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mouth of the Coppermine and that of the Mackenzie River, and from the latter as far as possible to the north-western extremity of America. The Coppermine falls into the sea towards the northeast, the Mackenzie at a considerable distance from it to the northwest. The survey of the coast, between the mouths of the two rivers, was undertaken by Dr. Richardson, who was attached to the expedition as naturalist and surgeon; and who is justly praised for having performed in the most accurate and enterprising manner, duties which did not properly fall within the line of his profession. The coast from the mouth of the Mackenzie to the north-western extremity of the continent, Captain Franklin himself proposed to survey. Captain Beechey was directed to enter Bebring's Straits, in his Majesty's ship, Blossom, and connect his operations on the north-western coast, if possible, with those of Captain Franklin. These two officers eventually approached each other so closely, that they were separated only by the distance of fifty leagues, above stated.

The expedition was fixed upon towards the close of 1823, but the preparations necessary to its safety and convenience consumed the period between that time and the spring of 1825. These preparations, as far as the depots of provisions were concerned, were chiefly effected through the agency of the Governor and Directors of the Hudson's Bay Company, whose chief trader, Mr. Peter Warren Dease, felt great interest in the success of the expedition. For the purpose of navigating the Mackenzie and Coppermine rivers, three boats were constructed under the direction of the Commissioners of the Navy. They were formed of mahogany, in order that they might combine, as far as possible, strength with lightness; and they were forwarded to Hudson's Bay in the summer of 1824. From thence, they were directed to proceed by the rivers and lakes in the Hudson's Bay Company's territories, towards Great Bear Lake, which Captain Franklin fixed upon for his first winter residence and starting point, as it was the place nearest to the mouth of the Mackenzie, known to the traders, that was capable of affording a sufficient supply of fish for the support of his party.

Matters being thus arranged, Captain Franklin, and his brother officers, Lieutenant Back, Dr. Richardson, Mr. Kendall, Mr, Drummond, assistant naturalist, and four marines, embarked at Liverpool, in an American packet, on the 16th of February, 1825, reached New York on the 15th of March, made a rapid journey through the Northern States and Upper Canada, and from thence proceeding by the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, &c., overtook the boats on the 29th June, in Methye River, about twelve hundred miles inland from Hudson's Bay, in latitude 56° 10' N., longitude 108° 55' W. Here they were received by the crews of the boats with great delight, and by none more cordially than Augustus, the Esquimaux, their former interpreter, and a countrykeeping close to the shore, it would seem that the difficulties of the navigation are increased tenfold. The only chance of conducting it with success, must depend on two consecutive favourable seasons, which would admit, in the first year, of the vessel's penetrating through the inlets that may be supposed to lead to the great northern basins, and enable it in the second to effect its escape on the opposite side, before the ice should set in. This is, indeed, nothing but conjecture; but it is a conjecture founded on the experiments which have been already made, and which, perhaps, are sufficient for every useful purpose.

Captain Franklin decidedly says, that his opinion in favour of the practicability of the passage has been considerably strengthened by the information which he obtained during the last expedition. The northern coast may be looked upon as ascertained; further, he says, the delineation of the west side of Melville Peninsula, in the chart of Captain Parry's second voyage, conjoined with information which he obtained from the northern Indians, fairly warrants the conclusion, that the coast preserves an easterly direction, from the point where the labours of his expedition terminated on that side, to Repulse Bay, the boundary of Captain Parry's discoveries. "In all probability,' he adds, there are no insurmountable obstacles between this part of the Polar Sea and the extensive openings into the Atlantic, through Prince Regent Inlet and the strait of the Fury and the Hecla.'

Such are the results at which Captain Franklin has arrived. It will be observed, that they reduce the question of a north-west passage to a much less degree of doubt than it had ever attained before. At the same time, it does not appear to us that any

advantage could arise from another naval expedition, such as he suggests, for the purpose of connecting Captain Parry's discoveries with his own. We should greatly prefer that another land expedition might be sent out to complete the survey of the north-eastern coast, in order that the whole line might be defined on that side. The fifty leagues of coast which remain unsurveyed to the north, seem hardly worth any further attention.

We now proceed to give the reader some account of the proceedings of the expedition, which are detailed in the volume before us. We lament that we cannot lay before him the maps, and the beautiful drawings by which they are copiously illustrated. We have seldom seen a book of travels so abundantly fitted out in this respect. It contains upwards of thirty views of scenery, drawn by Captain Back and Lieutenant Kendal, with admirable taste, and engraved by Finden, in the highest style of his art.

The charts are six in number, and exhibit the routes and discoveries of the former overland expedition (which caused so much suffering), to the mouth of the Coppermine river, as well as of that which forms the subjeet of this interesting narrative.

The expedition was directed to survey the coast between the

mouth of the Coppermine and that of the Mackenzie River, and from the latter as far as possible to the north-western extremity of America. The Coppermine falls into the sea towards the northeast, the Mackenzie at a considerable distance from it to the northwest. The survey of the coast, between the mouths of the two rivers, was undertaken by Dr. Richardson, who was attached to the expedition as naturalist and surgeon; and who is justly praised for having performed in the most accurate and enterprising manner, duties which did not properly fall within the line of his profession. The coast from the mouth of the Mackenzie to the north-western extremity of the continent, Captain Franklin himself proposed to survey. Captain Beechey was directed to enter Behring's Straits, in his Majesty's ship, Blossom, and connect his operations on the north-western coast, if possible, with those of Captain Franklin. These two oficers eventually approached each other so closely, that they were separated only by the distance of fifty leagues, above stated.

The expedition was fixed upon towards the close of 1823, but the preparations necessary to its safety and convenience consumed the period between that time and the spring of 1825. These preparations, as far as the depots of provisions were concerned, were chiefly effected through the agency of the Governor and Directors of the Hudson's Bay Company, whose chief trader, Mr. Peter Warren Dease, felt great interest in the success of the expedition. For the purpose of navigating the Mackenzie and Coppermine rivers, three boats were constructed under the direction of the Commissioners of the Navy. They were formed of mahogany, in order that they might combine, as far as possible, strength with lightness; and they were forwarded to Hudson's Bay in the summer of 1824. From thence, they were directed to proceed by the rivers and lakes in the Hudson's Bay Company's territories, towards Great Bear Lake, which Captain Franklin fixed upon for his first winter residence and starting point, as it was the place nearest to the mouth of the Mackenzie, known to the traders, that was capable of affording a sufficient supply of fish for the support of his party.

Matters being thus arranged, Captain Franklin, and his brother officers, Lieutenant Back, Dr. Richardson, Mr. Kendall, Mr. Drummond, assistant naturalist, and four marines, embarked at Liverpool, in an American packet, on the 16th of February, 1825, reached New York on the 15th of March, made a rapid journey through the Northern States and Upper Canada, and from thence proceeding by the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, &c., overtook the boats on the 29th June, in Methye River, about twelve hundred miles inland from Hudson's Bay, in latitude 56° 10' N., longitude 108° 55' W. Here they were received by the crews of the boats with great delight, and by none more cordially than Augustus, the Esquimaux, their former interpreter, and a countryman of his, named Ooligbuck, whom he had taken with him as his companion. Having surmounted this river and its impediments, which are by no means inconsiderable, and having also passed its portage, a distance of upwards of ten miles, over which the men' had to carry their boats, the party arrived at the Athabasca Lake, on the 15th of July, and at the Slave Lake on the 29th. Quitting this lake, they entered the Mackenzie River, and arrived on the 7th of August at Fort Norman, which was only four days' journey from Bear Lake. Captain Franklin here finding that five or six weeks of open season yet remained, resolved on descending at once to the sea, an idea which he had entertained on leaving England, without imparting it to any one of his companions. His object was to obtain such information as he could acquire either from personal observation, or from inquiry among the natives, respecting the general state of the ice in the summer and autumn; the direction of the coast on both sides of the mouth of the Mackenzie, and the quantity of provision upon which he might depend in that quarter. In the meantime, Dr. Richardson proceeded to the Great Bear Lake.

The Mackenzie communicates with the Bear Lake, by the Bear Lake River, which flows into the former. On passing its mouth, and for some miles beyond it, our voyagers observed that the banks of the Mackenzie contained much wood coal, which was on fire. When Mackenzie discovered this river, which bears his name, the banks were on fire in the same direction. The same banks contain also layers of a kind of unctuous mud, which the Indians in the neighbourhood use as food in a season of famine. • It has a milky taste, and the flavour is not disagreeable.' From the views sketched by Lieutenant Back, it appears that the banks of the Mackenzie present some striking pieces of scenery. The river occasionally varies from two to four miles in breadth ; but at what are called the second rapids," it becomes contracted, and * rushes with great force for the space of seven miles, through a kind of defile, varying in breadth from four hundred to eight hundred yards.'

• The walls of this defile are from eighty to one hundred and fifty feet high, and are composed of limestone, containing numerous shells : for a

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the stone is very white, and in the rest it is blue. Several' streams of water were running over the summits of the cliffs, which had worn the stone, in some places, into a turretted shape; while the heaps, overthrown by its action at its base, resembled mounds for defence. To these appearances were occasionally added cavernous openings, and other hollow parts, not unlike the arched windows, or gateways, of a castellated building.'-p. 22.

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“This is a place of resort for the Hare Indians to fish, and we were visited by a large party of men and women of that tribe, who brought fish, berries, and meat. They were all neatly clothed in new leathern dresses, highly ornamented with beads and porcupine quills. The paintings of animals on the sides of our boats were very attractive to them; they scanned every figure over and over, bursting into laughter whenever they recognised any of the animals.' –16.

A day or two after, our party descried another collection of Indians, who treated them in the most friendly manner; and on the 16th of August, they arrived within view of the sea, which

appeared in all its majesty, entirely free from ice, and without any visible obstruction to its navigation.' On the beach, Captain Franklin ordered a silk Union flag to be hoisted,' which', he says,

my deeply-lamented wife had made and presented to me, as a parting gift, under the express injunction that it was not to be unfurled before the expedition reached the sea. We pity those who cannot sympathise in his emotions, when he saw that flag expanded to the breeze. It is worthy of remark, that the survey of the Mackenzie, made on this expedition, 'differs very little in its outline from that of its discoverer,* whose general correctness, says our author, we had often occasion to admire.'

Captain Franklin having by several excursions made himself acquainted with the state of the sea to the northward and eastward, was about to explore the western coast, when he was compelled to desist by a sudden change in the weather. He consequently retraced his course up the Mackenzie, and after an extremely difficult navigation, entered the Great Bear Lake on the 5th of September, where all the members of the expedition were now, for the first time, assembled together, Dr. Richardson having just returned from a voyage which he had made to the northern part of the lake. They took up their residence for the winter in the neighbourhood of the lake, on the site of an old fort, which, in honour of the commander of the expedition, was now called Fort Franklin.

At first, their establishment consisted in all of fifty persons, but as they were to depend chiefly for their subsistence on fishing, it was thought advisable to erect two houses at four and seven miles distance, to which twenty of the party were sent, furnished with fishing implements. Nets were constantly kept in use in the lake, under the care of an experienced fishernian, which yielded daily from three to eight hundred fish, consisting of herring, salmon, trout, tittameg, and carp. Indians were employed to hunt reindeer in the neighbourhood, with, however, little success. Means were devised for keeping the men constantly employed ; and when the days began to shorten, a school was established in which the officers taught several of the men to read and write.' Games and other amusements were also occasionally resorted to, in which the officers invariably joined, thus rendering the men more attached to the service, and keeping them in health and cheerfulness. The officers found, besides, abundant employment in making and

* This river was discovered by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, in 1789. ,

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