly admit that tunity and the means, and they will democracy is the very thing that they e lucate themselves ; a training, too, far wish to impede. We applaud their more valuable than the state can confer. candour ; but for that very reason we If their political condition be sufficiently will not suffer education to be deraised to allow them a fair day's wages graded into a weapon of political for a fair day's work they will no more warfare. ask you to provide instruction for their Again, state systems never work with children, than they will require you to steady and heathful regularity. Corrupfind them food and raiment; but as tions invariably creep in ; are tolerated long as the struggle for the common for a time, and then give way before a necessaries of life is so severe that they sweeping reform. Yet even reform is must employ every hand as soon as it but a temporary check, which must be becomes strong enough to labour, you applied again and again, as fast as new may build schools and appoint teachers corruptions accumulate. Voluntary in every village and hamlet in the schemes of benevolence, supported by country ;—the children will be in the the people, are under constant popular fields and factories, and the amount of inspection; proceedings are commented school attendance will be no greater on by men of all parties, and public than before.

opinion can be brought to bear upon Besides, it must be obvious to every them with instant energy and effect. reflecting mind, that a national system, Hence they are kept constantly steady with a minister of instruction at the to the end in view. But government head, will be an engine of power, which systems, however perfect in organization, the state has never before possessed in being immoveable except by the hand this country, and the consequences of of power, have a continual tendency to which no man can foresee. Who shall degenerate. Even public opinion can assure us that the school will not be only affect them by long, indirect, and made the means of training the people often disregarded agitation, and thus in political subserviency, and thus prove they either subside into torpid ina mighty bulwark against the advances dolence, or become clogged by abuses, of liberty ? That such are the views of and so never accomplish the end for certain state-educationists is on record which they were devised. in their books. They evidently antici This, in part, may be the reason why pate it as a sort of " intellectual police all known government organizations watching over the young in the most exhibit such very unsatisfactory results. critical period of their history, to prevent If we may apply to them the maxim of the intrusion of dangerous thoughts, and our Lord, “ By their fruits ye shall know

them," by that test they will be found that in proportion as government inwanting. Prussia, with her most per- terferes, it must put an end to private fect system of means, is a lamentable benevolence. Men will have done their example that drilling is not education, duty when they have paid the tax. It and that the mind may be trained with is a known fact that in all state-educated out the development of the mental countries there is little or no voluntary faculties. The English are a reading effort. On the threshold of some new people, the Prussians are not; and yet proposal on the part of our rulers, it is proin Prussia all have learned to read, per to decide whether we will allow them while in England, according to Dr. to seal up the fountains of spontaneous Vaughan, full one-third are wholly un- liberality, and open a new spring of their able to read. The fact is, that while own, subject to every poisonous infusion English statesmen and tourists are be- which corrupt government channels are side themselves with admiration of the certain to impart. Prussian system, the Prussians are (not We cannot doubt what will be the indeed an ignorant, but) an unintelligent decision of protestant dissenters. There and superstitious people. That perfect is one portion of their labours too organization is à grand automaton slightly treated by Dr. Vaughan, which without life, its teachers unthinking they never can consent to forego,—the or irreligious men, and the who Sunday school. Yet, we are sure, that experiment a splendid and magnificent under a national system even Sunfailure which, by confounding teaching day schools could not long survive. From with education, the means with the end, the manner in which they are now has produced a race of disciples fit only spoken of in some quarters we may for the civil and ecclesiastical despotism infer, that our state educationists would under which they live.

not view their extinction with any very What a lamentable picture was pre- deep feelings of regret. The advocates sented before the Holy Coat

at of Sir James Graham's bill pronounced Trèves. The history of this recent su- them a failure, and from the general perstitious pilgrimage is more than a tone of Dr. Vaughan's pamphlet, not volume to the wise. Such a relic in from any particular expressions, we fear England might have booked one or two that he has become something like a fanatics from Oxford, but would scarcely convert to the opinion. For ourselves, have been worth a third class passenger we shall stand up in their defence, not to a single railway company in the land. only as nurseries of religion, but as But in Prussia it was a rich harvest to seminaries of instruction ; and to the the boatmen, put every steam-vessel utmost extent of our influence will in requisition, thronged the roads from resist any scheme, by whomsoever conall quarters, and employed every kind cocted or advocated, that can tend in of conveyance. Yet hundreds of thou- any degree to their injury or destruction. sands of these very individuals must We cannot conclude this subject have passed through the entire course without expressing again our deepest of instruction prescribed by the state. regret at the position which Dr. Vaughan Let government educationists explain has assumed. From the rank which he this stupendous fact, and reconcile it holds among nonconformists, and from with their extravagant eulogies of con- the respect which in other circles he tinental systems ! It proves to us, that has achieved by his literary productions, while states can teach they cannot his opinions will be quoted, not so much educate ; they may create systems, but as the opinions of an individual, but as they cannot inspire them with that life representing those of the dissenters at and vigour which is needful to secure large. Double caution is required of their end. Give us the solid English fruits men of eminence in the formation of of voluntary exertion, and in Prussia doubtful opinions, and in the publication they are welcome to their brilliant theory. of views hostile to those of a majority

Again, any national system must of among their brethren. The respected necessity interfere with, or supersede all doctor has committed the dissenters, and the popular efforts which have been made weakened their hands for the inevitable of late years by the friends of voluntary struggle which is before them. We instruction. It is surely worth while to would not have complained had his inquire whether we are prepared for opinions displayed a freedom from presuch a sacrifice. Let it be remembered judice, and had he held the balance with

Vibe us é relign the direct their minds into safe channels.” zfieretne tree the so: cases bag Xo man can deny this who has read Senesisee a sanar their writings, and whatever may be tas 125 streszcissed his win the issue it cannot be said that we the cas to gaida it ts were not sufficiently forewarned. Surely ziende

a wise man will pause before he permits We gece fame. to government them to take this “new spring” of Eeries in this car master, be influence into their own hands. Dr. care á ricade sa so sal instanse Taughan, however, treats this alarm as

seneste leis sech is the groundless, because America, jealous as u zis dar. What is it is of liberty, has never entertained a Dare the site not under- fear in regard to state education. But tate sc! It media with all subjects the political condition of America is 22. sess. Nazis to mean; very different from our own. They DE 12 Stricate : Dcing to deli possess freedom even to an excess, and este: D. to sacred to be regarded with a purely democratic government as berei os socre. o act of its poster. have no reason to fear any treacherous F: ce sweeping of our chimneys abuse of power. With us, on the conupwanis to the control of consciences. trary, democracy is still struggling and the care of souls every thing is through many difficulties against the within its bands When will rulers remnants of old oppression, and may well lan to retire within their own proper be jealous of such a means of power province, and leave the peuple to manage thrown into the hands of its opponents. their own atfairs! Give them the oppor-. Perhaps some will boldly admit that t inity and the means and they will democracy is the very thing that they eiucate themselves: a training, too. far wish to impede. We applaud their mre valuable than the state can confer. candour ; but for that very reason we If their political condition be sufficiently will not suffer education to be deraised to allow them a fair day's wages graded into a weapon of political for a fair day's work they will no more warfare. ask you to provide instruction for their Again, state systems never work with children, than they will require you to steady and heathful regularity. Corrupfind them food and raiment; but as tions invariably creep in; are tolerated long as the struggle for the common for a time, and then give way before a necessaries of life is so severe that they sweeping reform. Yet even reform is must employ every band as soon as it but a temporary check, which must be becomes strong enough to labour, you applied again and again, as fast as new may build schools and appoint teachers corruptions accumulate.

Voluntary in every village and hamlet in the schemes of benevolence, supported by country ;-the children will be in the the people, are under constant popular fields and factories, and the amount of inspection; proceedings are commented school attendance will be no greater on by men of all parties, and public than before.

opinion can be brought to bear upon Besides, it must be obvious to every them with instant energy and effect. reflecting mind, that a national system, Hence they are kept constantly steady with a minister of instruction at the to the end in view. But government head, will be an engine of power, whilemor perfect in organization, the state has never before

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STATE EDUCATION.

99 them," by that test they will be found that in proportion as government inwanting. Prussia, with her most per- terferes, it must put an end to private fect system of means, is a lamentable benevolence. Men will have done their example that drilling is not education, duty when they have paid the tax. It and that the mind may be trained with is a known fact that in all state-educated out the development of the mental countries there is little or no voluntary faculties. The English are a reading effort. On the threshold of some new people

, the Prussians are not; and yet proposal on the part of our rulers, it is proin Prussia all have learned to read, per to decide whether we will allow them while in England, according to Dr. to seal up the fountains of spontaneous Vaughan, full one-third are wholly un- liberality, and open a new spring of their able to read. The fact is, that while own, subject to every poisonous infusion English statesmen and tourists are be- which corrupt government channels are side themselves with admiration of the certain to impart. Prussian system, the Prussians are (not We cannot doubt what will be the indeed an ignorant, but) an unintelligent decision of protestant dissenters. There and superstitious people. That perfect is one portion of their labours too organization is à grand automaton slightly treated by Dr. Vaughan, which without life, its teachers unthinking they never can consent to forego,--the or irreligious men, and the whole Sunday school. Yet, we are sure, that experiment a splendid and magnificent under a national system even Sunfailure which, by confounding teaching day schools could not long survive. From with education, the means with the end, the manner in which they are now has produced a race of disciples fit only spoken of in some quarters we may for the civil and ecclesiastical despotism infer, that our state educationists would under which they live.

not view their extinction with any very What a lamentable picture was pre- deep feelings of regret. The advocates sented before the “ Holy Coat

at of Sir James Graham's bill pronounced Trèves. The history of this recent su- them a failure, and from the general perstitious pilgrimage is more than a tone of Dr. Vaughan's pamphlet, not volume to the wise. Such a relic in from any particular expressions, we fear England might have booked one or two that he has become something like a fanatics from Oxford, but would scarcely convert to the opinion. For ourselves, have been worth a third class passenger we shall stand up in their defence, not to a single railway company in the land. only as nurseries of religion, but as But in Prussia it was a rich harvest to seminaries of instruction, and to the the boatmen, put every steam-vessel utmost extent of our influence will in requisition, thronged the roads from resist any scheme, by whomsoever conall quarters, and employed every kind cocted or advocated, that can tend in of conveyance. Yet hundreds of thou- any degree to their injury or destruction. sands of these very individuals must We cannot conclude this subject have passed through the entire course without expressing again our deepest of instruction prescribed by the state. regret at the position which Dr. Vaughan Let government educationists explain has assumed. From the rank which he this stupendous fact, and reconcile it holds among nonconformists, and from with their extravagant eulogies of con- the respect which in other circles he tinental systems ! It proves to us, that has achieved by his literary productions, while states can teach they cannot his opinions will be quoted, not so much slucate ; they may crist. avstems, but as the opinions of an individual

, but as ther annot inspire

that life representing those of the dissenters at secure large. Double caution is required of fruits men of eminence in the formation of russia doubtful opinions, and in the publication heory. of views hostile to those of a majority just of among their brethren. The respected sede all doctor has comunitted the dissenters, and en made weakened their hands for the inevitable oluntary struggle which is before them.

We h while to would not have complained had his epared for opinions displayed a freedom from preremembered 'judice, and had he held the balance with

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an impartial hand; but under present | ence. For the attempt at interference circumstances we feel authorised to ask, we must be prepared. The combination How far has Dr. Vaughan a moral right against us will be mighty. Some will to wound voluntaryism by his incautious resist us who should be in our favour; judgments, and to the British yet our victory over Sir James Graham Quarterly as the exponent of his views?, is sufficient to prove that a vigorous There is a difference between might and opposition can bafile the most deterright; and surely literary power is not mined minister. Let us take our stand exempt from the same distinction. on right principles, and faithfully uphold

In the cause of education we have them, and we shall not only save the still two objects before us, which we poor of this country from a yoke of have space only to name :—first, exten- pauperism, but ourselves from the dission of the means ; and secondly, the grace of discharging a religious and improvement of the quality, of instruc- benevolent duty by compulsion. Voluntion. There is still work to do in both taries were the first in this work ; let it these departments; and in proportion as be theirs to prove that the taunt of we are faithfully occupied in this la- their adversaries is false, " This man bour, we can plead boldly and deter- began to build and was not able to minately against government interfer- finish.”

BRIEF NOTICES.

Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on the Rome who were saints, and there is no evidence

Epistle to the Romans. By Rev. ALBERT that any comprehensive church then existed in Barnes. Reprinted verbatim from the ninth the metropolis of the world, while there are inAmerican Edition, Revised und Corrected by dications in the epistle itself that the contrary the Author, and Edited by the Rev. Ingram was the case. Yet a sound judgment perrades Cobbin, M.A. London: Tegs and Co. these copious annotations, and we know of no 12mo. pp. 396.

work so well adapted to assist the reader in his It is a serious thing to recommend an ex

investigation of this most important portion of

the sacred oracles. position of the Epistle to the Romans. That epistle being addressed by the writer to a people The Works of Josephus : a New Translation; with whom he had had no previous intercourse,

by the Rev. ROBERT TRAILL, D.D., but in whose welfare he was deeply interested,

M.R.I.A., &c. With Notes, Explanatory is at once the most elementary, the most

Esays, and Pictorial Illustrations. Part I. systematic, and the most comprehensive of all

London : 8vo. Pp. 80. Price 5s. the writings of the apostle of the Gentiles. It The pleasing anticipations of this work which is the portion of the divine volume against which we expressed in November, are, as far as the the opponents of evangelical truth bave most first portion of it is concerned, fully realized. determinately set themselves, and which learned The translation is as elegant, the illustrations men among them bave most strenuously en as appropriate, and the wbole aspect as beauti. deavoured to explain away and pervert. It is ful, as the prospectus and the high character of one too, in perusing which the docile reader is the parties engaged in the enterprise led us to peculiarly sensible of his need of guidance. It expect. The contents of this part are the Life affords us therefore great pleasure that we can of Josephus, written by himself; a judicious conscientious's recommend this cheap but valu. introductory dissertation on his personal chaable volume to all who have any regard for racter and credibility; and some notices of the our opinion. The design of the author has princes and governors whom he has occasion to been to state what appeared to him to be “the mention. Fine medallion portraits of two of real meaning of the epistle, without any regard," | these are given; the Empress Poppæa and the as he says, “to any existing theological system; Emperor Domitian, both engraved from coins and without any deference to the opinions of in the British Museum. Three wel -executed others, further than the respectful deference engravings give views of the Hot Baths of and candid examination, wbich are due to the Tiberias and the sites of Tarichæa and Sepopinions of the learned, the wise, and the good, phoris in Galilee, from drawings taken recently who have made this cpistle their peculiar for the work; with sketches of interesting ruing study." The author's sentiments accord, how. as seen from the brow of Mount Zion. This is ever, generally with those which are called the first of twelve parts, which are to include Calvinistic, though he preserves his indepen- the Life, the Wars of the Jews, and the two dence. In some things we do not agree with Books against Appion, and to be embellished him; and we regret to find that he has fallen with one hundred engravings, including maps, into the very common mistake of speaking of plans, and elevations of architectural remains. the epistle as addressed to the church at Rome, The work may be safely recommended to all wbercas it was addressed to all the residents at who can afford to indulge themselves with so

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