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"If you are at Genoa on St. Matthew's day, the 21st of September, you may possibly be attracted by the groups of gay citizens and persons of all ranks in their mise de fête pacing along la Strada Balbi, towards the city gates. Continuing with the throng that pass the magnificent palace of Prince Doria, where you will have often lounged, and from its terrace watched the moving scene in the harbour, you will be led on and on, up precipitous steeps and down abrupt descents, till, at the distance of two miles, the crowd becomes impenetrable, and you are borne along to the little chapel of the saint, which is the end and object of the pilgrimage. This appears a favourite festival of the young, for" each lad" seemed to be" with the lass he loved;" who, in neatest array, eagerly sought admission to the shrine where her vows were to be offered. The whole of the way presents every beauty of Genoese landscape, and all the kindliness of Genoese character. This charm of country, this orderly gladness of the people, entirely accord with the brightness and serenity of their heavens. Round some of the hills the path is dizzying, for a rushing stream fills the mid-way, and the bank slopes suddenly into a deep valley. On many a knoll amongst the rocks, shaded by ilex, chesnut, fig, whole families seat themselves, purchase fruit and fancy bread from the stalls, which are set out wherever a ledge of rock gives space, while others are covered with toys, chaplets, and the trifles which, on such a day as this, are received as important gifts from those beloved. The animated beings grouping in every direction-the sounds of mirth-the exhilarating air, still more balmy as the sun declines-the feeling, that, though a stranger, you are kindly regarded by this happy-tempered people-for the time must obliterate every care; and when returned to the sad realities of life, the remembrance of San Matthew's rural festival will often chase away the heaviest thoughts.'—pp. 338-340.

We are surprised to learn that music is seldom heard in the streets of Genoa. The beauty of the climate, the murmurs of the neighbouring sea, the plenty that teems over the land, and the gaiety which rings every where around, ought, one should think, to place a guitar in every hand. The Genoese are peculiar, and not at all enviable in this respect. They love better to lounge of an evening through the streets, or to assemble on the heights, whence they may admire what is not unjustly called, 'one of the most superb panoramas in the world.' Their chief pursuit at present, among the fine arts, is painting, which is successfully cultivated by several noble amateurs. Such is the march of intellect among the ladies, that the Siesta is now nearly exploded. But instead of dwelling further on the occupations of the Genoese, let us join our author in an excursion to Voltri.

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'Saturday, the 22d of September, was one of those bright, calm days, freshened sufficiently by Mediterranean airs, which are peculiar to these favoured climes. It was not possible to resist an excursive fancy; the limoniera, with our careful driver, was ordered early, and in this commodious light carriage we proceeded leisurely to Voltri, a small coast-town, about four leagues from the city, and at the entrance of the Corniche road. The gardens of the palaces throughout the whole drive perfumed

the air orange and tuberose, carnation and jasmine, seemed to draw increased fragrance as well as greater beauty from their native skies; for it certainly is not the care of the gardener or the lady of the villa that improves their growth and brilliancy. The concourse of the country people towards the city was amusing, and the sails that glided over the wide waters, completed the animation of all nature. The skies indeed around Genoa are not peopled: no bird did we ever perceive; for the ortolans and beccafiche seldom rise above their favourite coverts, and not one little chirping sparrow ever attended our explorings in any direction round the city. But if the air is tenantless, the earth is swarming; never in our most active districts have I seen greater population than in these little coast towns, where industry is unwearying, and the supplies of wholesome and favourite food plentiful and cheap. The beauty of the children is often remarkable, and the pictures which they form when grouping round some venerable old man, whose silver beard descends to his girdle, are studies for a Guercino.'

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The valley which winds up amongst the hills that enclose Voltri on all sides, except that which spreads along the sea, is very picturesque; and the river Chierusa, which imperceptibly steals through it in the summer, is a powerful torrent during the rainy season, and runs foaming over its rocky bed into the Mediterranean, immediately under the western limit of the town, where the houses are built on a high cliff. Much of the grain which gives the people a sufficiency of bread and maccaroni is supplied from their valleys, that yield the figs, grapes, chesnuts, habit has rendered needful to the Ligurian. The olive gardens are not so valuable as in those districts more open to the sea and sun; for this narrow vale is kept inclining northward by the hills, which attract many noble families during the hot season to their villeggiatura. The principal occupation of the women here is preparing cotton from the pod to the thread, which is greatly imported from the kingdom of Naples; and the waste and refuse serves to keep large paper-mills in activity, which have been established time out of mind, about three miles up the valley, where the flow of the river is certain.'

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"The noble families of Voltri have been profuse in their gifts of rare marbles, and gems and ornaments, to decorate not only the altars and chapels of this elegant church, but the very pavement and columns; and it must be the splendour of these religious buildings, with the music and the august ceremonies often performed in them, that preserves the taste and humanises the manners of this poor and ignorant people. We were surrounded with curious groupes, as we passed through the long, narrow, thickly-peopled streets. All were respectful, all pleased with the stranger's notice. The spinning-wheels were stopped, to show the ingenious but simple machine for drawing the cotton easily and firmly into a thread. The mothers were delighted at our surprisé of the extreme fairness of the children; and all smiled and bowed as gracefully as Catalani, when we admired their country, and sky, and sea. Cheerful as this scene was, we escaped from it to climb the high rock that overhangs the entrance into the Corniche, a station inspiring to the poet and the romance writer, and therefore sacred from the hurried description of

a tourist's pen. Thence we descended on the shores of the great sea, whose majestic waves rolled leisurely and evenly on the clean shingled shore. For the native of Le Mans, who had never seen a collection of waters greater than the Loire, this interminable expanse was overpowering; and to the Hyperborean, who had only known the cerulean seas of her land of mist, these glowing heavens and these roseate waves realised the poet's vision. Hour after hour passed deliciously: at length the declining sun warned us to our repast; and up a laddery staircase, and through a chamber where priests and travellers were taking a meal potent with oil and garlic, we penetrated into our little, clean room, where the couvert was neatly laid. The exquisite smelts, which had been bathing in their own clear waves late in the morning; an omelette such as Italy only prepares; lettuce more delicate than that of Cos; grapes and figs, with bread, fresh, light, fragrant, gave the corporeal after an intellectual feast; and sun, moon, and stars poured all their effulgence upon us on our late return to the city of palaces.'-pp. 352–360.

We shall indulge the reader with only one extract more, which presents a very lively picture of the preparations usually made for the great market of Genoa. The author's concluding observations on the general character of the Genoese, are in unison with all that we have ever read or heard on the subject.

The peculiar costume of every surrounding village is now exhibited to perfection. Here the handsome native of Recco, with her fanciful blue boddice, trimmed with gold braiding, her rose-colour petticoat, her large gold fillagre Maltese cross, and immense bell-shaped ear-rings, ranges her elegant osiers and reed-baskets, in which the rich green fig, the purple and white grapes, oranges, olives, or the succeeding fruit of each season, are neatly spread. The villager, from the hills towards San Quirico, with her head attired after the fashion of Asti, her substantial striped stuffs, her hard-featured, tanned face, exhibits her maccaroni of every shade and fancy, her filberts, her chesnuts, and the berries which seem equally prized by the people as fruit. The gardeners of San Pier d'Arena, Sestri, &c. with their smart jackets, ornamented with silver fillagre buttons, their tricoté, jelly-bag cap, whose long tasselled end hangs negligently on one shoulder, while their curly black hair adds to the humorous expression; of their keen, handsome features, display their vegetables, particularly their artichokes, which are in request even at Milan. The Genoese themselves, and the immediate peasantry, some in their mise de fête, with the rich chintz, or clean muslin, placed over their braided hair; others in their most dishevelled, unshod, unadorned state, add their various contributions to the general stock. Perhaps some pretty girls, more anxious for display than the graver matrons, have teased the simple country women, who bring profusions of plants and nosegays to this gay mart, till they have given them the finest tuberose, the orange or pomegranate blossoms, the sprig of rich jasmine, or bunch of fine carnations, their fancy had decided on; then, in childish glee and triumph, they seat themselves on the first empty basket or unoccupied stand that offers; and in an instant, with all the seriousness of friendship, begin smoothing and plaiting each other's beautiful long hair, secure it in the classic Roman coil, then arrange every


curl in the most effective manner, and place becomingly on one side the flowery prize that has been the motive of all this anxiety.

Never have I seen more cordiality and kindliness amongst a people than in Genoa; and their liveliness, their continually thronging or sitting at their occupations in the streets, shows their habits and tempers evidently to the observer. We may well believe the assertion of my Italian friend, a Milanese by birth, that since her residence of three years in this city, during which time she has had an opportunity of knowing whatever has passed amongst the people, not one instance of theft, not one serious quarrel, not one attempt at any violence whatever, has been alleged against any individual. Yet there are many poor whom the public and private charities, and the fraternities of this great city, fail to relieve, though beneficence is most active.'-pp. 378-380.

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Putting out of the account the mass of dull matter which our Spinster has borrowed from the guide-books, and topographical quartos, the reader can hardly fail to conclude from the passages which we have quoted, that this is a very pleasant and well-written volume. The author appears to have felt a particular delight in noting down sunny landscapes, and in preserving the memory of acts of kindness performed towards her, and of persons whose features and manners afforded her pleasure. Her work may be fairly said to be the reflection of a good and cheerful mind, and an amiable heart.

ART. V.-America: or a General Survey of the Political Situation of the several Powers of the Western Continent, with Conjectures on their future Prospects. By a Citizen of the United States. pp. 356. London: Murray. 1828.


THE motto which the author has chosen to prefix to his workMatre pulchra filia pulchrior-at once discloses the main object which it has in view. To probe and expose the vulnerable parts in the political condition of England; to shew that its present ascendancy is raised upon an artificial foundation, which sooner or later must give way; to shadow out the opening glories of North America, and to demonstrate that each succeeding century to the end of time, is likely only to widen the circle of her national opulence and power;-in a word, to convince the world that the daughter is fairer and destined to be greater than the mother, who is, however, admitted to have some claims to beauty and to stationthese are the leading points, which through a dense array of argument and conjecture, this citizen of the United States exerts himself, to establish.

We must do him the justice to acknowledge that his essay, however objectionable it may be to an Englishman in several respects, is marked by ability of the very first order. Since the publication of those admirable dissertations which were collected

in "The Federalist," we have not seen any political composition from the pen of an American, that can at all be compared with this. The style is idiomatic and thoroughly English, formed in our best school. It is, indeed, occasionally verbose, but still the language is good, and musically arranged; and we are often compelled to admire the beauty of the periods, when we are most disposed to differ from the sentiments which they convey.

As a matter of course, this work will appear to Englishmen as overcharged in every page which touches on the present or prospective position of the United States. We dare say the author thinks that he is a mere matter of fact writer when he treats of that subject, and that he really intended to separate himself from those boasters, who have made the world sick with their nauseous exaggerations and visions of American grandeur. It is necessary, however, only to turn over a few leaves of his book in order to perceive that, whatever may have been his prudent designs on setting out, he is soon carried away with his absorbing theme, and becomes quite as enthusiastic upon it as any of his countrymen. It is amusing to observe how calm and rational he can be when he speaks of France, or Germany, or Russia, and how rapidly he glides into what he himself justly designates as fanfaronade, when it is necessary to underrate the fortunes of England, or to magnify those of his own country. This is the universal characteristic of American writers, and is just as conspicuous, though not perhaps as offensive, in the author before us, as any author that has ever existed. He has a courteous method of expressing his notions, which in some measure veils their deformity, and palliates their erroneousness; but as a genuine Yankee braggadocio, he differs in no respect from Mr. Cooper.

Information, and that commanding knowledge which arises from much study and reflection, as well as experience in the world, the writer of this volume possesses in an eminent degree. There is scarcely any fact unproduced by him to be found in ancient or in modern history, which tends in any way to illustrate his arguments, or to give them plausibility. He is a capital rhetorician, and under an outward appearance of great candour, exercises occasionally a degree of discretion which sinks into cunning. His views are certainly very often comprehensive, and treated in a statesman-like manner. But he is a diplomatist by profession, and seems generally to have in his contemplation, an antagonist whom he sometimes wishes to bully, and sometimes to overreach. His essay comes very seasonably after that of Colonel Evans, which we reviewed in our last number. It is impossible for a British minister of the present day to take up both, or either of these works, and not to feel that they contain matter for his most serious reflections. In order to restore legitimacy upon the continent, and to save Russia from being a province of France, England has burthened herself with a tremendous debt, which

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