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meals a day, I was acquiring strength hourly. I travelled all the next day, taking little rest, being apprehensive that if I lost too much time I should not overtake the division; and being without a guide or food in an unknown country, I should have been in an awkward situation. I found the temperature vary considerably as I increased my ascent, and at night it was very warm, but a refreshing breeze passing over the spot where I lay, made it agreeable. At dawn of day I again set forward, and taking advantage of an easier path, winding to the left, obtained a view of my military friends, who were still proceeding, though much below me. I was now relieved from all fear of being left, behind, as I was certain that I could reach the furthest extremity I wished to arrive at nearly as soon as they could arrive at the top of the part they were crossing. On perceiving them I discharged my rifle, which produced one of the most powerful echoes I ever heard, reverberating from rock to rock for a long time. It was answered by the firing of ten or twelve muskets, the reports of which were rendered by the echo equal to those of as many twelve-pounders.

'I found the air grow colder as I advanced, after ten a. m. of this the third day, and lay down at night amidst large flakes of snow, with which the summits of the Andes are continually covered. There was a slight fall of it, occasioned by the wind driving it from the higher parts; but being under the lee of a crag, it drifted over me, and my couch was free from it. In the morning the sun shone vividly, though the cold increased to severity; but I had the satisfaction of knowing that before another night I should be at the extreme point of elevation, unless accident prevented me. Thinking I had better start early enough to enable me to descend below the place where I then reposed, to sleep the next night, I did not repose more than two hours. On resuming my journey, I found that I had the most laborious part of it to perform, and in spite of my endeavours to conceal it from myself, I felt that my strength was gradually diminishing. The ascent was now, for some distance, almost perpendicular, and the face of the mountain composed of the species of stone I have before spoken of. Its sharp edges soon cut through the flimsy covering I had on my feet, which was merely a piece of cloth, and the half-closed gashes inflicted upon them at the commencement of our march were re-opened. The blood was frozen before it could well emerge from them, and the pain was then lost in the benumbing sensation created by the cold. My hands were also lacerated by these excrescences, as I was necessarily compelled to catch hold of them at times for support. At six a. m. I found myself on a plain gradually inclining from east to west, and extending about a mile in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth. I ran across it to restore myself to a necessary degree of warmth, and came to the foot of another rock, as upright as the last, but more lengthy. This was the worst of all, and must have occupied me at least five hours in the ascent; although I had now no means of ascertaining the time, as my watch had stopped, and upon examination when I reached Maturin, I found the mainspring had flown into several pieces, owing to the cold.

'It was while climbing this rock that I first experienced the strong inclination to sleep, which the Creoles had cautioned me against. It was very troublesome, and scarcely resistible, and at times I could not shake it off without inflicting pain on myself, which I did by striking the shaft of the lance against my forehead. The wind was blowing strong from the west

ward, and I had taken the precaution recommended by the natives, to envelop my head and neck warmly, and keep my face averted from it; but when the tendency to sleep increased too violently, I turned towards the blast, which caused a sharp pain like that which follows a smart lash of a whip, and banished drowsiness for some minutes. The highly rarified air operated so powerfully upon my lungs, and caused such an oppression, that I was under the necessity of stopping at every ten or twelve paces to gain breath; but on the slightest cessation of motion, a chill which affected every fibre, came over me, which was succeeded by the desire to repose. To proceed was sometimes impossible, and to stay was dangerous; I therefore hesitated to go farther, but feeling no wish to be laughed at for relinquishing my project, I still went on. On surmounting this steep, which had well-nigh baffled me, I found another plain, where I halted to replace the covering on my feet. About the centre of it was a small crater, which had been evidently formed by one of those volcanic eruptions so common in the Andes. From the appearance of it, it must have been burned out several years, but the streams of lava were still visible in many places, and where the snow had partially melted, several channels could be seen filled with it. The crater exhibited nothing remarkable, except its amazing depth, which was far greater comparatively than that of Mount Vesuvius.

I had now arrived at the foot of the last rock, which was in a more sloping position than the previous ones, and consequently easier of access. After two hours I attained the height of my aerial trip, but so wearied that I could not resist the temptation of sitting down a few minutes. Here I remarked that the dozing sensation first came upon my canine compagnon de voyage, but either he had more self-command than his master, or it did not assail him so heavily. He seemed to have an instinctive dread of its effects, for the instant he felt his eyelids drooping, he jumped up and shook himself violently, and then sat down, placing his nose between his paws to shelter it from the wind. On one occasion the sagacity of this faithful animal certainly preserved me. I had sunk into the deadly slumber so far as to lose all recollection, when I was startled by his loud bark, accompanied by a rough scratching on my breast. pp. 143-148.

There is a great deal of matter similar to this scattered over the 'Recollections.' The descriptions are lively, and, as we have before said, many of the persons who made a figure in the war, are brought forward in a very skilful manner; but it is a history in which, interested as a reader can hardly fail to be in many of its details, we continually perceive the want of some solid ground for conviction, and which we therefore turn from without satisfaction. The Memoirs of General Miller come forth under auspices of which we can better judge, than of those of the former publication. They are authenticated by the name of his brother, and the most part of the accounts are taken from the mouth of a person, of whose character for probity and veracity every one has the means of judging. The subject of this biographical sketch was originally with the English army, and served in Spain, but in what capacity, whether civil or military, his brother does not inform us-an omission for which we are unable to account. While on the con

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tinent in 1816 aud 1817, he had an opportunity of becoming connected with a French mercantile concern, but he resisted the temptation, and preferred setting off for South America, the river Plata being the point to which he turned his eye. He landed at Buenos-Ayres in September, 1817, and upon application, obtained a captain's commission in the army of the Andes, which was then in Chile, and was under the command of San Martin. He hastened to Santiago, the capital of Chile, arrived there on the 24th January, and was immediately put upon duty. In a very short time he obtained the brevet rank of major, and embarked as the senior officer with the troops pertaining to the Chilian squadron. Shortly after this, Lord Cochrane arrived and took the command of the fleet. The expectations and hopes which filled the hearts of the Valparaisans on this occasion, are described by Mr. Miller as raised to the highest pitch. But there is nothing in the former part of the memoirs which we can fix upon as possessing the interest we had expected to find marking them throughout. To this, however, must be particularly excepted the highly romantic narrative of the singular escape of Benavides. This man was a celebrated leader of some desperate bands of freebooters, and an object of terror to the patriot army. His barbarity was unequalled for its monstrosity. He cut out the tongues of his prisoners with the most Algerine delight, and he employed every species of torture to revenge the injuries which the Araucanian Indians had formerly suffered. General San Martin having obtained possession of Valdivia, by that means deprived Benavides of his grand depôt; but the history of the way in which he became at first connected with this villain, who afterwards leagued with the opposite party, deserves to be recorded. Benavides and his brother had been made prisoners at the battle of Maypo. They had obtained a pardon as regarded their lives, but were expelled the country. On their way, they attempted to bribe the soldiers who accompanied them. The commandant discovered it, and ordered their instant execution. They were accordingly shot; but what was San Martin's surprize, when, some time after, he was informed that Benavides was still alive, and desired an interview with him. To make the romance, however, complete, this meeting was not till certain stipulations had been made, and it took place in the chapel porch of a lonely country mansion, and at midnight. But we shall follow Mr. Miller's own example, and give the relation which Benavides has himself made of the extraordinary affair of his escape.

'The following is the account which Benavides himself gave of the transaction to General San Martin. He said that, upon leaving Santiago, neither he nor his brother entertained any suspicion they were to be executed on the road; that if they had apprehended any such design, it would have been easy for them to have absconded before they left the capital but feeling satisfied on the score of personal safety, they postponed the attempt until a favourable opportunity should occur in the course

of their march, and more particularly as they wished to avoid compromising their friends of the royalist party then resident at Santiago; that on the evening of the second day the officer of the escort ordered a halt for the brothers to be searched, and seventeen doubloons being found in the lining of the boots of the elder, the officer asked if they had attempted to bribe the soldiers, which was answered in the negative; that the party then left the road, and having arrived at a lonely spot at nightfall, the officer ordered them (the two brothers) to prepare for instant death. They were made to kneel, with eyes unbound, and a volley was fired. Benavides received two balls, one of which passed through his right shoulder, the other through his left side. He fell, but, preserving his presence of mind, he feigned himself dead, in the hope of ultimately effecting his escape. The serjeant of the escort, as he supposed, drew his sword, and gave him a heavy cut across the throat, saying at the same time, "Take that, villain, for the murder of my family!" The soldiers then threw a quantity of earth and stones over the two bodies, and withdrew. Benavides remained motionless for some minutes, when, finding that his executioners had finally left him, he immediately set to work to disengage himself from the load of earth with which he was encumbered; he then, with great difficulty, untied the cords with which he was bound, and having stripped off the jacket and shirt of his deceased brother, to bind up his own wounds, he quitted the fatal spot. He walked the greater part of the night, suffering acutely from the pain of his wounds, and from the still less supportable agonies of thirst. Having reached the hovel of a good old man and woman, they took pity upon him; and although poverty confined their means of cure to the constant washing of his wounds with water from a neighbouring rill, Benavides found himself sufficiently recovered, at the end of sixteen days, to creep unperceived into Santiago, where he remained concealed.

'General San Martin and Benavides had several subsequent meetings, which were held at night near the fountain in the great square of the city. Benavides revealed the names of those who were still inimical to the patriot cause, and also the means they employed to carry on their correspondence with the royalists, and to remit subscriptions to promote the restoration of the ancient order of things. He reiterated the offer of his services to the republic: they were accepted, and a plan of operations for the ensuing campaign in the south of Chile was determined upon. He was soon afterwards sent, in charge of an officer, who was kept in ignorance of the name of the person he escorted, to General Balcarce, at that time commanding the troops in the province of Concepcion, and who was minutely informed of the character and conduct of Benavides, and of the circumstances which rendered it expedient to place such a person upon his staff. Balcarce was instructed to observe the utmost circumspection in carrying into execution plans suggested by Benavides: and, taking care not to betray any signs of mistrust, to keep a watchful eye over that extraordinary man, whose local knowledge and prior connexions with the royalist chiefs, as well as his influence over the Araucanians, gave value and weight to his opinions, and rendered him a desirable instrument in the prosecution of the war. There can be no doubt that to his counsel was owing the conquest of the island of Lajas, and of the fort Del Naci miento, and the successful issue of that campaign. Indeed, General

Balcarce distinctly attributed it to the advice of Benavides, whose adhesion to the cause of the country became undoubted.

Unhappily General Balcarce imparted his secret to Colonel Freyre, governor of Concepcion, who, at a conference at which all three were present, had the indiscretion to tell Benavides, in a moment of warm discussion, that a man of his species was not to be trusted. Fired at the insult, the stern Benavides disappeared within eight-and-forty hours, and speedily commenced a desolating war with fire and sword, committing unheard of barbarities upon the helpless and unoffending inhabitants.'-vol. i. pp. 248251.

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After having been actively engaged in the various engagements which occurred during the years 1818 and 19, and having been dangerously wounded, Major Miller received from San Martin, the promotion to a lieutenant-colonelcy, and set sail in the Santa Rosa, to aid in the liberation of Peru. He was again after a short time promoted, and took upon him the government of the district round Ica: but rapid as seems to have been the promotion of Mr. Miller, and important as it doubtless was to him, as well as in the idea of an affectionate brother, we cannot help smiling very frequently at the somewhat absurd notion of calling this work the Memoirs of General Miller,' because there is an occasional opportunity for mentioning his name, and he was in the South American army when the war of independence was being carried on. General Miller was, we have no doubt, very brave and very active during his service, but we have certainly not read a single thing in the first volume of his memoirs, which could rightly give the book such a title, instead of that of a narrative, or a history of the war itself. We shall therefore take our extracts without further attempting to draw with us the slender thread of personal narrative which the work affords. What Colonel Miller did, a great many other persons of his rank were doing at the same time; and, as we have not yet seen that he, in any marked way, or out of the ordinary line of duty, contributed to the events of the war, we feel it would be difficult to take our specimens of the publication with a view to the General's personal deeds. As, however, his brother has taken a long quotation from the Lima Gazette, respecting his wanderings on the desert shore of Lima, when endeavouring to reach Callao, we shall give the description of the truly fearful scenes which he passed.

'The coast of Peru may be said to consist of a line of sandy desert, five hundred leagues in length, the breadth varying from seven to above fifty miles, as the several branches of the Andes approach to, or recede from, the shores of the Pacific Ocean. It presents great inequalities of surface, and has the appearance of having once formed a part of the bed of the adjoining ocean. Were it not for the stupendous back ground, which gives to every other object a comparatively diminutive outline, the sand hills might sometimes be called mountains. The long line of desert is intersected by rivers and streams, which are seldom less than twenty, or more than eighty or ninety miles apart. The narrow strips on each

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