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subject the author's observations are very loosely thrown together. We shall select from them a few paragraphs, which may afford some useful hints to the sea-side reader.

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During the autumnal portion of the year, as Dr. A. P. Buchan observes, the sea may be considered as affording rather a temperate, than a cold bath, being only a few degrees lower in temperature than the air; the air having, at that period, become cooled by the prevailing western breezes, before the surface of the water has been deprived of that heat which it has accumulated during the summer months

'The average temperature of the sea is, however I think, seldom less than about forty degrees below that of the body; but the sensation of cold which we experience on bathing in the sea much greater than would be produced by exposure to air at the same temperature, in consequence of the greater capacity of the water for absorbing or conveying away heat, which in fluids, as in solids, is increased in proportion to their density.

'Yet, though cold sea-water is more dense, and has a greater specific gravity than fresh, it is obvious, from Dr. Currie's experiments, that its continued action produces much less torpor in the animal system, than that which is produced by fresh water at a similar temperature, which difference can only be assigned to the stimulating effect of its contents; and this result may be readily inferred from the benefit which is constantly derived from those strong solutions of marine salt, so frequently employed by physicians in the interior of the kingdom, in cases where stimulating applications are desirable.'

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'It is a fact in physiology, as well ascertained by daily observation as by direct experiment, that in whatever way animal heat be acquired, the function of the exhalent vessels is the great agent by whose means its uniformity is maintained, and its superfluity disposed of; the temperature of the body being in a great measure regulated by the exhalation which takes place during health on its surface, and by that of the lungs, internally. As, therefore, without this provision, our animal heat would be liable to rise to an inconvenient degree, from every slight increase in the motions of the heart, it becomes of great importance that the action of the exhalents should be regularly and permanently supported, though not permitted to exceed what is required to produce this result; because, whatever tends to promote a due and regular performance of their cooling function, is as conducive to health as copious perspirations are calculated to debilitate.

In this capacity, then, the frequent and judicious exercise of seabathing is highly beneficial; nor do we, I think, possess any means which so effectually contribute to lessen the susceptibility of the body to cold; which desirable object it produces, not only in accordance with the well known axiom, that the effects of cold are diminished in proportion to our habit of exposure to its impressions, but also on other principles no less influential.'-pp.56-61.

We wish that the author had been a little more diffuse in his rules for sea-bathing. The following are among the few which he has given us :

And it may be confidently remarked, that it is impossible to be too particular in the employment of the cold-bath, of whatever kind, in the first instance; although the sea-bath is less liable to produce injurious effects from its higher temperature and additional stimulus, than a coldbath of fresh water.

What I have last observed, is applicable in an especial manner to young and delicate females, in whom the greatest possible benefit is so often likely to result from sea-bathing, if properly had recourse to; yet, when the countenance is pale, and the circulation of the extreme bloodvessels appears to be peculiarly languid, a state which is so often connected with a degree of indolence in the vessels of the absorbent system, indicated by occasional swelling of the feet and ancles, it is alone prudent to begin a course of sea-bathing with tepid water; and to reduce its temperature only in proportion to the progress made in the cure of the disease.

The same means, it may be observed, should be invariably employed in very delicate constitutions, dependent on whatever cause, since the neglect of this simple precaution has very frequently been productive of material injury to such invalids.

Gentle exercise has with great justice been recommended by several modern medical authors, before cold bathing, in order to rouse the circulation, and enable it to effect a proper degree of re-action; and this expedient is proved to be beneficial, by the same reasoning which accounts for the danger that attends cold-bathing, when the functions are rendered languid and fatigued by violent exercise.

But the advantage of gentle exercise again, before cold-bathing, is not a discovery of our days; for Galen compared its effects to those of the warm-bath, in equally determining the internal heat to the surface of the body, and thus enabling the latter to withstand the attacks of cold on the viscera; he therefore considered exercise as very useful in preparing the body for the employment of the cold-bath. He also considered the warm-bath to be useful on the same principle; as do many of the moderns.

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From this important consideration, it follows, that persons, in whom the powers of re-action are feeble, in order to induce a beneficial glow of warmth after cold-bathing, require the agency of the full force of their vital powers, previously to subjecting themselves to its influence. It is therefore observed, that such persons bathe with much greater advantage, two or three hours after breakfast, than before, as previously to this time, the circulation has not acquired its due degree of energy throughout the system.

Although the employment of friction on the surface of the body during bathing, by means of the flesh-brush, may prove an auxiliary of high utility in the use of the warm-bath, I cannot conceive its influence to be, by any means, commensurate with the disadvantages of long exposure to cold.

After bathing, gentle exercise will be found by invalids generally very advantageous, as it serves to continue that increased action, which it was the object of the bath to promote; but if this excercise be carried to the extent to produce respiration, the cold occasioned by evaporation will often be destructive to the benefit which would be otherwise derived from the bath.

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There can be no doubt, that the most injudicious of all modes of seabathing intended for the improvement of health, is that of remaining long in, or beneath, the surface of the water; or, what is often still more injurious, exposing the wetted surface of the body to the influence of the cold wind, rendered, as before observed, more chilling, by more rapidly depriving the body of that heat which is necessary to produce evaporation, for in this way torpor and debility of the extreme vessels can alone be induced.

'On the same principle, it is desirable than an invalid should avoid exposure to cold immediately before bathing; the immersion should be conducted, and the clothes resumed, as quickly as possible.

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The necessity for speedily resuming the clothes, and preventing the body from the action of cold winds after sea-bathing, is interestingly shown in the fact, which has been proved by repeated experiments, that during two minutes after immersion, the temperature of the body sinks several degrees, and then gradually rises during the succeeding fourteen or fifteen minutes, to within a degree or two of its original temperature.

'But if, at this period, the body be exposed to a cold air, as a north or north-east wind, at a temperature of 44° or 45°, its heat rapidly sinks again, even below that occasioned by the immersion.*

In drying the surface of the body after sea-bathing, it is perhaps an advantage to use napkins which have been previously dipped in sea-water and dried as by this simple expedient, the saline particles are less likely to be entirely removed from the skin, than by the means usually employed.

From what has been before stated, it is obviously by no means judicious for debilitated persons, to immerse their bodies in the water more than once, at each bathing; since each immersion calls on the system for a new partial reaction; which reaction, while it exhausts the animal powers, is rendered inefficient in proportion to its repetition; until an invaluable means of imparting strength becomes converted into one of increasing weakness; it is therefore even better to remain a short time immersed, than to repeat the immersion.-pp. 68–73.

Dr. Harwood's observations on the warm sea-bath are still more scanty than those on the cold. He recommends it as a powerful instrument of health in many cases.

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'The most obvious of its effects,' he says, is its extraordinary power of relieving pain, a benefit which renders its agency invaluable in so many of the most distressing afflictions; but though this has been so well known and appreciated from the earliest ages, it is yet a property difficult of satisfactory explanation.

In cases of shipwreck, it has been found far better to keep the body constantly immersed in the sea, than to subject it to repeated alternate immersion, and exposure to cold winds; as persons have survived twenty-three hours of constant immersion, with the sea at its lowest temperature, that of 38° or 40°; when, at the same period, four hours only have been destructive to life, in one of the most healthy of the crew, who was exposed to these alternations; the difference arising from the more cooling agency of the wind, materially aided by the evaporation it occasioned.

'But in addition to its soothing power on the nervous system, from whence such an effect is doubtless primarily derived, it is capable, by a peculiar sympathy, of extending the same influence to the muscles, however remotely situated from the surface of the body; in this way arresting their inordinate action, and thus overcoming the effects of spasmodic disease, in perhaps every form of which it is capable of affording a greater or less degree of alleviation.

It is however in tropical climates more particular, that its agency in this capacity is most constantly sought, and valued; from the very unfortunate frequency of these most distressing diseases. There are nevertheless, in our own country, too many, connected with similar causes, in which its employment is essential to the alleviation of suffering; as the various calculous affections, and those in particular which are connected with a spasmodic contraction of the biliary ducts.

'In the numerous chronic diseases incident to the decline of life, the warm sea-water bath is often found to be of peculiar advantage; from its obvious power of rousing the energies of the circulation, and thus restoring that irritability in the muscular system, which it is often the effect of these tedious disorders to impair.

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By promoting the action of the exhalent vessels, and re-establishing the balance in function, between them and the absorbents, through the immediate sympathy existing between these systems, it becomes, in combination with exercise or other means, a very successful agent in the removal of dropsical enlargements of the limbs; or of other effusions into the cellular membrane.

• The greatest benefits are also constantly derived from the use of the warm sea-water bath, in a great variety of diseases arising from debilitating or exciting causes; whether they assume a spasmodic character, are dependent on a diminished energy in the process of nutrition, or are referable to obviously impaired powers in the circulating system, from repeated hemorrhages, or other causes.'-pp. 81-83.

We observe that Dr. Harwood alludes somewhat contemptuously to the shampooing baths which are so highly boasted of by the medical gentlemen of Brighton. This is uncandid, because no doubt can be fairly entertained that those baths have effected complete cures in cases of the utmost debility.

The author's dissertations on diseases in which a coast residence is most beneficial, will prove, we apprehend, generally acceptable to invalids. We have already mentioned most of the maladies on which he has touched. To these we may add the whole class of diseases by which children are affected, such as rickets, marasmus, spasmodic affections, hooping cough, measles, &c. It is not within the province of this journal to enter into this portion of the author's labours, and we shall therefore content ourselves with favourably recommending them to the notice of the public.

ART. XI.-St. Petersburgh. A Journal of Travels to and from that Capital; through Flanders, the Rhenish Provinces, Prussia, Russia, Poland, Silesia, Saxony, the Federated States of Germany, and France. By A. B. Granville, M.D.; F.R.S.; F.L.S; M.R.I.; F.G.S.; and M.R.A.S. In 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 1313. London: Colburn. 1828. THE Doctor will, we hope, excuse us for having omitted the various other titles which he has added to his name. There are, independently of the many letters of the alphabet above quoted, no fewer than twenty-five ordinary, or honorary, marks of distinction appended to his cognomen at full length, occupying nearly a quarter of the title page. These we must leave to the reader's imagination, and proceed at once to the two formidable volumes before us.

Formidable indeed they are, in every sense of the word. Five hundred and fifty-nine pages constitute the first volume, a tolerably thick octavo; while in the second, the enormous number of seven hundred and fifty-four pages swell before us, as 'Alps on Alps arise.' Thus we have, as the result of both, upwards of thirteen hundred mortal pages of close print, and no very sumptuous margin; and when we consider that these are the produce of an absence from England of only one hundred and eighteen days, seventy-three of which appear to have been spent in travelling, we must admit that Dr. Granville is not only an industrious, but a very ingenious man. It may be presumed, from the elaborate account which he has given of almost every thing remarkable in Petersburgh, that he occupied at least twenty-one days in driving or walking about the various streets of that capital; hence, if he had written his work on the spot, he must have been limited to four-and-twenty days for mere authorship, which would have compelled him to produce upwards of fifty pages per diem. The Doctor is certainly a most industrious man, to say the least of him.

To this we must add, that the two volumes are illustrated by seventy engravings, including plans of the most remarkable buildings, and the principal cities which our author visited, together with views of streets, palaces, triumphal arches, theatres, churches, and river scenery, not to mention the vignettes which are dedicated to lighter subjects. The uninitiated reader stares with astonishment when he learns that all this was done, or at least prepared in some way or other, within the limited compass of three short weeks. He will be almost induced to believe that the doctor is a conjurer; or if not, that he writes and sketches by means of a steam engine, or vacuum gas engine, or some such potent instrument. No: nothing of the kind. There is no sorcery whatever about the work, and we believe that the only connection which the steam engine had with it, was in printing the sheets of which it is composed, at Mr. Bentley's office in Dorsetstreet. How, then, it may be naturally asked, could so bulky a

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