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with the usual information obtained through the ordinary mediums, a man of acuteness, and a dashing bold mind, might pass judg ment in the same manner on the generals and ministers of the King of Ashantee, and on those of the King of France. It is only the peculiar situation of the observer that can render his reasons better than our own in point of authority, and it is only when we know who and what he is that we ought to give credit to his opinions.

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It appears that these ideas have struck other readers of the 'Recollections,' and given occasion for a bold attack upon the author's character for veracity. He has, however, replied to this, and asserted, that every thing which has been said has originated in the anger of persons whose conduct he has unfavourably represented. It is throwing away time,' says he, in a justificatory letter, to reply to the observations of those whose views and interests render it necessary for them to throw a shadow of discredit over the work. There are those who feel their pride wounded, or their prospects endangered, by the exposé given of Colombian affairs in the Recollections,' and prompted by sinister motives, may wish to denounce that as false which is but too true. To use some of Mr. Maceroni's own words, the time is now happily gone by when the cause of justice in this hemisphere can be affected by such mercenary attempts. The public is too enlightened to be biassed now as it has been, and it may therefore be only a waste of time, which might now be more laudably occupied, to endeavour to warp their opinions.' He again further observes, 'there are friends of a certain soi-disant general, whose proceedings have been detailed in the Recollections' with some accuracy, who may wish to persuade the public that some minor points in the work are untrue, in order that those which most affect them may be disbelieved. Mr. Maceroni (one of the principal assailants,) may not be of either class. He may be a native of Colombia, and may not like a too open description of the mismanagement of affairs, and the poverty which characterises it; but he should, if such he is, consider, that a just account of all that occurred was due from one who professed to have seen any service in the country, and that I have only given things as they were, not as they now are, for it is possible that peace may have done much to advance the intellect of the Republic. It is at all times a thankless office to set people right with respect to characters in whose favour they have been long prepossessed; but time will show which is the most correct-the opinion gained from newspapers, or that formed upon observation. The latest arrivals from Demerara tend to prove, that the views of certain parties in Colombia are not quite so free from ambition, as their partisans on both sides of the Atlantic would have us believe.'

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Who Mr. Maceroni is, we have not the pleasure of knowing, nor can we say whether the other assailants of the author have spoken for the sake of public truth or out of personal pique. We

cannot consider the defence which the writer has set up in the letter from which we have quoted the above, as tending considerably to prove the uniform authenticity of his work. He has merely removed a few of the most trifling objections, and given no general or positive reason for our belief in the most important of his details. The only method by which an author in his situation can succeed in silencing his opponents, is by at once convincing his readers that he has occupied, throughout, the station he professes to have been in, and has had the advantages of information he says he throughout enjoyed. An author of credit is never without the means of thus proving his veracity, and we wish that every anonymous writer who professess to give information of either men or things, was obliged to do it before the public read a page of his book.

Notwithstanding, however, that our confidence has suffered some diminution from the work wanting all the proper signs of authenticity, we have no doubt either as to its containing much which may be depended on, or as to the author's having seen much which he describes. We shall give the account he has presented of his original connection with the Colombian service, in as few words as possible, and then pass to the body of the narrative.

It will be in the recollection of many of our readers, that in the summer of 1818, Colonel English came to this country, to raise a brigade for the service of South America. A great value was set upon the assistance of this British force, and the contract appears to have been one calculated to insure success. A body of two thousand men, consisting of cavalry, infantry, and artillery, was accordingly soon raised, but Colonel English failing in means to complete the design, resigned the contract to a London merchant of the name of Herring. Our author, who it seems was a halfpay officer in the navy, tired of an inactive life, determined on offering his services in the cause of Venezuela. While, however, preparing to sail with the expedition, Major Beamish, a relation of his, fitted out a vessel to convey an Irish battalion to South America. Of this vessel our author obtained the command, and they sailed from the Cove of Cork, July 17, 1818. In less than a fortnight from this time, Major Beamish suddenly expired of apoplexy, and his relative was left to the entire command of the vessel and the troops on board. The next event which occurred was a desperate mutiny, but it ended in the discomfiture of the malcontents, and the party arrived at Margarita, August 29. The commander was received at the government house by Generals Arismendez and Urdenetta, and having soon after by order of the former delivered up the troops under his charge to Admiral Brion, returned to reside at Margarita till he should receive a command which was promised him.

In the beginning of October, Admiral Brion arrived with the Venezuelan fleet from Angostura. Our author expected to receive

an appointment from him, but to his horror, the Admiral employed himself during the dinner to which General Arismendez had invited him, in nothing else but inveighing against all the British officers in the service, and declaring his determination to be rid of them entirely. A command, however, was obtained, and our author was fortunate enough, almost immediately after setting sail, to meet with a Spanish vessel having on board a considerable quantity of specie, as well as arms, ammunition, and clothing for a thousand men; she was soon captured, and the successful commander returned with his prize to Margarita. Arismendez was overjoyed, but Brion hated even a prize taken by any Englishman, and our author was sent from the former to obtain his reward from the congress of Angostura. His reception here was very encouraging, but as the account of it is a little singular, we shall allow him to give it in his own words, warning our readers, however, that it is one of the passages in the work which has called down upon the writer much of the vengeance of which he complains.

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'The Republic was at this time in a wretched state of insolvency, and the amount sent by Arismendez to the Congress was a sum which it had not possessed for many months. Its poverty was plainly denoted by the appearance of its members, who more resembled a troop of mendicants than a body of legislators. Most of them were attired in a coarse, striped, cotton shirt, with trowsers of the same material, patched in different directions; a straw hat grown old and dirty with constant wear, and a European blanket, with a hole cut in the centre for the head to pass through, thrown over the shoulders as a capote or cloak. Some few were fortunate enough to possess shoes, or boots; others had the remains of them attached to their feet with little ropes made of cow-hide, termed sogos, humble imitation of the Roman sandal; but by far the greater number, had their feet wrapped in a piece of cow-hide, canvas, or blanket, while the whole of them were destitute of stockings. A worn-out half-famished mule, adorned in some instances with a hussar saddle and its trappings, but more commonly with a back galled by a seat somewhat resembling an English pack-saddle, a musket, and a machetti, completed their equipment; and thus attired and mounted, they rode in procession to the Government House on the three days a week appointed for their assembling. 'On the Monday following the day of my arrival, I was desired to appear before the Congress, in order to receive the confirmation of my rank, which direction I attended to; and certainly, as far as promises and verbal encouragement went, I had reason to be perfectly satisfied. I was established in the rank of a commander of ships of the second class ; which is about equal to that of a junior post-captain in the British navy, except in the article of emolument, which, in the Republican service, is one-third more than in the English, amounting to fifteen shillings per day. I also possessed an equivalent rank in the army; in which, if called upon, I was compelled to serve. The distribution of prizes, one-half of which was claimed by government, was not to take place until their independence was established, or the war otherwise terminated; at which period all claims were to be audited, and three months allowed for payment, which was to be made on bills on the government, at six months' date.'-vol i. pp. 45-47.

There is certainly something not very flattering in this account to the ears of a native, but we really can discover nothing in it so monstrously bad or abusive as to deserve the rebukes with which it has been answered. There is very little, after all, in the members' of a Venezuelan congress wearing during their sitting cotton shirts, old hats, or new blankets, for cloaks. The honourable gentlemen were no doubt thinking more of the important business on which they met, than on their personal appearance, and we can hardly discover any greater malice in the author's describing their costume as he has done, than we can in the description which many foreigners have given of the members of the English Imperial Parliament, habited in driving coats, Belcher handkerchiefs, and jockey boots.

It was a little time after the affair just mentioned our author had the satisfaction, if so it may be termed, of losing his old enemy, Admiral Brion. The character of this man is given with some humour, but we suspect with a little ill nature by the writer. He appears to have been a man of narrow mind, proud of his station, but ignorant of his duties: he embraced the naval profession at the late age of forty, and then obtained the command of the fleet, only because he fitted it out at his own cost. With regard to his courage, little more can be said than with respect to his intelligence or professional accomplishments; for when he was on the point, during some engagement, of capturing a large portion of the enemy's fleet, he suddenly fled and contented himself with displaying on the yard-arms of his vessel a barrel of wine and two or three live turkeys, as tokens of the jolly fare of his squadron. He was, in short, a character; and if the work before us have no other value, it is highly entertaining for the many happy hits the author has made in describing such human curiosities. The admiral's dress on board used to be an English hussar jacket, and scarlet pantaloons, with a broad stripe of gold down the sides, a field marshal's uniform hat, with a verylarge Prussian plume, and to complete the personal equipage of this strange figure, he wore dragoon boots, of an extraordinary size, which were armed with gold spurs, extending in horrid length and thickness. Let the reader, especially if he be a naval one, image to himself a Dutchman thus dressed and pacing the quarter deck of a man of war, and he will have as curious a picture before his mind's eye, as imagination can well draw. There were, however, many points in the private character of this remarkable man, which should be set against those which rendered him so ridiculous in the eyes of the Englishmen with whom he came in contact. He was fond of his fellow countrymen to excess, was liberal to all who came in his way, of whatever nation they might be, and could hardly be surpassed in the hospitality of his table; he seems, in short, as the author says, to have been at times so liberal, that every thing could be obtained from him except fighting and naval promotion.'

Another character described in this work, as being as ill adapted, though in a different way, to the defence or pursuit of South American independence, is that of General Urdenetta; a man who, if any reliance can be placed on the present account of his character, is an example of all that is base in men raised to a high station by the arts of a bold but base nature. Next to him is mentioned General Valdez, equally bloody and tyrannical in temper, and only different from Urdenetta in possessing less craft and subtlety. Several other characters of nearly the same description are given, all tinged with the darkest vices, and most of them manifesting the same dislike to the English. This latter feature of character in assertors of liberty like those described, is what we might be almost sure to find. Men whose youth has been spent in adventure-whose education has been how to intrigue the most successfully or dare the most desperately; and every one of whose impulses, noble or base, has been mixed up with the desire of self aggrandisement, are not likely under any circumstances to enter with a right spirit into the defence of liberty, and will, therefore, be seldom found to unite well with others who have been bred up with different views, taught to look to the attainment of their object, as to the first great principle of exertion, and on their personal will as subordinate to the public good. We do not pretend to think that all, or even many of our English adventurers in the South American war, went out with feelings highly elevated above those which most men possess, who have been born in a free country; but there is a certain order of sentiments which they habitually feel and respect, and which render them unacceptable overlookers to men naturally less true to the cause of right.

But we turn from these characters, and from the military details of the work, to a portion of it which few readers we believe can peruse without interest: it is a description of some of those awfully sublime solitudes, which the traveller in South America so frequently finds on his journey from one part of the New World to another. The author, we must observe, had been deprived by the caprice of the Admiral, of his vessel, and was journeying with a party of men to the town of Maturin. On his way he determined upon making the ascent of the Andes, with no other companion than a large and faithful dog. The account of this adventurous undertaking is given with some force, and we extract it as nearly entire as our limits will admit.

"Taking an extra cloak, which had belonged to a man who had died the preceding night, and a broken lance to assist me in climbing, I left the division, having my rifle and the flag-staff slung over my shoulder with my provisions, and accompanied by my dog, which would not stay behind I separated from my companions about noon, and pursuing a nearer direction to the point I was making for, left them to the left, and before it was dark I had nearly lost sight of them. I slept about four hours, after having drawn upon my stock of provisions, and as I had now regularly two

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