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is still the Gaelic word for cattle, and I-edail would signify “The Island of Cattle."
The same author informs us, that when the punishment by fine, known by the name of Multa, was inflicted at Rome, the practice was, that a male sheep should be delivered by the offender to the injured party—"more_majorum, observari solet ut oves genere virili appellentur." We have the explanation of this ceremony, the original meaning of which had long ceased to be remembered at Rome, in the fact that Multa is merely the Gaelic Mult, which at this day signifies in that tongue, a male sheep or ewe, or what the Romans called Verver, itself a compound, by the bye, of the Gaelic Fir, male', and Bhech, a beast'.
The Latin Baculum (a cudgel) is the Gaelic Bochuail, compounded of Bo, a cow', and Cuaill, a wooden pole.' So from Bo and Giull, a boy', comes Bochoill, a cowherd', the original of Bekoλos and Bubulcus.
Finally, to pass over a multitude of other instances, what is the origin of the famous Lares, or household gods of the Romans? Undoubtedly the Gaelic Lar, 'the ground on which a house is built', or, "the floor of the house'.
These examples will, probably, be sufficient to decide the opinion of our readers as to the respect due to what we have called the fourth proposition of Colonel Vans Kennedy's theory of the origin of languages; that, we mean, which asserts, that the Celtic tongue had no share whatever in the formation of the Greek and Latin. As, however, the demonstration which the learned author offers of this proposition is one of the most curious things in his book, we will bestow a very few concluding sentences on its examination.
Colonel Vans Kennedy, be it observed in the first place, acknowledges that his Sanscrit etymologies will not explain onesixth part of the radical words in either the Greek or the Latin. Secondly, he does not profess to know anything whatever of the Celtic language, except what he has learned by turning over the leaves of O'Brien's Irish Dictionary-and is evidently quite ignorant of even the most elementary principles of its orthography and grammatical structure. He has, nevertheless, in these circumstances, contrived to satisfy himself that no part of the Greek or Latin is Celtic;-and that by a very ingenious experiment.
In order to ascertain the point, I subjoin', says he, the following comparative list of words, all of which are likely to be found in a rude tongue, from which the total dissimilarity of the Celtic with other languages, will be rendered perfectly apparent.' And then, after giving the list, he adds,In the preceding one hundred Celtic words, all primitives, and likely to occur in the most unimproved tongues, not one bears the remotest resemblance to the terms with which they are compared in six different languages.
Now, if the list itself had been omitted, all this might have passed, at least for so much as it is worth; that is to say, the reader might have been induced to believe that Colonel Vans Kennedy actually had examined one hundred Gaelic primitives, without chancing upon one which bore the remotest_resemblance to the corresponding term in any other language. But what are we to think of this writer's accuracy, or capacity for discussing the subject of which he has undertaken to treat, when we find that the very examples selected by himself, in support of his peculiar views, supply us, in fact, with their most decisive confutation? This list actually abounds in evidences in proof of the extent to which Celtic. roots are found in other languages, and particularly in the Greek and Latin-as we may perceive by the most cursory inspection of it. The very second term given in the Irish column, is Cru, (blood), which, although bearing no resemblance to the Latin Sanguis, by which it is here translated, bears, certainly, the very strongest to the synonymous term Cruor. In Blath (a flower), every etymologist must at once recognize the Latin Flos, the difference between the two words being, in fact, to be accounted for upon principles which Colonel Vans Kennedy himself uniformly proceeds upon in his own derivations. Airgiod (silver), is merely the Latin Argentum, the n being inserted exactly as has confessedly been done in many other words,-in Centum, for example, whether we deduce it, with Mr. Grant, from the Celtic Ced, or with Colonel Vans Kennedy, from the Sanscrit Shatam. The Welsh Tarian (a shield), and Seren (a star), are not improbably the Arabic Tirs and the German Stern; and the Irish Mal (a king), is undoubtedly the Arabic Malik. The Welsh Laith (milk), is in all likelihood the Latin Lac, originally Lact, or Lat, as is evident from the genitive Lactis. The Irish Criona (an old man), is the Greek Tepwv. The Greek Aakgue (to weep), is the Welsh Dagru. Aapahis may not perhaps be found in Celtic; but Bes the more comprehensive term, meets us in the Gaelic Bo. We have already stated the Celtic origin of Arbor. The Irish Dila (love), bears no resemblance to Amor, but it evidently forms part of Diligo. The Welsh Haul (the sun), is undoubtedly the Greeks and the Latin Sol. The Welsh Nini (we), is probably identical with the Arabic Nahn. The Latin Mors (death), is the Gaelic Marbh, from whence also Mort or Murt, (murder), and probably the Greek Maga. The Latin Sagitta is the Gaelic Saghit. The Gaelic Ech (ch pronounced gutturally as in Loch) is the Latin Equus. The Celtic Eale (bad), is from the same root with the English Ill. The Greek K and K are from the Gaelic Cluain, (to bend or recline). The Celtic Cu (a dog) is the Greek Kuwv. Mor and Mawr (great), are probably identical with the Sanscrit Maha. Navs and Navis are from the Gaelic Snamh, (pronounced Nav) to swim.' The Celtic Ynys (an island), is probably the
original of os and insula. If the Latin Ensis be not Celtic, Gladius, the other term for a sword, is the Gaelic Claidh, whence also Clades. OK, (a house), as Mr. Grant has shewn, is not improbably the Gaelic oich (night), as Domus is Tamh. We do not know that Opis (or as Colonel Vans Kennedy calls it Opvoç) is Celtic, but the synonymous term Ovos is exactly the Gaelic Ian. Mons (a mountain), is the Gaelic Mona. Has (a boy), is the Gaelic Paisd. Mare (the sea), as we have already seen, is the Gaelic Muir. Пve and Bibo may not be found in Gaelic; but the synonymous terms Пlow and Poto are, the radical term being Pa or Po, thirst, or any other natural appetite', whence Pot, drink', and Potfer (the silent) a drinker, compounded of Pot and Fer, (a man or person), the same with the old Scythian term ag, mentioned by Herodotus, and found in the Latin Vir, and perhaps the Greek npws, as well as in many of the Gothic dialects. Pa, we may add, is also the original of Пaw and Pasco. Bellum is the Gaelic Bel (war). The Welsh Troed (a foot), is evidently the Gothic Trudan, whence the English Tread, and the German Treten and Tritt. We do not know that Luna and Zeλn are Gaelic; but the synonymous term M is, being a derivative from My (a month), otherwise Mys or Mess, which is the Gaelic Mias (a round object, a month), the original also of the Latin Mensis, or as we find it anciently written, Mesis. The Latin Ferrum is the Celtic Iarun. It surely cannot be said that there is not the remotest resemblance between the Latin Corpus, and the Welsh Corpt (in Gaelic, Corp), which we here find placed alongside of each other. Taxus is probably the Irish Daith, and vows undoubtedly the Welsh Dur. Finally, Sus and 'vs are in all likelihood the same word with the Irish Ceis.
Of Colonel Vans Kennedy's one hundred primitive words, we have thus enumerated above thirty, of which there is every probability that the Celtic form is identical with either the Greek or the Latin. And yet Colonel Vans Kennedy tells us, that of the whole number not one bears the remotest resemblance in Celtic to its synonyme in any other language whatever!
We shall just notice another of the learned Colonel's assertionsand then leave our readers to think what they may of his very profound performance. As far as I have observed', says he, 'there seems, with a few solitary exceptions only, to be no Greek words in Celtic, except such as are cognate with the Latin. Toape is Γραφειν the only Greek word not cognate with the Latin, which I have observed, but there may be others.' We have already had occasion, we believe, to notice several such terms, as, for example, Καλον from Cavill, Κασις from Coaos, Παις from Paisd, Οιωνος from Ian; and in merely turning over the pages of Mr. Grant's volume, we remark the following additional instances; Aaos from Sluagh, (the s suppressed in composition), Aoyos from Luaigh (to speak, to make mention of), Kalia from Goile, Merge from Mir (a part, a division), Σkatte from Scapadth, Kepdos from Ceaird, (any manual
employment), Пosis from Pos, (a husband), av from Fonn (a sound). We have no doubt a little further research would supply us with numerous others.
ART. II-A Series of Familiar Discourses for every Sunday and Festival of the Year. By the Rev. E. Peach. 2 vols. 8vo. London: Keating and Brown. 1828.
THE Catholic priesthood, and more especially the hierarchy of the sister country, are daily growing into importance, as a distinct and peculiar order of the community. The last few years have brought them forth in Ireland in a strong and novel point of view; and exhibited in their persons a moral engine, of a power and capability of usefulness or mischief, of the existence of which the English public but little dreamed. They have been seen rousing the latent energies of an entire kingdom-wresting with a strong hand the domination of their serfs from the grasp of the lords of the soil, eliciting and concentrating in one fearful point the scattered patriotism of a nation, binding together the rude hands of their flocks in one solemn conjuration of freedom; in a word, brewing a moral storm, which bids fair materially to influence the destinies of the empire; and yet retaining an absolute power over the work of their own hands, staying the headlong tempest which they have raised, or guiding it to none but useful and legal purposes. The English public stood astounded at the success of the late grand manœuvre at Clare, and was almost at a loss to what unusual cause to attribute such extraordinary results. It has, however, wisely concluded in fixing them upon the influence the almost omnipotent influence of the Catholic priesthood. Since the time when the wise spirit of a liberal age freed them from the infamous thraldom of the prison, and exchanged the proscribed worship of the hedge-side or garret for the acknowledged service of the licensed chapel, they have been advancing with a silent but steady march on public opinion, and have, at length, grown up in the state a powerful and distinct order of men, whose usefulness it were wise to conciliate, but whose influence it is impossible to suppress,
Important, therefore, as the Catholic priesthood have become, it behoves the English public to form a more enlarged acquaintance with their character; and by every means, and more especially their writings, to analize the minds which have been able to give so decided a tone to public feeling. These reasons, we trust, will appear as satisfactory to the reader as to ourselves, for occasionally calling his attention to such Catholic publications as tend to answer the object which we have just proposed. Sermons we are aware, are not, in general, the most inviting subject for selection; but there is no species of composition which gives a deeper insight into the mind of the writer.
The volumes before us are written by the Rev. E. Peach, the pastor of a large and important congregation at Birmingham, and a gentleman who is already known to the Catholic public as the author of several esteemed spiritual works. They are dedicated to his own flock, and we have been highly pleased with the modest and unpretending manner in which they have been ushered into the world. The dedication gives utterance to sentiments which are as creditable to the piety of the Christian minister, as they are honourable to the feelings of the man..
In presenting, however, this legacy of affection to you, I am necessitated to publish the work, and consequently it will be spread amongst the community at large. May it be as profitable to all who hear or read it, as I hope it has, and will be to you. To the public, therefore, some, thing will be required to be said on my part. I do not seek applause; and I hope that the purity of my intentions will preserve me froin censure. These discourses are original compositions: probably less entitled to merit on that account. Had I again explored the rich mines of pulpit oratory, and genuine piety, which are to be found in the publications of foreign preachers, I might have presented to you a series of sermons, not inferior to that which I extracted from Massillon. But, being appointed to superintend a numerous and increasing congregation, in a very populous town, I was induced to turn my thoughts to their peculiar spiritual wants, and to arrange my sermons accordingly. I did so. And, having reason to believe that my labours met with that success, which a preacher ought alone to seek after, I feel less difficulty in exposing them to the public eye. To the admirers of splendid oratory, and to the learned composers of studied and minutely arranged harangues, I may appear presumptuous. But, by those, whose only design is to promote the reign of piety, and who are disposed to rejoice when an addition is made to the means of producing this desirable effect, I fondly hope that this publication will be graciously received. Instruction, not oratory alone, has been my aim; and consequently, the approbation of those only do I ambition, who prefer the improvement of the heart, before the mere gratification of the intellectual senses.'-vol. i. p. 6.
We are inclined to dissent from the Rev. Gentleman in the very moderate pretensions which he makes to pulpit eloquence; as, in more than one passage of his useful volumes, we have discovered a pathos and depth of feeling-that true eloquence of the heart,to which the heart is always ready to respond, and which the frippery of studied periods vainly endeavours to attain. There is every where observable an anxious solicitude, and fatherly tenderness, which breathe from the page as you read it; and, while they assure you of the goodness of the preacher's heart, are a conviction that such appeals to the warmth of man's nature, could not fail to produce a powerful effect upon the audience. Take, for example, the following exhortation to the more destitute of his flock:
To those, who, being in a state of poverty, say that their spirits are so depressed by what they have to endure, that they have neither courage